FIVE SAMITIS 1) IRYA-SAMITI: The saint following the discipline
consistent with the Irya-samiti ought to pay heed to (a) the purity of
the way, (b) the adequacy of the sunlight, (c) attention, (d) purpose,
and lastly (e) the process of moving. (a) That is the proper way which
is bereft of such living beings as are ordinarily put to injury in
moving, instance, ants etc., as also seeds, grass, green leaves, mud
etc. The path which has been repeatedly trodden by carts and other
vehicles, by cattle and horses, by men and women, and which ha already
been ploughed and scorched by the sun should be regarded as fit to be
traversed. (b) The sun-light or day time is necessary for touring. The
Moon, the stars, and artificial lamps are quite incapable of serving as
substitutes for the sun-light (c) The saint should devote his
concentrated attention to the keeping of steps on the ground after
abstaining himself from the five types of scriptural study and from the
objects of the five senses, so that he may avoid injury to the living
beings that may be there. (d) He should move only for the accomplishment
of a legitimate purpose, i.e., a purpose which is estimable and is in
consonance with his spiritual status and honor, for instance,
pilgrimage, visiting the Guru and other saints of great repute, meeting
a challenge for religious discussion, the preaching of Dharma etc. (e)
As for the process of moving, he should slowly and compassionately move,
should carefully observe the ground in front of himself to the extent of
four cubits (two yards), and should avoid running, jumping,
inseriousness, looking in other directions, diggfing ground, and cutting
trees and vegetables.
BHASA-SAMITI: The saint who does not take interest in backbiting, in
ridiculing others, in self-commendation, and in speaking harsh words,
but who speaks what is beneficial to himself and to others is said
1 Mula. 336.
2 Mula. 302.
bhaga. Ara. 1191.; Uttara. 24/4. Tattvarthan\sara. VI-7.
3 Bhaga. Ara.
Comm. Vija. and Mula. 1191.
4 Mula. 304
5 Mula. 11;
Niyama. 61; uttara. 24/5.
6 Bhaga. Ara.
Comm. Vija. 1191.
7 we shall
deal with these in thes usequent chapter.
8 Bhaga. Ara.
Comm. Vija. and Mula. 1191 ; Uttara. 24/8.
9 Bhaga. Ara.
Comm. Vija. and Mula. 1191.
61; Mula. 11, 103; Acara. p. 137.
Ara. Vija. and Mula. 1191; Linga pahuda. 15, 16.
adhered to the observance of Bhas-samiti. He should use blameless and
concise speech, avoiding anger, pride, deceit, greed, laughter, fear,
loquacity and gossip. Technically speaking, of the fourfold kinds of
speech-truth, untruth, truth mixed with untruth, neither truth nor
untruth- the saint in the interest of observing Bhasa-samiti isrequired
to speak the first and the last kind of speech, inasmuch as these two
kind of speech are not sinful, blamable, rough, stinging, course, and
hard. Besides, these do not lead to sins, to discord and faction, to
grief and outrage, and to the destruction of living begins.
ESANA-SAMITI: When a saint pursues the discipline laid down for the
acceptance of the articles of food, he is regarded as observing
Esana-samiti. In other words, he who calmly takes such food as is
wholesome, pure, and given by others with devotion, but is not prepared,
suggested and approved by himself is said to have observed Esana-samiti.
Again, the saint who eats faultless food, rightly handles sinless
paraphernalia, and cleanses well the sitting or sleeping place is
recognised as pursuing Esana-samiti; carelessness in these observances
ATTITUDE OF THE SAINT TOWARDS FOOD: We now turn to the general attitude
of the saint towards faultless food, which will assist us in impressing
upon our mind the fact that, notwithstanding, his outward taking of
food, he continues to be unattached to it. The saint never partakes of
food with the profane design of increasing strength, enhancing
longevity, gratifying relish, and attaining healthy bright look, but
with the sacred aim of unceasing performance of scriptural study,
successful pursuance of self control, and uninterrupted performance of
meditation. He accepts food for satiating his pangs of hunger, for
performing consecrated service to other saints, for conserving his
prunes and self-control, and for observing the six essential and the ten
Dharmas. He is scrupulous in food and travels, inasmuch as he is
dispassionate, and keeps and attitude of disinterestedness towards this
world as well as the next.10 Again, the feeds the body for
making the noble effort of releasing the true
61; Mula. 12.
3 Acara/ [[/
150, 151. Bhaga. Ara. 1192. Uttara. 24/11. Tattvarthasara. VI. 9.
faultless food is that which is obtained by begging int he day, is
bereft of any Consideration of gust and plaate, is detitute of honey,
flesh and the like, and is accepted inthe form in which it is given (
prava. III. 29 and Comm. Amrta).
481. 9 Ibid. 479. 10 Prava. III. 26.
as the lamp is supplied with oil for seeing the objects clearly. Thus
the ascetics are as good as going without food, even if they accept
faultless food, since there by they do not fall a victim to the
thralldom of Karman.
ADANA-NIKSEPANA-SAMITI: The Adana-Niksepana-samiti implies the
persistence of careful mental state in lifting and putting articles
necessary for religious life. It means wiping a thing and its place
after inspecting them with eyes before lifting and putting it.
5) PRATISTHAPANA-SAMITI: The Pratisthapana-samiti prescribes that
the saint should dispose of excrements, urine etc. in a place which is
unobjectionable, bereft of living beings, and unfrequented by man. To be
more clear, excrements, urine, saliva, mucus, uncleanness of the body,
offal's of food, badly torn clothes, dead body and any other useless
things should be left in palace which is burnt, ploughed, used for
cremation, unobjected, spacious, devoid of insects and seeds, not
covered with grass or leaves, not perforated by holes, situated at a
distance, neither frequented nor seen by other people, and having an
inanimate surface layer.
CONTROL OF THE FIVE SENSES: Having discussed the nature of
the five great vows and the five-old carefulness, we now proceed to
discuss the implications of the control of the five senses. It is an
evident fact the the attachment to sense and sensuous pleasures
unquestionably creates enormous difficulties in the spiritual path,
hence it needs unsympathetic extirpation. The control of the senses
undertaken by the saint is not a new enterprise, since it we to some
extent observed by him when he was the observer of partial vows, though
unprecedented entrance into higher life brings about more stern forms of
accountabilities. Hence the saint completely controls the five senses,
namely, the sense of eye, ear, nose, tongue, and touch from their
attachment to colour, sound, smell, taste and touch respectively. The
ascetic, thus, refuses to be seduced by the pleasantness and
unpleasantness of the sensuous objects. He witnesses all the objects of
the senses in their metaphysical perspective, and regards them as
different forms of Pudgala, which are ontologically foreign to the
nature of the real self. Thus he has attained the inner conviction that
none of the objects of the five senses is of any benefit
64. Mula. 14. 2 Mula. 319. Uttara 24/14.
65. 4 Mula. 15, 321, 322. Uttara. 24/15, 17, 18.
the self.' In order that the senses may be
curbed, the saint should observe proper discipline. The sense of sight
should neither be attracted by beauty nor repulsed by the ugliness of
things; the sense of hearing should not be led away by the tune which
originates from the sentient beings and from the non-sentient musical
instruments; the sense of smell should be checked from seduction on
account of the fragrance of things; the sense of taste should not be
overcome by different kinds of juices, and by faultless, pleasant and
unpleasant food; and lastly, the sense of touch should not be led astray
by the different kinds of touch.'
PULLING OUT THE HAIR:
next Mnlaguna to be considered is `Pulling out the hair'. It is manifest
that the natural growth of hair cannot be retarded; and if they are
allowed unceasing growth, lice and other smaller kinds of insects will
develop, and consequently
will become inevitable; and if hair cutting instruments are applied, it
will mean reversion to worldly engagements, hence the only alternative
left is to pull out the hair on the head, beard and moustache with one's
own hands after two months, three months or at the most after four
months.' This should be done in the day time after having observed the
complete fast.'- So doing fosters the spirit of detachment from the body
and acquisi�tions, encourages self-restraint and monastic trend and
relieves the saint from solicitousness.'
deal with the nature of six essentials, they are so called because of
their direct bearing upon the spiritual life. The other Mulagunas are no
doubt inseparably associated with the life of the saint, but they affect
his life indirectly. They should not therefore be understood to suggest
that they are non-essential in character, but they may safely be
considered necessary for the successful performance of these six
essentials. All the Mnlagunas are on par, but it is customary to lay
stress on those principles which imply inward reference, inasmuch as in
spiritual life inward change is of great significance, hence it counts
the most. Thus, the term `Avasyaka' should be calculated to bring to
light the capability of these six essentials for converting the life of
the saint intrinsically and for reminding him of the goal of his devoted
career. The saint who engages himself in materialising the spirit of
5. 2 Mula. 17 to 21.
3 Mula. 29;
Anaga. Dharma. IX-86, 97. Bhaga. Ara. 88, 89; Acara. p. 189. Acarasara.
4 Mula. 29.
5 Bhaga. ara. 91; Acarasara. I-4
dependence upon vicious and virtuous thought-activities by the
realisation of his own self, is believed to have performed Avasyaka
Karma.' Such a sublime action is indicative of the absolute freedom of
the soul. This is the meaning of the term Avasyaka from Niscaya or
transcendental standpoint; but, as we have frequently said, when the
self finds itself incapable of ascending to such superb heights, it
descends to the virtuous performances, and from this angle of vision the
Avasyaka Karma traditionally admits of six kinds, namely, 1) Samayika,
2) Stuti, 3) Vandana, 4)
Pratikramana, 5) Pratyakhyana and 6) Kayotsarga.2 "Kundakunda's
enumeration of AvaSyakas is thus: Pratikramana, Pratyakhyana, Alocana,
Kayotsarga, Samayika and Paramabhakti, it is slightly different from the
traditional enumeration wherein Alocana is absent, being possibly
included in Pratikramana which it precedes in actual performance and in
place of Paramabhakti, we have Stuti and Vandana. Kundakunda divides
Paramabhakti into two types: Nirvrtti and Yogabhakti, wherein can be
smelt the traces of Stuti and Vandana. Either Kundakunda did not want to
stick to the traditional enumeration because he was discussing the
subject from Niscaya-naya, or he did not find any material difference
between the two enumeration's, or he in�corporates, in this context,
some early tradition."' We may point out here that the later thinkers
have adopted the traditional enumeration of the six essentials.' We
shall now dwell upon these six essentials.
Samayika means the
incessant continuation of the placid and unruffled frame of mind in the
midst of life and death, loss and gain, pleasant and unpleasant events,
friends and foes, pleasure and pain.' In the life of the householder
such a mental turning is a temporary phase, but in the life of the saint
it ought to be permanently present as a persistent disposition of
mind. Thus in the act of Samayika the limita�tion of time
evaporates totally in the life of the saint. It is not useful for
the saint who is destitute of equanimity to reside in forest, mortify
the body, observe various fasts, study the scriptures and keep silence.'
He who is detached from all vices, who pursues threefold Guptis, who
restrains his senses, who is evenly disposed towards all living beings,
who refrains from Arta and Raudra types of Dhyana, who practises Dharma
141 to 147; Mula. 515. 2 Mula. 516; Uttara. 29/8 to 13.
Prava. p. XLII.
I-35; Anaga. Dharma. VIII-17. IX-3.
23. 6 Niyama. 124.
and Sukla types of Dhyana, who always keeps
himself away from joking, indulgence, sorrow, ennui, disgust, fear,
sexual-inclinations, is said to have observed stead-fast equanimity' (Samayika).
Stuti means to devote oneself to the holy contempla�tion of the divine
characteristics revealed by the consecrated twenty-four Tirthamkaras,
and to the sacred meditation on the implications of their names.' Out of
devotion the saint very often wishes to be bestowed upon with spiritual
knowledge and liberation by the great Jina, but this is merely a
devotional language; in fact, being beyond attachment and aversion, Jina
cannot be expected to offer anything.' The divine souls have graced us
with their sermons, which can undermine the bitterness of bondage.
Though the perfected souls have transcended the duals, yet devotion to
them, nay, mere turning towards them can fulfil our purposes, and annul
the accumulated filth of Karman.' It is auspicious attachment and not
Vandana which is the expression of inner modesty
signifies the offering of salutation to Arahanta and Siddha Pratimas and
to those who excel in righteous and virtuous living, for instance, Tapa
Guru, Sruta Guru, Guna Guru, Diksa Guru, and
Radhika Guru.' In other words, the saint should pay obeisance to those
who occupy them�selves with study and meditation, practice five great
vows, condemn looseness of conduct, observe Darsana, Jnana, Caritra, and
Tapa Vinayas, disseminate the merits of virtuous personalities, and are
self controlled and enduring.' The well-disciplined saint should not pay
respect to the pseudo-saints, to the parents, to the loosely disciplined
Diksa Guru and gruta Guru, to the King, to the householder, and to the
heavenly gods.' In place of traditional representation of Stuti and
Vandana Kundakunda speaks of Parama Bhakti, which from the Vyavahara
point of view implies supreme devotion for the various attributes of
emancipated souls.' Two kinds of Parama Bhakti have been recognised,
namely, Nirvrtti Bhakti and Yoga Bhakti. The former implies the devotion
for right belief, right knowledge and right conduct, while the latter is
con�cerned with the contemplation upon the Tattvas, which results in
125, 226, 129, 131 to 133. Mula. 524, 525, 526, 529.
2 Mula. 24;
Anaga. Dhama. VIII. 37. 3. Mula. 567.
569-572. 5 Ibid. 572. 6 Ibid. 25.
7 Mula. 595,
8 Mula. 592.
9 Niyama. 135.
self-absorption after one has renounced
attachment etc., foreign thought activities and perversion.'
4) PRATIKRAMANA :
It is likely that the
saint under the constraint of subtle passions may deviate from the
minutest details of right conduct, hence, in order that such faults of
commission and omission may not be piled up into a heap so as to devour
the spirit of asceticism, the saint ought to purify them daily without
any procrastination and deceit by resorting to self-criticism (ninda),
to censuring his faults in presence of the Guru (gatha), and lastly to
confession by revealing his committed transgression to the Guru
(Alocana)2 This is Bhava Pratikramana; and the reading of the
Pratikramana-sutra is Dravya Pratikramana.3 That saint who
pronounces the Pratikramana-sutras along with this Bhava� Pratikramana
opens the way to the shedding of the Karmas in profusion.' The preceding
view concerns itself with the Pratikramana from the Vyayahara point of
view. Kundakunda forces us to ascend to the Para�marthika point of view,
which describes Pratikramana as the renounce�ment of all the defects by
the highest spiritual meditation.' He who meditates upon the self after
emancipating himself from all forms of speech, foreign
thought-activities, transgression, looseness in right conduct, Arta and
Raudra Dhyanas, wrong belief, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct, is said
to have performed real Pratikramana.s Till that is
accomplished Vyavahara Pratikramana will serve as an auxiliary cause to
Pratyakhyana implies the determination of the saint to
renounce in future all that is inconsistent with his consecrated
pursuit.' Pratikramana has retrospective reference, while Pratyakhyana
has prospective one. Pratyakhyana is capable of being practised by one
who possesses mild passion, puts senses under restraint, and who is
courageous, strenuous, apprehensive of transmigration, and is accustomed
to discrimination between the self and the not-self.' Speaking from the
transcendental points of view, we may say that he who, having condoned
all forms of speech and having kept himself from all auspicious and
inauspicious psychical states, meditates upon his own self is said to
have practised Pratyakhyana.9
134, 137 to 139.
Dharma. VIII. 62 and Comm; Mula. 620 622, 26.
3 Mula. 623;
Anaga. Dharma. VIII. 62; Niyama. 94.
625. 5 Niyama. 93. 6. niyama.
83 to 86, 89, 91,92.
7 Mula. 27;
Acaasara. I. 40. 8 Niyama. 105, 106.
6) KAYOTSARGA :
Kayotsarga signifies a
formal non-attachment to the body for the prescribed period of time.'
The bodily organs are required to be without any movement at the time of
Kayotsarga.2 He who desires liberation, who has conquered
sleep,. who is well-versed in the Sutras and their meaning, and who
possesses pure thoughts, along with physical and spiritual strength, is
qualified for Kayotsarga.' This has been calculated to be beneficial to
the spiritual path, and to be sub�versive of Karmas.4
Next comes nudity. The Digambara monk remains
stark-naked.' He lives like a just born child in outward appearance.'
The practice of nudity develops certain outstanding characteristics in
the saint, for instance, non-acquisition, lightness on account of
non�anxiety, fearlessness, and capability of conquering Parisahas.'
Besides, the nude saint commands confidence, originates disrespect for
sensual objects, and develops love of freedom.' In practically the same
manner the Thanamga gives five advantages of nudity: "1) No trouble of
examin�ing the clothes; 2) lightness in movement; 3) naked appearance
creates faith in others; 4) thus he can carry into practice the law of
the Jina which prescribes less requisites; and 5) he can have complete
self-con�trol"'. "Nudity is prescribed in Swetambara texts as well, but
the com�mentators say that it is meant for Jinakalpi monks"". Despite
these constant references regarding nudity in Swetambara texts, the
rules of clothing are also found in them. Even if the Swetambara monks
wear clothes they are not required to be very particular about them.
To quote Acardnga: To a mendicant who is little clothed and firm in
control, it will not occur (to think) : my clothes are torn, I shall
beg for (new) clothes; I shall beg to thread; I shall beg for a needle;
I shall mend (my clothes) I shall darn them; I shall repair them; I
shall put them on; I shall wrap myself in them."'
28. 2 Mula. 650.
3 Ibid. 651.
4 Ibid. 652.
30. 6 Sutra. pahuda. 18 Bodha Pahuda. 51.
7 Bhaga. Ara.
and Comm. Vija. 83.
8 Ibid. 84.
pp. 342 b, 343 a. vide History of Jaina Monachism. p. 162.
Intro. xc vi.
1-6-3, 1. (Trans. Jacobi. p. 57)
OTHER MULAGUNAS : Not taking bath,
sleeping on the pure ground or on a slab of stone, plank of wood, or dry
grass,' not cleansing the teeth, taking meals in the standing posture in
the palm of one's own hand, and accepting meals once a day after three
Gharis of sunrise and the same period before sunset:' all these have
been considered to be the rest of the Mnlagunas. It may be pointed out
that the Swatambara monk sleeps on a plank and consumes food in the pot.
Thus the saint dedicates his integral energies to the
cessation and shedding of Karmas. In consequence he regards the
(afflictions) and practice of Tapas (austerities) as falling within the
compass of his obligations. The saint allows no compromise with
anything entangling him in the mire of Samsara. His career is indicative
of his complete detachment from mundane life and living. Anything
incompatible with, and discordant to, his second birth in a holy world,
anything which drags him down to breathe in the suffocating air of the
profane world must needs be subdued, strangled and overthrown. If the
Parasahas are not met with the adequate attitude and disposition of
mind, they would tend to mar the saintly life; on the contrary, if they
are encountered with the inner conviction of truth, and invaded by the
non-violent army of fortitude, meditation and devotion, they would
confer jubilation, and yield the joy of victory. And if the
austerities are spiritedly practised they would bring about the inner
rejection of desire, which would let the aspirant experience unalloyed
happiness far beyond the joys of this world or of any heaven. The
overcoming of the Parzsahas results in stopping the influx of Karmas,3
whereas the observance of austerities serves two-fold purpose of holding
up, in the first instance, the inflow of fresh Karma and wiping off, on
the other, the accumulated filth of Karmas.4 We first proceed
to the question of getting over the Parisahas.
PARISAHAS: THEIR ENUMERATION AND EXPOSITION: Those
afflic�tions that are to be endured for the purpose of not swerving from
the path of stopping and dissociating Karmas are termed Parisahas.5
tells us that "a monk must learn and know, bear and conquer, in order
not to be vanquished by them (Parisahas) when he
Dharma. Comm. IX-91 ; Bodha Pahuda. 56.
2 Mula. 31
to 35, 811. 3 Ta. Su. IX. 2.
4 Ta. Su.
IX. 3. 5 Ta. Su. 8.
life of a wandering mendicant."' The Parisahas are of twenty �two
kinds,' namely, 1) hunger (ksudha),
2) thirst (trsa), 3)
cold (Sata), 4)
heat (usna), 5)
6) nudity (nagnata),
7) ennui (arati), 8)
woman (stra), 9)
walking (carya), 10)
sitting (nisadya), 11)
sleeping-place (says), 12)
abuse (akrosra), 13)
attack (vadha), '14)'
begging (yacana), 15)
16) disease (roga),
17) pricking of grass (transpires),
18) dirt (mala),
19) respect (satkdra�puraskdra),
20) conceit of knowledge (prajnd),
21) lack of knowledge (ajnana)
and 22) slack belief
(adarsana). We now
discuss the attitude of the saint towards these Parisahas.3
This will also make clear the meaning implied in them.
1-2) The saint accepts
faultless food and water. It is just possible that he may not get
faultless food and water. Then he, (a) who does not get perturbed by the
distress caused by hunger and thirst, (b) who is not inclined to receive
food and water in improper country and in improper times, (c) who does
not bear even an iota of blemish in the observance of six essentials,
(d) who remains occupied with self�study and meditation, (e) who prefers
non-obtainment of food and water to their obtainment, is deemed to have
swum over the affliction originat�ing from hunger and thirst. Not to
dwell upon the pangs of hunger and pains of thirst amounts to the
surmounting of hunger and thirst Parzsahas. 3-4) It is evident that the
saint has renounced resorting to external protec�tion against cold and
heat, and he remains undecided regarding his habitation like a bird; and
if, by his sojourn in the forests or at the peak of mountains, he is
troubled by cold breeze, or by frozen ice, or by blast�ing hot wind,
even then if he does not apply his mind to eschew them, but remains
steadfast in his spiritual pursuit, he is called the conqueror of cold
and heat Parisahas. 5) In
spite of the embarrassments caused by insects (flies, mosquitoes,
scorpions, snakes, bugbears and the like) the saint who does not
entertain the idea of their removal but who keeps in mind the fixed
determination of spiritual advancement, is said to have got over
insect-bite Parisaha. 6) The
saint who is stark-naked like a newly born child, whose heart has
transcended the lustful thoughts, and who observes unchangeable chastity
conquers nudity Parisaha.4 Or "my clothes being torn, I shall
go naked or shall get a new suit; such thoughts should not be
entertained by a monk. At one time he will have
Uttara.2. 2 Ta. Su. IX. 9. Uttara. 2.
Sarvartha. IX. 9. uttara. 2. 4 Sarvartha.
at another he will have some; knowing this to be a salutary rule a wise
monk should not complain about it". 7) The saint who subjugates the
feeling of ennui, which may be caused by the control of senses, by
certain ills and maladies, by the behavior of vicious persons, and by
other formidable difficulties of ascetic life, is understood to subdue
ennui Parisaha. 8) If the saint is not seduced by the beautiful forms,
the smile, charming talks, amorous glances and laughter of women, he is
called the conqueror of woman Parisaha. 9) In leaving one place for
another according to the prescribed rules of ascetic discipline, if the
saint bears hardships owing to sharp pointed pebbles and thorns lying on
the path, he is said to have got over walking Parisaha. 10) The saint
who sits down in a burial-ground, or in a deserted house or in a cave,
and there who is not frightened even by a roar of lion, and who is
accustomed to difficult postures, is believed to have over-come sitting
Parisaha. 11) After getting tired of constant self-study and
meditation, the saint resorts to sleep at a place which may be
rough. If his mind, in spite of this, is unruffled and is occupied
with auspicious Bhavas, he is said to have conquered sleeping-place
Parisaha. 12) The saint who keeps an attitude of indifference towards
reviles and remonstrations, and remains mentally undisturbed by them,
overcomes abuse Parisaha. 13) If the saint does not lose his
serene disposition even if his body is being butchered, lie is believed
to have overcome attack Parisaha. 14) The saint who does not meanly
ask for food, place of stay, medicine etc., even if his Pranas part with
him, has conquered begging Parisaha. 15) The subjugation of
non�obtainment Parisaha signifies the presence of mental placidity and
com�posure when the saint does not obtain his food from the householder.
16) In spite of being invaded by a number of diseases, the saint who
conquers disease Parisaha endures them with fortitude without the
neglect of his daily duties. 17) The saint who remains
undisturbed even if his body gets troubled by the pointed pieces of
pebbles, thorns etc., whose mind is always engaged in non-injury of
living beings in walking, sleeping and sitting, is believed to have
conquered pricking of grass Parisaha. 18) If the accumulation of dirt
and dust over the body does not cause the slightest mental disturbance
to the saint who is engaged in cleansing the soul from the mire of
Karmic impurities by the pure water of right knowledge and conduct, he
has got over dirt Parisaha.
19) If the
saint is not disturbed or attracted by the disrespectful or respectful
attitude of the persons around him, he has overcome respect Parisaha.
20) By not allowing himself to be puffed up with pride of knowledge, the
saint attains the designation of the conqueror of the conceit of
knowledge Parisaha. 21) The conquest of lack of knowledge Parisaha
points out that the saint does not succumb to despondency, even if he
fails to acquire knowledge or inner illumination in spite of his severe
austerities. 22) If the saint is not shaken in faith in the doctrine of
truth even if years of austerities prove to be of no avail in benefiting
him with certain saintly acquisitions, he has overcome slack-belief
DISTINCTION BETWEEN PARISAHAS AND AUSTERITIES: After dealing with the
kinds and characteristic nature of Parishes and the attitude of the
saint towards them, we now proceed to the exposition of the nature of
austerities and their distinction from the Parisahas. The difference
between Parisahas and austerities consists in the fact that the former
occur against the will of the saint, who endures them or rather turns
them to good account by contemplating them to be the means for spiritual
conquest, while the latter are in concordance with the will of the saint
to have the spiritual triumph. Secondly, most of the Parisahas may be
the creations of vicious man, cruel nature and jealous gods, viewed from
the common man's point of view, but austerities are the enuciations and
resolutions of the aspirant's soul. Again, if Parisahas have enduring
value, austerities have pursuing value. Thirdly, Parisahas which are
obstacles to spiritual life, represent themselves as the passing phase
in the career of the aspirant, whereas the austerities form the
indispensable part and parcel of the discipline which is enjoined in
order it escape from tugs distressed and sorrowful worldly life.
Lastly, we may say that the performance of austerities subscribes to the
endurance of Parisahas with equanimity and unruffled state of mind.
NATURE AND KINDS OF TAPA (AUSTERITY): Austerity (tapas) implies the
renunciation and rejection of desire, which is the real enemy of the
soul. The Satkandagamai pronounces that the extirpation of desire in
order to actualize the triple jewels of right belief, right knowledge
and right conduct is regards as Tapa. Thus, in the Jaina view of Tapa,
the idea of expelling all desires, the whole root of evil and suffering
in favour of attaining to the freedom of the soul, tranquility and
equality of mind,
1 Sat. Vol.
XIII-p. 55. Anaga. Dharma. VII-2.
is not only
prominent but paramount. It is at the basis as well as at the summit of
Jaina preachings. Despite the supremacy of this inward reference,
Jainas do not ignore the outer physical austerities. In keeping with
this trend of exposition, we may say that Tapas admit of two kinds,
namely, the external and the internal. The former is so called because
of the preponderance of the physical and perceptible abandonment, while
the latter is so called on account of the inner curbing of mind.
Besides, the designation 'external' which is applied to a section of
Tapas may be justified on the ground that they are capable of being
pursued even by those who are not spiritually converted. We shall first
dwell upon the austerities in their external forms.
EXTERNAL AUSTERITIES: The external austerities are six in kind, namely,
1) Anasana, 2) Avamaudarya, 3) Vrttiparisamkhyana, 4) Rasaparityaga, 5)
Viviktasayyasana, and 6) Kayaklesa. The Uttaradhyana enumerates the six
forms of external austerities thus: Anasana, Unodari, Bhiksacari,
Rasaparityaga, Kayaklesa, Samlinata; i.e., instead of Bhiksacari and
Samlinata there are Vrttiparisamkhyana and Viviktasayyasana.
Respectively. However, these do not differ in meaning. 1) Anasana
implies fasting or abstinence from food either for a limited period of
time, or till the separation of the soul from the body. It is performed
for the purpose of practicing self-control, exterminating attachment,
annihilating Karmas, performing meditation and acquiring scriptural
knowledge, and not for the purpose of practising self-control,
exterminating attachment, annihilating Karmas, performing mediation and
acquiring scriptural knowledge, and not for the purpose of any mundane
achievement whatsoever. It may be noted here that Anasana has been
recognised as the simultaneous renunciation of food and the attachment
to it. Mere maceration of the body is not fasting. 2) Avamaudarya
means not to take full meals; i.e., out of the normal quantity of
thirty-two morsels for man, and twenty-eight for woman, the reduction of
even one morsel will come within the range of this Tapa. The observance
of this austerity has
30/7; Sarvartha. p. 439; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 54; Anaga. Dharma. VII-6.
3 Sat. Vol.
XIII-p. 59; Anaga. Dharma. VIII-6.
4 Ta.su. IX.
19; Bhaga. Ara. 208 ; Mula. 346. 5 uttara. 30/8.
347,; uttara. 30/9,; Bhaga. Ara. 209.
p. 438. 8 Sat. Vol. VIII-p. 55.
consists of 1000 rice grains ( Anaga. Dharma. VII-22.) ; Sat. Vol.;
XIII. p. 56.
350; Bhaga. Arq. 211 212; Anaga. Dharma. VII-22; uttara. 30/15,; Sat.
Vol. XIII-p. 56.
calculated to offer control over the senses and sleep, to assist in the
practising of Dharmas successfully, to help in the performance of the
six essentials, the self-study, and the like, 3) Vrttiparisamkhyana
means the pre-determination of the saint regarding the number of houses
to be visited, the particular manner of taking food, the specific type
of food, the giver of specific qualification, when he sets out to beg
for food. In other words, the saint adheres to his prediction he would
accept food; otherwise he would go without it for that day. This is to
uproot the desire for food. 4) Rasaparityaga indicates the abstinence
from the one or more of the following six articles of food, namely,
milk, curd, ghee, oil, sugar, and salt; and from one or more of the
following kinds of tastes, namely, pacrid, bitter, astringent, sour and
sweet. This is performed for the emasculation of the senses, subduing
sleep, and the unobstructed pursuance of self-study, 5) Viviktasayyasana
implies the choice of secluded place which is not frequented by women,
eunuchs, she-animals, depraved householders etc., and which may serve
the real purpose of meditation, self-study and chastity, and is not the
cause of attachment and aversion. 6) Kayaklesa means the putting of
body to certain discomforts by employing certain uneasy and stern
postures and by practising certain other bodily austerities of severe
nature, for instance, of remaining in the sun in the summer, and the
like. The object of Kayklesa is to endure bodily-discomfort, to
alleviate attachment to pleasures.10
1 Mula. 351;
Anaga. Dhama. VII-22.
uttaradhyaana calls it Bhiksacari. "It consists of imposing certain
restricions upon one-self regadin the mode of begging or the nature of
the donor, or the quality of food or the way in which food was offered.
( History of Jaina Monachism. p. 188)
3 Mula. 355;
kartti. 443; Anaga. Dharma. VII. 26; Bhaga. Ara. 218 to 221 ; Sat. Vol.
5 mula. 352;
uttara. 30/26; Bhaga. Aa. 215; Sat. Vol. XUI. p. 57.
uttaradhyayana calls it Samlinata. "It implies he choice of lonely place
of stay devoid of women, eunuchs and animals. ( Uttara. 30/28.)
p. 438, Kartti. 445. 447; Acarasra. Vi. 15, 16; Mula. 357, Bhaga. Ara.
228,; Sat. Vol. XIII-p. 58.
9 Mula. 356;
Savartha. IX-19; uttara. 30/27; Acarasaa. VI-19, Kartti. 448; Sat. Vol.
XIII-p. 58; Bhaga. Aa. 222 to 227.
have so far explained the nature of external austerities, and have seen
that the performance of these austerities does not aim merely at the
physical renunciation, but also at the overthrow of the thralldom of the
body and senses. In other words, the external asceticism is capable of
being justified only when it contributes towards the inner advancement
of man; otherwise in the absence of which it amounts to labor which is
wholly lost. The Mulacara says that that external austerity should not
engender mental disquietude, abate the zeal for the performance of
disciplinary practices of ethical and spiritual nature, but it should
enhance spiritual convictions. This exposition brings to light the
inward tendency of outward asceticism, or physical renunciation, and
desires the mere flagellation of the body. The enunciation of
Samantabhadra that the external austerity serves for the pursuance of
spiritual austerity also clearly shows the emphasis laid by Jainism on
the internal aspect of Tapas. After indicating the claims of the
outward ascetic discipline in the ethical set up of Jaina preaching, we
set out to discuss the nature of internal austerities.
INTERNAL AUSTERITIES: The internal austerities are also six in kind,
namely, 1) Prayascitta, 2) Vinaya, 3) Vaiyavratta 4) Svadhyaya, 5)
Vyutsarga and 6) Dhyana. 1) The process by virtue of which a saint
seeks freedom form the transgressions committed may be termed
Prayascitta. According to Karttikeya, that is the real Prayascitta
wherein the commission of some fault s not repeated even if the body is
cut to hundred pieces. It is of ten kinds: (a) Alocana, (b)
Pratikramana, (c) Ubhaya, (d) Viveka, (e) Vyutsarga, (f) Tapas, (g)
Cheda, (h) Mula, (i) Parihara, (j) Sraddhana. The Tattvarthasutra
enumerates only nine kinds, eliminating Sradhana, and probably
substituting the name Upasthapana for Mula. To dwell upon them in
succession: (a) Alocana implies the expression and confession of
transgression before the Guru after the saint has eschewed ten kinds of
defects. 1) To express faults by providing the Guru with certain
necessary things, and by serving him in various ways in order to arouse
sympathy in his mind so that he might give him less Prayascitta is known
as Akampita Dosa.9
358; Bhaga. Ara. 236. 2 Svayambhu. 83.
3 Ta. su.
IX-20,; Mula. 360; uttara. 30/30, Acarasara. VI. 21.
iX. 20; Mula. 361; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 59.
452. 6 Mula. 362l Sat Vol. XIII. p. 60. Acarasara. VI. 23. 24.
IX-22. 8 Sarvartha. IX-22,; Rajava. Ix. 22/2. 9 Bhaga. Ara. 563.
2) To reveal
transgressions after expressing one's diseased condition and inferring
Guru's attitude for less punishment is Anumanita Dosa. 3-4-5) To
manifest only open faults, great faults and minor ones is respectively
called Drsta and Badara and Suksma Dosa. 6) To ask the Guru regarding
the Prayascitta of certain faults and then to express his own ones come
under Channa Dosa. 7-8) To express faults indistinctly amidst loud
voice and to doubt and ask others regarding the authenticity of
Prayascitta given by the Guru are respectively called Sabdakulita and
Bahujana Prccha Dosa. 9-10) To express one's faults before the other
person who is devoid of knowledge and conduct and to accept Prayascitta
from a saint who is likewise a defaulter are respectively called Avyakta,
and Tatsevi Dosa. The monk expresses his transgression to the Guru in a
secluded place, whereas the nun expresses it in presence of three
persons. (b) Pratikramana is self-condemnation for the transgression.
(c) To perform both Alcocana and Pratikramana for certain major faults
like bad dreams etc. is Ubhaya. (d) To renounce a thing which has been
wrongly used is Viveka, or when the Guru prescribes the renunciation of
a certain place, time and object, that is also Viveka. (e) To engage
oneself in Kayotsarga is called Vyutsarga. (f) To engage oneself in
external austerities or fasts is called Tapas. (g) When the Guru cuts
short the life of sainthood, it is called Cheda. (h) To re-establish
one in saintly life is Mula. (i) To expel a saint from the order of
monks is called Parihara. (j) To redevelop belief in the true order is
1 Bhaga. ara.
570 to 573. 2 Ibid. 574, 577. 582.
586. 4 Ibid. 591. 5Ibid. 596.
599. 7 Ibid. 603.
9/22. Amagaradjar,a,ta.. Acaasara amd Rakavarttola ex[ress tjese fai;ts
om a so,o;ar wau/
Dharma. VII. 47; Acarasara. VI. 41; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 60.
Dharma. VII. 48,; Acaasara. VI. 42; Sarvartha. IX-22. sat vol. XIII. p.
Dharma. VII. 49, 50, Acarasara. VI. 43, 44, ; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 60.
IX. 22; Acarasara. VI. 46; anaga. Dharma. VII. 52; Sat Vol. XIII. p. 61.
Ix. 22. Acarasara. VI. 47; Anaa. Dharma. VII. 54; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 61.
Dharma. VII. 55; Acaasara. VI. 48; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 62.
Dharma. VII. 57,; Acarasara. VI. 65. Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 63.
Vinaya implies either the control of senses and the eradication of
passions, or the holding of humbleness towards the triple-jewelweed
personalities. All scriptural study in the absence of Vinaya goes to
the wall. The outcome of the former should be the latter which in turn
entails progress and prosperity. The outward and mundane consequences
of Vinaya are wide recognition, friendship, respect, grace of Guru,
obedience to the command of Jina, and destruction of ill-will, while the
inward and supermundane fruits of Vinaya are easiness in self-restraint,
penance's, the acquisition of knowledge, the purification of self, the
emergence of the feeling of gratitude, simplicity and commendation of
other man's qualities, the destruction of conceitedness, and lastly the
attainment of emancipation. We have five hold classification of Vinaya-namely
(a) Darsana, (b) Jnana, (c) Caritra, (d) Tapa and (e) Upacara. The
Tattvarthasutra speaks of the first four and probably includes Tapa
Vinaya into Caritra Vinaya. We have previously spoken of the five types
of Acara: Darsanacara, Jnanacara, Caritracarai, Tapacara, and Viryacara.
The first four seem to be quite same as the first four Vinayas. Really
speaking, Vinaya is a disposition, while Acara is an activity. The two
are related as the inward and the outward, only theoretically
distinguishable. (a) The disposition to observe the eight constituents
of Samyagdarsana, and to devote oneself to the adorable five souls has
been designated as Darsana Vinaya. It is also regarded as the belief in
Dravyas and Paryayas. (b) He who reflects, preaches and utilises
knowledge for higher progress is regarded as having Jnana Vinaya. (c)
To control the senses and passions, and to observe Gupti and Samiti are
included in Caritra Vinaya. (d) To be elated in presence of saints
performing excellent penance's, and not to depreciate others are called
Tapa Vinaya. (a) Upacara Vinaya is worldly modesty. It is the
expression of modesty through body, mind and speech. To stand up out of
respect for the saint, to bow down, to offer him a seat, to give him
send off by
1 Sat. Vol.
XIII. p. 63; Acarasara. Vi. 69. acarasara. VI. 69 ; Anaga. Dharma. VII.
60 Uttara. 30/32.
385,; Bhaga. Ara. 128; Anaga. Dharma. VII. 62.
3 Mula 386
to 388; Bhaga. Ara. 129 to 131
4 Mula. 364;
Bhaga. Ara. 112; Acarasara. VI. 70; Anaga. Dharma. VII. 64.
5 Ta. su.
IX. 23. 6 Mula. 36; Bhaga. Ara. 114.
366, 585. 8 Mula. 368; Sarvartha. IX. 23.
369,; Bhaga. Ara. 115.
371, ; Bhaga. Ara. 117.
him a little distance-all these are included in bodily modesty. To
speak words which are beneficial, balanced, sweet, respectful, and
purposeful, is vocal modesty. The controlling of mind from vices and
the pursuing of virtues are regarded as mental modesty. The expression
of Upacara Vinaya should not only be limited to Guru, but householders,
nuns and other monks are also required to be shown this sort of Vinaya.
3-4) The rendering of service to saints by means of medicine, preaching
etc., when they are overwhelmed by disease, Parisahas and perversities,
is called Vaiyavrttya. This austerity is performed for uprooting the
feeling of abhorrence of dirt, disease etc., for spiritual realisation,
and for revealing affection for the spiritual path. We shall deal with
Svadhyaya in the next chapter; namely, 'Mystical significance of Jaina
5) Vyutasarga signifies the relinquishment of the external and
the internal Parigraha. The former comprises living and non-living
Parigraha, and the latter, the fourteen kinds of passions, already dealt
with. The latter also includes bodily detachment either for a limited
period of time or unlimitedly. This is to practise non-acquisition,
fearlessness and detachment from life.