The vedaniya-k causes the
feeling of pain and pleasure. It has, therefore, 2 sub-species:
which causes a feeling of pleasure, created, e.g. by licking something
2. asata-vedaniya-k which
causes the feeling of pain, such as is produced, e.g. if one is hurt by a
With gods and men the
sata-vedaniya is predominant, although, also with the former at the time
of the downfall from the celestial world, and with the latter through cold
and heat, death and accident, pain can be produced. Animals and infernal
beings experience chiefly the asata-vedaniya, although, also, at the birth
of a Jina or on a similar occasion, they can experience a feeling of
The mohaniya-k obstructs
true faith and right conduct. It is therefore separated into 2 main
divisions: disturbance of faith and disturbance of conduct.
causes a disturbance of the knowledge of the religious truth inherent in
the jiva by natural disposition. (Here "darsana" is employed in another
sense than in its application as darsanavarana, see p.7). According as to
whether the disturbance is an absolute or a partial one, 3 kinds of this k
are to be distinguished:
This causes complete unbelief or heterodoxy. If it realize itself, the
jiva does not believe in the truths as proclaimed by Mahavira; he believes
false prophets to be saints and enjoins false doctrines.
This produces a mixed belief, i.e., If it operates the soul waves to and
for betwixt true and false; it is indifferent to the religion of the Jina
and has no predilection for, nor hatred against it.
3. samyaktva-k. This
induces the correct belief. This samyaktva is, however, not the correct
faith in its completeness, but only in a preliminary degree; it is a
so-called mithyatva, from which the mithyatva-quality has been abstracted
a mithyatva free from poison (Kg. I.35a, 113a). The true belief in its
perfection is only obtained, when the atoms of the samyaktva-mohaniya-k
have disappeared, even as milk which is covered by quite clear water only
becomes perfectly pure after the water has been poured off.
disturbs the right conduct possessed innately by the jiva; it hinders the
soul from acting according to the religious prescriptions. The disturbance
of the conduct is produced through the 16 passions (kasaya), the 6
non-passions (nokasaya) and the 3 sexes (veda).
A) The kasayas (passions)
2) maya, deceitfulness,
3) mana, pride,
4) lobha, greed.
Each of these is
separated into 4 sub-divisions, according to the intensity of their
manifestation. Each passion is, there
"of life-long duration". It then completely hinders belief and conduct.
"hindering non-renunciation". It makes impossible every renunciation, but
allows the existence of true belief. It lasts for one year.
"hindering renunciation". It hinders the beginning of complete
self-discipline, but does not prevent the existence of true belief and
partial self-discipline (desavirati). Its effect lasts for 4 months.
IV. samjvalana "flaming
up". It allows complete self-discipline, yet works against the attainment
of complete right conduct (yathakhyata caritra). It lasts a fortnight.
The degrees of strength
of the kasayas are illustrated by examples. The 4 species of anger are to
be likened unto a line drawn in stone, in earth, in dust and in water. The
first can only be removed with great effort, each following one always
more easily. Likewise also, the life-long enduring anger is only combated
in its effect with exceeding strength and difficulty, whist the effect of
the three remaining species accordingly diminishes in power and can,
therefore, also more easily be destroyed. The degrees of pride are to be
likened unto a pillar of stone, a bone, a piece of wood, and the liana of
a Dalbergia ougeinensis; the inflexibility correspondingly decreases. The
species of deceitfulness are to be compared to a bamboo-root, the horn of
a ram, the urine of a cow, and a piece of wood. The crookedness of each of
these is removed more easily than in the one preceding it. (The zig-zag
line of the cow's urine disappears through the influence of wind and
weather.) The degrees of greed correspond to scarlet color, to greater or
smaller dirt, and to a spot of turmeric, which soil a garment: the scarlet
is hardly removable, the dirt with more or less trouble, and the spot of
turmeric can be removed with ease.
B) The nokasayas
laughing, joking. firmed prejudicial disliking.
2) rati, improper and
confirmed prejudicial liking.
3) arati, improper and
4) soka, sorrow.
5) bhaya, fear.
6) jugupsa, disgust.
All these 6 emotions are
caritra-mohaniyas, because the soul which is subjected to them, is
hindered through them in the practice of right conduct. The mere sensation
of pain and pleasure has not this retarding effect ; that is why one must
distinguish between the vedaniyas and the nokasayas.