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Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy

PREFACE TO THE GERMAN EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
The contents of first volume of the Karmagranthas.
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
TRANSLATOR'S NOTE
  INTRODUCTION
  THE KARMAN IN ITSELF
  THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER
  THE QUALITIES OF THE SOUL
  STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS
  THE CAUSES OF THE KARMAN AND THE MEANS FOR ITS ANNIHILATION
  THE WAY OF SALVATION
  THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS
  THE STATE OF THE RELEASED

THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS


 

 

When the time that the kevalin had to pass in this state has elapsed, the prepares himself for salvation. For this purpose he has to annihilate the still remaining karmans. If the sthiti of vedaniya, naman and gotra is longer than that of his ayus, he must at first equalize these karmans. This is effected by the process called samudghata. When this process is finished, he sinks into deep meditation and stops the yogas. He brings first the grosser activity of manas, speech and body to a standstill, then the finer one. He has thereby no more yoga nor lesya, and enters into the last gunasthana, that of an ayogi-kevalin.

 

In the last samaya of the 13th gunasthana he terminates the binding of karman ; for how could he convey fresh matter to the soul if the last remaining causes of bandha, the yogas are annihilated !

 

Simultaneously, udaya, and udirana of the following 30 prakrtis disappear:

 

1. vedaniya (sata or asata), physical body and limbs, fiery and karman body, 6 figures, 1st firmness of the joints, pleasant and unpleasant gait, firm and flexible, pleasant and unpleasant, melodious and ill-sounding, individual body, "not light not heavy", color, smell, taste, touch, self-annihilation, annihilation of others, breathing and formation.

 

Ayogi - Kevali - Gunasthana.

This last and highest gunasthana is a transitory state, which lasts only the fraction of a muhurta and leads to the complete liberation from karman.

 

cognition: kevala-jnana, kevala-darsana.

activity : none.

lesya : none.

belief : ksayika samyaktva.

conduct : yathakhyata.

cause of bondage: none, therefor no bandha.

udaya : 12 prakrtis, i.e. the 42 of the preceding gunasthana without the 30 separated there in the last samaya.

udirana : none, because the premature realization is conditional upon a certain activity.

satta : 85 prakrtis.

 

Table of Bandha Udaya Satta of ks
1. Jnanavarana 0 0 0
2. Darsanavarana 0 0 0
3. Vedaniya 0 1   2
4. Mohaniya     0 0 0
5. Ayus 0 1     1
6. Naman 0 8, 9                  79, 75, 80c, 76
7. Gotra       0 1   2
8. Antaraya      0 0 0


 

With the complete disappearance of every yoga, the kevalin has entered the sailesi-state which only lasts as long, as is necessary to pronounce 5 short syllables. Absorbed in pure meditation, he annihilates, through gunasreni the last remaining karman. He extirpates in the penultimate samaya the satta-k. of one of the two vedaniya, of celestial state of existence and anupurvi, human anupurvi, pleasant and unpleasant gait, 2 smells, 8 touches, 5 colors, 5 states, 5 bodies, 3 limbs, 5 bindings, 5 samghatanas, 6 figures, 6 firmness of the joints, formation; firm and movable, pleasant and unpleasant, melodious and ill-sounding, unsympathetic, shame, "not light not heavy", self-annihilation, annihilation of others, breathing, unsuggestive, undeveloped, individual body, high family surroundings.

 

In the last samaya, udaya and satta of the two other vedaniya, of human state and ayus, 5-sensed class of beings, movable, gross, developed, sympathetic, suggestive, fame, tirthakara and high family surroundings end.

 

With the disappearance of this karman the jiva is free of all karman; there is no more matter in him, he is released.

 

Note to the Tables of bandha, udaya, satta of the Karmans.

 

These tables do not intend to give an exhaustive enumeration of all combinations which are possible in a jiva- or gunasthana ; they are only intended to afford an approximate survey of the distribution of the karmans, without claiming absolute exactitude and completeness. It would be a thankful task for an Indian Jain scholar to draw up in all its details an exact list of the karmans in the different jiva- and gunasthanas, and to remove or to explain the many contradictions in the karman-texts, I have not been able to solve-myself.