The States of the Soul
The Faculty of Cognition of the
The Activity of the Soul
THE STATES OF THE SOUL.
Kg. I 154 b et seq., Lp.
XXXVI 1 et seq., Tattv. II, 1-7.
We have given an account
of the different karmans in themselves and in their relations to one
another; in the following we have to represent their relations towards the
soul (jiva) and the states (bhava) produced in it by them.
In the jiva 5 states are
possible which can manifest themselves simultaneously in a greater or
smaller number, namely:
bhava, the essential state. This comprises the qualities belonging to the
jiva in himself, the qualities in which nothing is changed through the
2) audayika bhava, the
state which is the consequence of the unhindered realization of the karman.
It comprises all accidental attributes of the jiva, which become apparent
through udaya of karman.
3) aupasamika bhava, the
state produced by the suppression of the karman. This comprises all states
of the jiva which become manifest when the (mohaniya) karmans have been
suppressed, i.e. when they have, although still existing, been overcome
through strict self-control, so that they cannot realize themselves. The
aupasamika bhava may be compared to the state of water in which the
clouding mud has been cast down through the addition of kataka-nut.
4) ksayika bhava, the
state resulting from the annihilation of the karman. This comprises all
that manifest itself in the jiva when the karman has totally disappeared.
It may be compared to the clearing of the water which is produced through
its separation from the mud.
5) ksayopasamika (misra)
bhava, the mixed state. In it the karman is still existing in the jiva,
but does not realize itself. Whilst, however, the jiva in the aupasamika
bhava has so completely suppress the karman that its effect is no longer
altogether felt, in the misra bhava the existence of karma-pradesas is
still experienced, although these do not reach udaya and possess no
intensity. The inefficacy of the karman is therefore a smaller one than in
the two preceding states; for this reason the ksayopasamika bhava is
inferior to them in rank.
The name "ksayopasamika"
or "misra" it owes to the circumstance that in it the karman is partly
annihilated, partly suppressed. This definition is, however, not quite
sufficient, because also in the aupasamika bhava the realized karman is
annihilated and the one not yet realized is suppressed; the characteristic
feature, that the karmapradesas are still felt, is however, not
pronounced. The terminus technicus for this state is therefore, not a very
aptly chosen one. This explains that it could not become clearly grasped
by the older European expounders of the Jaina philosophy.
In the following I give
the sub-species (bheda) of the states referred to above. I deviate however
from the given succession in so far as I mention them in their natural
The essential state has 3
sub-divisions: (1) jivatva, the spiritual nature of the soul; (2)
bhavyatva, the capability of salvation; (3) abhavyatva, the incapability
of salvation. As essential states of the soul there could further be
mentioned eternity, activity and others. But these parinamika-bhavas are
also proper to other substances, that is why here only the states proper
to the jiva are mentioned. (Concerning bhavyatva and abhavyatva see
The audayika-bhava has 21
sub-species: 1. asiddhatva, the state of unholiness, the lacking of
spiritual perfection ; 2. ajnana, ignorance; 3. asamyama, lacking
self-discipline, caused through the realization of the
pratyakhyanavaranakasayas; 4. mithyatva, unbelief, caused through
realization of mithyatva-mohaniya; 5-8. the four kasayas, anger, pride,
deceitfulness, greed caused through udaya of kasaya-mohaniya; 9-11 the
three sexes caused through udaya of the respective nokasaya-mohaniyas;
12-15, the 4 states of existence, caused through realization of the
respective gati-karmans; 16-21. the 6 lesyas, colors of the soul.
All the 21 bhavas here
quoted in the jiva through unhindered realization of the karman. Many
other bhavas ought still to be mentioned here, which likewise arise
through udaya of karman. But as in the Purvasastras these 21 alone are
mentioned, this enumeration has been universally adopted (Kg. I 156a) and
the many other audayika bhavas are considered to be included in them.
comprises 18 sub-species: 1-10. all species of cognition (upayoga) with
the exception of omniscience and absolute undifferentiated cognition;
11-15. the 5 faculties (labdhi) of giving, taking, enjoyment, usufruct and
will. All states hitherto explained have arisen through annihilation or
suppression of jnanavarana-, darsanavarana-, and antaraya-k. But as the
respective karmans have not been made completely ineffective, the jiva
possesses the upayogas and labdhis in a greater or smaller measure only,
not absolutely as the ksayikas; 16. samyaktva, (a low degree of) belief;
17. desavirati, partial self-discipline, arisen through suppression and
annihilation of the apratyakhyanavarana-kasayas; 18. sarvavirati, (a lower
degree of) complete self-discipline.
The aupasamika-bhava has
2 sub-divisions: (1) samyaktva, true belief, and (2) caritra, right
conduct. Both states arise through suppression of the darsana- or
caritra-mohaniyas. They stand, therefore, relatively higher than the
corresponding ones of the ksayopasamikas, but relatively lower than those
of the ksayikas.
The ksayika-bhava has 9
sub-divisions: 1. samyaktva, true belief in the highest degree, arisen
through complete annihilation of the darsanamohaniya-ks; 2. caritra,
perfect right conduct, (so called yathakhyata), caused through total
annihilation of the caritra-mohaniya-ks; 3. omniscience and 4. absolute
undifferentiated cognition, in consequence of the complete annihilation of
the karmans veiling them; 5-9. the 5 faculties (labdhi) of giving, taking,
enjoyment, usufruct, and will, in an absolute manner, as every antaraya-k
is completely extinguished.
This theory is of
importance for the Jaina system because it affords it the possibility
exactly to define which states of the soul are the consequence of its own
being, which are added through realization of the karman, and which have
arisen through the making of the karman inefficacious. In a being
possessing the true belief, but not yet self-discipline (avirata-samyagdrsti),
the following states are e.g. possible, e.g.: 2 parinamika: jivatva and
capability of salvation ; 19 audayika, i.e. all except unbelief and
ignorance ; 12 ksayopasamika, namely 5 labdhis, 3 species of knowledge,
and 3 species of undifferentiated cognition and ksayopasamika-samyaktva ;
1 aupasamika, namely the aupasamika-samyaktva ; I the ksayika, namely the
ksayika form of the true belief. Altogether 36 states are therefore
POSSIBLE, the number of those ACTUALLY OCCURRING is, of course much less,
and in every individual case different. For it scarcely needs an
explanation, that a jiva can, at a fixed time, possess only one kind of
samyaktva, can belong only to one of the 4 states of existence, can have
only one of the 6 lesyas etc.
Of the above-mentioned 53
states of the soul, the kasayas and vedas have already sufficiently been
dealt with, in the explanation of the karman-species. The others, that is
to say, the different kinds of cognition (upayoga), of activity (yoga), of
the color of the soul (lesya), of belief (darsana), conduct (caritra) and
states of existence (gati) will be discussed in the following .