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Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy

PREFACE TO THE GERMAN EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
The contents of first volume of the Karmagranthas.
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
TRANSLATOR'S NOTE
  INTRODUCTION
  THE KARMAN IN ITSELF
  THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER
  THE QUALITIES OF THE SOUL
  STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS
  THE CAUSES OF THE KARMAN AND THE MEANS FOR ITS ANNIHILATION
  THE WAY OF SALVATION
  THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS
  THE STATE OF THE RELEASED

THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER


 

 

28i (with kevalins) = 26g + annihilation of others + pleasant gait.*

28k (with gods) = 25f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing.

 

28l (with gods) = 25f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + cold luster.

 

28m (with infernal beings) = 25g + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing.

 

29a (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals) = 26d + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing.

 

29b (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals) = 26d + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + cold luster.

 

29c (with 5-sensed animals) = 26e + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + breathing.

 

29d (with 5-sensed animals) = 26e + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + cold luster.

 

29e (with 5-sensed animals capable of transformation) = 25c + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + melodious.

 

29f (with 5-sensed animals capable of transformation) = 25c + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + cold luster.

 

29g (with human beings) = 29c with human state.

 

29h (with human beings capable of transformation) = 29e with human state.

 

29i (with human beings capable of transformation) = 29f with human state.

 

29k (with human beings with translocation-bodies) = 25e + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + melodious.

 

29l (with human beings with translocation-bodies) = 25e + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + cold luster + breathing.

 

29m (with kevalins) = 26g + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + breathing.

 

29n (with gods) = 25f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + cold luster.

 

29o (with gods) = 25f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + cold luster + melodious.

 

29p (with infernal beings) = 25g + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing + ill-sounding.

 

30a (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals) = 26d + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing + melodious (ill-sounding).

 

30b (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals) = 26d + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing + cold luster.

 

30c (with 5-sensed animals) = 26e + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + breathing + melodious (ill-sounding).

 

30d (with, 5-sensed animals) = 26e + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + cold luster + melodious (ill-sounding).

 

30e (with 5-sensed animals capable of transformation) = 25c + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + melodious + cold luster.

 

30f (with human beings) = 30c with human state.

 

30g (with human beings capable of transformation) = 30e with human state.

 

30h (with human beings with translocation-bodies) = 25e + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + melodious + cold luster.

 

30i (with kevalins) = 26g + annihilation of others + breathing + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + melodious (ill-sounding).

 

30k (with gods) = 25f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + melodious (ill-sounding) + cold luster.

 

31a (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals) = 26d + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing + melodious (ill-sounding) + cold luster.

 

31b (with 5-sensed animals) = 26e + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + breathing + melodious (ill-sounding) + cold luster.

 

31c (with kevalins) =26g + annihilation of others + breathing + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + melodious (ill-sounding) + tirthakara.

 

8 (with kevalins) = human state + 5 senses + movable + gross + developed + sympathetic + suggestive + fame.

 

9 (with kevalins) = 8 + tirthakara.

 

In satta the following combinations are possible:

93 uttaraprakrtis, all.

 

92 = 93 - tirthakara.

 

89 = 93 - physical body and limbs, binding and samghatana.

 

88 = 89 - tirthakara.

 

86a = 88 - infernal state and anupurvi.

 

86b = 88 - celestial state and anupurvi.

 

80a = 86a - celestial state and anupurvi, transformation-body and limbs, binding, samghatana.

 

80b = 86b - infernal state and anupurvi, transformation-body and limbs, binding, samghatana.

 

*80c = 93 - infernal state and anupurvi, animal state and anupurvi, 1-2-3-4 senses, immovable, warm splendor, cold luster, fine, common body.

 

*79 = 80c - tirthakara.

 

78a = 80a - human state and anupurvi.

 

78b = 80c - human state and anupurvi.

 

*76 = 80c - physical body and limbs, binding, samghatana.

 

*75 = 79 - physical body and limbs, binding, samghatana.

 

*9 = human state + 5 senses + movable + gross + developed + sympathetic + suggestive + fame + tirthakara.

 

*8 = 9 - tirthakara.

 

VII. Gotra.

 

Never more than one of the 2 uttara-prakrtis can be bound; only one can realize itself. In satta however both can exist.

 

Antaraya.

All 5 kinds are always associated with one another in bandha, in udaya, in satta.

 

A summary (samvedha) of the simultaneously appearing bandha-, udaya- and satta- combination of every mula-prakrti will be given later, with the separate jiva-sthanas and gunasthanas, where also a table of the simultaneous occurrence of the mula-prakrtis will be found.

 

UDIRANA

Kg. I, 69a II 194b ; Kp. 122a seq; Ps. 1060 seq.

 

Udirana "premature realization" is the premature becoming manifest of the effect of the karman. (Karmapudgalanan yathasvasthitibaddhanam yad apraptakale vedanam udirana bhanyate Kg I 69a). The premature realization is caused by the yoga, regardless as to whether it (the yoga) is with or without kasayas. It can, in general, always occur where udaya takes place, yet there must remain more than one avalika of the sthiti of the karman which has to be realized prematurely; if there is only one avalika left, only udaya and not udirana is possible. More will be said on the most important differentialities in the occurrence of udaya and udirana in the discussion of the gunasthanas.

 

APAVARTANA AND UDVARTANA.

Ps. 1041 et seq., KP. 116a seq., Tattv. II 52.

 

The time during which a karman works, and the intensity with which it manifests itself, is definite. But every karman can increase or decrease its effect. The increased realization is called "apavartana", the decreased realization "udvartana". sthiyanubhagayorbrhatkaranam udvartana, tayor eve hrasvikaranam apavartana" (Kp 2a). The most important apavartana is that of ayus, which has already been mentioned. Such an increased realization of the ayus-karman is, however, not possible with all beings; with celestial and infernal beings, with human beings in their last existence, with tirthakaras, cakravartins, ardhacakravartins, as well as with men and animals whose ayus lasts innumerable years, it is not possible.

 

SAMKRAMA.

Ps. 890 et seq., KP. 68 b et seq., cf. Tattv. VIII 22c.

 

Under certain circumstances a karman-species can realize itself as another one, whether this is itself bound or not. Thus, e.g., a bound mati-jnanavarana-k can manifest itself as a likewise bound sruta-jnanavarana-k or "bound uccairgotra-k as a nicair-gotra-k even when the latter has not been bound. This transformation of one karman into another is called samkrama. "samkrama prakrtisthityanubhagapradesanam anyakarmarupataya sthitanam anyakarmasvarupena vyavasthapanam" (KP 2a). It can only take place between the uttara-prakrtis of a mula-prakrti, not between different mula-prakrtis. It is not possible between 4 ayus and between darsana-mohaniya and caritra-mohaniya nor between the different kinds of darsana-mohaniya-k.