Explanation of the
gunasthanas Kg. I, 56a, Ps. 40 seq., Lp. III, 1131 seq., duration Ps. 181
seq.; marganasthanas Kg. I, 81b seq., Ps. 100; upayoga Kg. I, 147a Ps. 90;
yoga Kg. I, 145b, Ps. 88; lesya Kg. I, 148b ; jivasthanas Kg. I, 97b;
bandhahetavah Kg. I, 151a seq.; bandha. udaya. satta Kg. 63a seq. II, 168b
All that has previously
been said will be recapitulated and amplified in the following analysis of
the gunasthanas. We see once more the different species of jivas in their
dependence upon karman, and in their states and qualities produced
thereby; we follow the manner in which, by degrees, they deliver
themselves from the fatal effects of matter and accompany them up to the
moment of their complete liberation from karman. The procedure followed in
the description of the different stages corresponds to that followed in
the description of the forms of the existence. I commence with a short
characteristic of each state and continue with a survey of the upayogas,
yogas, lesyas, as well as of the species of belief and conduct, which are
possible in being who are in the respective gunasthanas. Thereafter
follows a survey of the causes of binding and of the karmans which can
exist in this stage in bandha, udaya, satta, as well as of those which are
eliminated when the gunasthana is left. In most of the cases I could
restrict myself to a simple enumeration, as the Kgs. only seldom offer
arguments, and where this happens, the reason generally follows from the
definition of the respective karman. With regard to that which will be
said concerning satta, I must observe that I confine myself only to the
most important. Still many other possibilities are suggesting themselves
here (e.g. that someone possesses already ksayika-samyaktva and then
ascends the upasama-sreni) which the reader can easily find or himself.
About the sthiti-, rasa- and pradesa-bandha, I need not make any detailed
statements, as the little that the Kgs. offer concerning their maximum and
minimum, follows from the principle explained in chapter II, 2-4. I only
recall the fact that in the gunasthanas which lie beyond the cutting of
the "knot", a sthiti above sagaropamantahkotikotis cannot be bound, and
that with the elimination of the kasayas the binding of sthiti and rasa
ceases entirely:" the passionless one binds only momentary karman which is
without intensity (comp. Tattv. II,5).
Mithyadrsti - Gunasthana
The characteristic mark
of this 1st gunasthana is unbelief, the declining of the truths of
Jainism. "But why is this stage called a stage of virtue, as the virtues (guna)
of the soul, viz. knowledge, belief and conduct, are absent?" "Because in
every jiva these exist at least to a minimum extent, however much they
might be darkened through the karman; for if this should be lacking to a
jiva, he would be no jiva." But, if now in every being the samyaktva,
although only in the smallest measure, is existing, why does one then
speak of "mithyadrstis"? "Mithyadrstis are those in whom, on account of
the realization of the mithyatva-mohaniya-karman, the true belief does not
manifest itself, those who find no pleasure in the truth of salvation
taught by the sublime Arhat. But as long as someone does not accept even
one of the words spoken by the Jina, he is a mithyadrsti (comp. Kg. I,
The abhavyas and the
bhavyas who by reason of unfavorable conditions do not reach salvation,
remain eternally in this gunasthana; with them it is without beginning and
without end. With the other bhavyas this gunasthana has no beginning, but
an end which comes sooner or later. With the one who fell from a higher
stage and sank back into unbelief, it has a beginning and an end; the
duration of the stay in it amounts then in the minimum to a fraction of a
muhurta, in the maximum to something less than one-half of a
sruta-ajnana, vibhanga-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-darsana.
activity : 13, i.e. all
except aharaka- and aharaka-misra-kaya-yoga.
lesyas : all 6.
belief : unbelief.
conduct : avirati.
cause of bondage: 55,
i.e. all except aharaka- and aharaka-misra-kaya-yoga.
bandha : 117 prakrtis,
i.e. all 120 except the translocation-body and its limbs and tirthakara.
udaya and udirana: 117
prakrtis i.e. all 122 except the translocation-body and its limbs,
tirthakara, mixed belief and samyaktva.
satta : all 148.
Satta of ks
||7 e, 8 de, 9cde, 10
||28, 26, 27
It is not necessary to
give a table of bandha, udaya and satta of nama-karman in this gunasthana,
as all karman-combinations in which the above-mentioned 3 or 5 karma-prakrtis
do not occur in bandha or udaya, are possible. In satta the combination
indicated by an asterisk are not possible.
Beyond this gunasthana,
the following prakrtis have no more bandha, udaya and udirana:
bandha: unbelief, 3rd
sex, infernal state, anupurvi, ayus; 1-, 2-,3-, 4-sensed class of beings,
6th figure, 6th firmness of the joints, warm splendor, undeveloped,
common, fine, immovable body.
udaya and udirana:
unbelief, warm splendor, undeveloped, common, fine body.