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Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy

PREFACE TO THE GERMAN EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
The contents of first volume of the Karmagranthas.
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
TRANSLATOR'S NOTE
  INTRODUCTION
  THE KARMAN IN ITSELF
  THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER
  THE QUALITIES OF THE SOUL
  STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS
  THE CAUSES OF THE KARMAN AND THE MEANS FOR ITS ANNIHILATION
  THE WAY OF SALVATION
  THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS
  THE STATE OF THE RELEASED

STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS


 

 

     II.  The Anuttarasuras are the highest species of gods. They are divided into 5 classes: Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparajita, Sarvarthasiddha. They all have true belief, are only on the 4th gunasthana and bind karman only possible on that stage. In the 4 first classes are beings who at the utmost are still only reincarnated twice, in the last one there are only such beings who are reborn only once and then attain salvation (Tattv. VI, 27; Lp.27, ,638 seq.)

At the end I give a table of bandha, udaya, satta of nama-ks. All that is here given must be modified with regard to the exceptions mentioned in connection with the different classes of gods.

 

Table of bandha of nama-k.

25a, 26, 29ab, 30b, 30c

 

Table of udaya of nama-k.

21f, 25f, 27f, 28kl, 29no, 30k

 

Table of satta of nama-k.

92, 88, 93, 89

 

THE INFERNAL STATE OF EXISTENCE

The infernal beings (naraka) are deformed, evil jivas, belonging to the 3rd sex, with a fine transformation-body, who during their long life are tormented by heat, cold, hunger, thirst and pain, and who with innate hatred are directing all that they feel and think to tormenting one another. Like the gods, they arise through "manifestation" (upapata), are, if undeveloped, only karana-aparyaptas; their existence ends only when their ayus has expired; the many wounds they receive are, therefore, never mortal.

 

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-jnana (ajnana), caksur-, acaksur, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 4 vag-yogas ; 4 mano-yogas; vaikriya-, vaikriya-misra- and karmana-kaya-yoga.

lesyas : black, dark, gray.

belief : unbelief, sasvadana-samyaktva, mixed belief, belief.

conduct : avirati.

gunasthanas: 1--4.

 

The narakas inhabit the numerous hells which exist in the 7 successively descending subterranean regions, which comprise a varying number of stages. The names of these 7 bhumis are: 1. Ratnaprabha, 2. Sarkaraprabha, 3. Valukaprabha, 4. Pankaprabha, 5. Dhumaprabha, 6. Tamahprabha, 7. Mahatamahprabha. The deeper the storey of hell on which a being is existing, the larger is his body, the more horrible his appearance, the more unsupportable are the tortures it has to suffer. The hells of the first 3 regions are hot, those of the 4th and 5th regions hot and cold, those of the last two, cold. The lesya in the 1st and 2nd is gray, in the 3rd gray or dark, in the 4th dark, in the 5th dark and black, in the 6th and 7th black; it corresponds to the increasing sinfulness of the state of mind (tivratara-samklesadhyavasana) of its possessor.

 

In Ratnaprabha gods of the Asura-class can also arise. They are capable of reaching as far as Valukaprabha, in order to torment the inhabitants of the 3 first bhumis (comp. Lp. VIII, 4 et seq).

 

Infernal beings can only be reincarnated as developed 5-sensed animals and as human beings. All do not bind the following 19 karmans:

 

Celestial and infernal state, anupurvi, ayus; transformation-body and limbs, fine, common, immovable body, undeveloped, warm splendor, and 1-4-sensed class of beings.

 

In the regions 4-7 the tirthamkara-k is not bound, in the 7th in addition not human-ayus and, in the 1st and 2nd gunasthanas, like-wise not human state of existence and anupurvi as well as high family surroundings.

 

Table of bandha of nama-k.

     29b, 29c, 30b, 30c

 

Table of udaya of nama-k.

21g, 25g, 27g, 28m, 29p

 

Table of satta of nama-k.

92, 89, 88