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Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy

PREFACE TO THE GERMAN EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
The contents of first volume of the Karmagranthas.
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
TRANSLATOR'S NOTE
  INTRODUCTION
  THE KARMAN IN ITSELF
  THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER
  THE QUALITIES OF THE SOUL
  STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS
  THE CAUSES OF THE KARMAN AND THE MEANS FOR ITS ANNIHILATION
  THE WAY OF SALVATION
  THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS
  THE STATE OF THE RELEASED

STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS


 

 

The undeveloped gross one-sensed beings (BADAR-aparyaptas).

This class of beings differs from the preceding one in a two-fold manner. Firstly: to the earth-, water- and plant-souls, besides the 3 first lesyas, belongs also the fiery one. This is caused by the fact that jivas who belonged in their preceding existence to the celestial classes Bhavanapati, Vyantara, Jyotiska, Saudharma or Isana, can be reborn as earth- and water-beings, or as plants. These have had, as gods, a fiery lesya, (and) have, therefore, in the beginnings- according to the rule given above-also in this existence a fiery lesya (Kg. I, 117b). Further, we see the peculiar phenomenon that the aparyapta-badara-ekendriyas are not all unbelievers, but have also sasvadana-samyaktva (Kg. I, 119b) and can, accordingly be not only in the first gunasthana, but also in the 2nd. The following differences from the paryaptas are still to be noticed:

 

activity: karmana-, and audarika-misra-kaya-yoga.

 

The two-, three- and four-sensed animals.

The dvi-, tri- and catur-indriyas are combinedly treated in the Kgs. under the name "vikalendriya-trika," as they show no difference with regard to the karman-doctrine. We can also follow the example, but we shall however, at first, give a short characteristic of the species of beings in question.

 

Animals with 2 senses (touch and taste) are: worms, shells, leeches, etc.; animals with 3 senses (touch, taste, smell): bugs, ants, cochineals; beings with 4 senses (touch, taste, smell, sight): bees, flies, mosquitoes, etc. All these being to the 3rd sex.

 

The developed vikalendriyas.

cognition : mati-ajnana, sruta-ajnana, acaksur-darsana; with the 4 sensed also caksur-darsana.

activity : audarika-kaya-yoga and asatyamrsa-vag-yoga.

lesya : black, dark, gray.

belief : mithyatva.

conduct : avirati.

gunasthana : 1.

 

Like the beings of the previous classes they also bind only karman suitable to animals and human beings.

 

 

Table of bandha nama-k.            

23, 25abc, 26, 29abc, 30ab            

 

Table of udaya nama-k.

21ab,26d, 28a,29ab,30ab,81a

 

Table of satta of nama-k.

92, 88, 86ab, 80ab,78ab

 

The undeveloped vikalendriyas.

These differ from the paryaptas only in the following points:

cognition: mati-ajnana, sruta-ajnana, acaksur-darsana.

activity : karmana- and audarika-misra-kaya-yoga.

belief : mithyatva and sasvadana-samyaktva.

gunasthanas: 1, 2.

 

Table of bandha      udaya      satta of nama-k.

23,25abc,26,29abc,30ab      21c, 26d      92,88,86ab,80ab,78ab

 

The five-sensed animals.

Animals with 5 senses (touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing) are of three species: aquatic animals (such as fishes and dolphins), terrestrial animals (such as elephants) and air-animals (such as geese). They are divided into two groups. reasonable (samjnin) and unreasonable (asamjnin). "The reasonable beings are those endowed with an inner sense (manas)". (Tattv. II25). Reason considers the state of a thing in the present, past and future (bhuta-bhavad-bhavi-bhava-svabhava-paryalocanam Kg. I 96a). The asamjnins do not possess this capability, they act from instinct. The five-sensed animals proceeding from a womb (garbha-vyutkrantah pancendriya-tiryag-yonijah Siddhasena ad Tattv. II 25), such as cattle, goats, sheep, elephants, lions, tigers, possess reason. Pancendriuyas belong to the male, female and 3rd sex.

 

The developed unreasonable five-sensed beings.

cognition: mati-ajnana, sruta-ajnana, caksur-darsana, acaksur-darsana.

activity : audarika-kaya-yoga, asatyamrsa-vag-yoga.

lesya : black, dark, gray.

belief : mithyatva.

conduct : avirati.

gunasthana: 1.

 

Beings of this class bind karman suitable for all the 4 states of existence.

 

Table of bandha of nama-k.

23,26abc,26,29abc,30ab, 28ab

  

Table of udaya of nama-k.

21c, 26e, 28b, 29cd, 30cd, 31b, 30cd, 31b

 

Table of satta of nama-k.

92, 88, 86ab, 80ab, 78ab, 86ab, 80ab

 

The developed reasonable five-sensed animals.

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-jnana (ajnana); caksur-,

acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 13 yogas, i.e. all except of the 2 of the translocation-body.

lesyas : all 6.

belief : mithyatva, sasvadana-samyaktva, samyagmithyatva, samyaktva.

conduct : avirati, desavirati.

gunasthana: 1--5.

 

Beings of this class bind karman suitable for all 4 states of existence.

 

 

Table of bandha of nama-k.

23,25abc,26,29abc,30bd, 28a, 28ab

  

Table of udaya of nama-k.

21c, 26e, 25c, 27b, 28b, 29cd, 30cd, 31b, 28ab, 29cde, 30cde

 

Table of satta of nama-k.

92,88,86ab,80ab,78ab