Acara of the Householder


NATURE OF Desavrata:  We now turn to the Desavrata.  We shall first explain the nature of Desavrata according to those who have regarded it as one of the Siksavratas.  Kundakunda has not recognised this vow,  but speaks of Sallekhana in its place.  Karttikeya and Samantabhadra have included Desavrata in the Siksavratas, but the latter considers it to be the first and the former, the fourth of the Siksavratas.  The Sravaka Prajnapti,6 Haribhadra,7 Hemacandra 8 etc., have regarded Desavrata as the second of the Siksavratas.  It may be pointed out here that Karttikeya, Samantabhadra and Hemacandra  have not considered Sallekhana to be useless, but have delineated it after the Silavratas.  The other tinkers 9 have subscribed to this

1. Srava. Prajna. 281, cf. Yo. Sa. III.2.

2. Ratna Srava. 70; Puru. 138; Sarvartha. VII.21; Amita.Srava.VI.77; Saga.

Dharma.V.3. Raja.VII. 21/19.

3.  Kartti.341.       4. Sarvartha. VII,21; Raja.VII.21/18;Yosa.III.3.

5 Ta.Su.I.30; Ratna.Srava.73;Puru. 188; Uvasaga.I.50;Amita.Srava.VII.8.;

Saga.Dharma.v.5; Srava.Prajna.283. Dharma. Bi.161.

6  Srava.Prajna.318.      7.Dharma. Bi.151.         8. Yo.Sa.III.84.

9. Ta.Su.VII.22; Amita. Srava.Vi.98;Puru. 175 to 179; Subhasita. 822- 

View of describing Sallekhana after the delineation of Silavratas.  Of the extensive range of Space  demarcated in the Digvrata, when further curtailment is made each day with reference to a house, a garden, a village, a field. A river, a forest and a Yojana stone, it is called Desavrata.1 As regards the time limit, Samantabhadra says that it may consist of a year, half a year, four months, two months, one month, and fifteen days.2 but according to Hemacandra, the time limit consists of a day or a night .3  It is to be borne in mind that, beyond the fixed limit of space, for the determined time the gross and subtle sins are absolutely renounced to such an extent that the observer of Desavrata may be credited with the designation of Mahavrati for the time- limit of Desavrata.4  In addition to the above view of the Desavrata, Karttikeya expounds that sense objects should also be limited like the limitation in the extensive range prescribed by the Digvrata.5  Perhaps this alludes to the further limitation of the objects of Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata which is regarded by him as the Gunavrata. In other words, the Desavrata in the light of Karttikeya equally narrows the extent of Digvrata and Bhogopabhoparimanavrata, whereas Samantabhadra and the Sravaka Prajnapti subscribe to the limitation of mere Digvrata.  This is the exposition of Desavrata in conformity with those who have recognised this among the Siksavratas. 

          We now turn to those who have regarded this as one of the Gunavratas.  According to Umasvati6 and Vasunandi, the Desavrata is a Gunavrata.  The Tattvarthasutra Bhasya 7  and the Sarvarthasiddhi 8 expound the nature of Desavrata as limiting  one's own movements to the region determined by certain village and as renouncing the rest of the places.  Amitagati subscribes to this defintion.9  If this interpretation of Desavrata which implies its life- long observance is accepted, it cannot be distinguished from the Digvrata.  Probably keeping this in view, Akalanka and Camundaraya specifically mention that the Digvrata

1. Ratna.Srava.92,93; Sga.Dharma.V.25,26;Kartti.368;Srava,prajana.318.

The Sravaka- Prajnapti and the Karttikeyanupreksa do not speak of the signs to be used for curtailments.

2. Ratna. Srava. 34. Kartti. Comm. 368.

3. Yo. Sa. III.84.             4. Ratna.Srava,95.;                 5. Kartti.367.

6.Umasvati's interpreter Pujyapada regards Desavrta as Gunavrata (Sarvartha. VII.21.)

7. TA.Su.Bha.       8. Sarvartha.VII.21.       9.Amita.Srava.Vi.78. 

is observed for the full life, but that the Desavrata is observed for a limited time.  Amrtacandra also prescribes limited time in the Desavrata.  If Akalanka's and Amrtacandra's view is kept in mind, we shall have no distinction between Desavrata as Gunavrata and Desavrata as Sikksavrata.  Thus according to one interpretation it is superfluous, since it can be absorbed into the Digvrata, while according to the other it should be regard as Siksavrata, since it prescribes its observance for a limited time.  It is true that Akalanka and Amrtacandra avoid this controversy of Gunavrara and Siksavrata by not dividing the seven Vratas in Gunavratas and Siksavratas as Pujyapada has done.  But still the tradition of Desavrata as Siksavrata cannot over- look the interpretation of Akalanka and Amrtacandra as favoring its case.  It is likely that after pondering over this confusing nature of the Desavrata Vasunandi has explained it by affirming that it implies the abandonment of the habitation of those countries or places where the observance of vows is threatened or rendered difficult.1  This way of elucidating the Desavrata is capable of justifying it as one of the Gunavraras.  It is very interesting to note that Srutasagara, the 16th century commentator of the Tattvarthasutra has, in addition to the definition of Digvrata, given by the Sarvathasiddhi, subscribed to the view of Vasunandi by saying that the Desavrata consists in discarding those places which obstruct the due observance of Vratas and which occasion insularity of mind.2 

          Though the tradition of Umasvati and Samantabhadra differ in respect of the classification of the Devastates, they coalesce in point of the indication of its Aticaras.  Transgressing the limits by 1) sending an agent, 2) drawing attention by making sounds, 3) ordering for things beyond limits, 4) making gestures and signs, and 5) throwing certain articles, has been announced to constitute the five breaches of the Desavrata.3   

                   NATURE OF ANARTHADANDVRATA:  We now propose to deal with the nature of Anarthadandavrata.  All the traditions unanimously acknowledge this as the Gunavrata.  Kartikeya defines Anarthadandavrata as renouncing the commitment of such acts as are not subservient to any useful purpose.4  Being frivolous, they simply engender

1. Vasu.srava.215.                   2.Tattvartha-Vrtti.21/10-14.

3. Ratna.Srava.96;Uvasaga.I.54;Ta.Su.III.31;Pueu.189;Amita.Srava.VII.9;           Saga.Dharma.V.27.

4. Kartti. 343. 

instability of mind, which results in depravity.  Samantabhadra defines Anarthadandavrata as refraining from wanton activity, even within determined directional limits, caused by inauspicious physical, mental and vocal operations, Akalanka in his commentary on the Tattvarthasutra explicitly points out that the purport of placing Anarthadandavrata in between Digvrata-Desavrata and Upabhogaparibhogaparibhogaparimanavrata contributes towards the comprehension of the fact that, even within the limits prescribed by the Dasavrata, the Digvrata and the Upabhogaparibhogaparimanavrata, one should neither make purposeless movements, nor enjoy such sensual pleasures as are of no account.  The Sravaka Prajnapti affirms that actions without any purpose bring about more Karmic bondage than the actions with some end in view, inasmuch as the former may be committed at any time even without any necessity, while that latter are performed at some specific time out of some necessity.  Thus there is manifest concordance among the Jaina philosophers regarding the nature of Anarthadanvrata.

          FORMS OF ANARTHADANDAS: We now dwell upon the forms of Anarthdandas.  The perpetration of barren and inane actions admits of multitudinous forms, but for the sake of comprehension either four or five forms have been recorded.  The Upasakadasa and the Sravaka Prajnapti recognise four forms of Anarthadandas, whereas Karttikeys, Samantabhadra, and the commentators of Tattvarthasutra like Pujyapada and Akalanka recognise four forms of Anarthadandas.  The four are: 1) Apadhyana, 2) Papopadesa, 3) Pramadacarita, and 4) Himsadana; and if Duhsruti is added to this list we get five forms of Anarthadandas.  The treatment of these Anarthadandas is varied in nature, which is quite convincing in view of the extensive field embraced by the Anarthadandas.  Though Karttikeya and Amratcandra have not mentioned the names of the five forms of Anarthadandas, the above mentioned four denominations very aptly suit the fivefold forms presented by both the Araya's.  Though the life of the householder is at every step a mixture of virtue and vice-since he is pursuing the Anuvratas-yet these Anarthadandas unnecessarily entrap the perpetrator in such a way as to cause the influx of inauspicious Karmas which bring about unimaginable suffering in this life and the life hereafter.

1 Ratna. Srava. 74                   2. Raja. VII. 21/22                   3. Srava. Prajna. 290

4. uvasaga. 43.              5. Srava. Prajna. 289 

 Let us come to the meaning of the five forms of the Anarthadandas.  First, Apadhyana implies inauspicious reflections which procreate nothing except a vicious trend of thought.  This involves the fact of peeping into another man's wife with an evil eye, witnessing the dissension among persons, mutilating, imprisoning and killing others and getting interested in hunting, victory, defeat, war, adultery, theft, gambling, and the like.  Hemacandra and Asadhara summarily include Arta Dhyana and Raudra Dhyana in Apadhyana.  Secondly, Papopadesa means the giving of evil instructions to persons earning livelihood by service, business, writing documents, cultivating land, and working in the field of art.  Samantabhadra, Pujyapada, Akalanka and Camundaraya include in Papopadesa the following things: the talk of selling slaves and beasts profitably and the giving of direction to hunters, fowlers and the like.  Thus the provocation of vicious tendencies, on account of which an individual may indulge in corrupted, passionate, and life-injuring ways may briefly sum up the meaning of Papoadesa.  Thirdly, Pramadacarita consists in doing such actions purposelessly as digging the ground, uprooting trees, trampling lawns, sprinkling water, burning and quenching fire, plucking leaves, fruits and flowers, wandering etc.  Fourthly, Himsadana implies the giving of the instruments of Himsa like knife, poison, fire, sword, bow, chain etc.  According to Karttikeya the rearing of violent animals like cat's etc., and the business of weapons like iron, Lac etc., come under Himsadana.  Lastly, Duhsruti, listening to and teaching such stories as are passionexciting.  Besides, the study of literature aggravating worldly attachment describing erotic things, and dealing with other intense-passion exciting things has also been included in Duhsruti.  Vasunandi does

1 Kartti. 344;        2 Ratna. Srava. 78; Sarvarthsa. VII. 21; Caritrasara. p. 16.

3. Puru. 141, 146.          4Yo. sa.       5 Saga. Dharma. V. 9.   6. Puru. 142.

7 Ratna. Srava. IV. 76 ; Sarvartha. VII. 21; Puru. 143; Saga. Dharma. VI. 11. Caritra Sara. p. 17.

1.     Kartti. 346; Ratna. Srava. 80; Sarvartha. VII. 21 ; Puru. 143; Saga. Dharma. VI. 11. Caritra Sara. p. 17.

9 Rathna. Srava. 77 ; Sravaka. Prajna. Comm. 289. puru. 144; Saga. Dharma. V. 8; Sarvartha. VII. 21 ; Cartitrasara. p. 17.

10 Kartti. 347.      11 Sarvartha. VII. 21.; Puru. 145.; Caritrasara. p. 17

12 Ratna. Srava. 79; Kartti. 348; Saga. Dharma. V. 9. 

not describe the five forms of Anarthadandas, but simply announces that he who is observing Anarthadandavrata should avoid the business of iron, nets etc., the use of false weights and measures, and the rearing of dogs, of violent animals like cats etc.

          The five transgressions that elate to define this vow are: 1) indulging in licentious speech, 2) ridiculously gesticulating and uttering obscene words, 3) prattling in a senseless manner, 4) becoming engrossed in actions without any consideration of purpose, and 5) unnecessarily accumulating articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga.

          NATURE OF BHOGOPABHOGAPARIMANAVRATA: We now proceed to deal with the nature of Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata.  The word 'Bhoga' pertains to those objects which are capable of being used only once, for instance, betel-leaf, garland etc., and the word 'Upabhoga' covers those objects which are capable of being used again and again, for instance, clothes, ornaments, cots etc.  Thus the Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata implies the limitation in the use of the objects of Bhoga and Upabhoga in order to reduce attachment to the objects.  Only Vasunadi bifurcates it into Bhogavirati and Paribhoganivrtti by keeping in view the aforementioned nature of Bhoga and Upabhoga.  It ma be pointed out here that this Varity includes not only the positive process of limitaion, but also the negative prowess of renunciation.  Karttikeya tells us that the renunciation of those things that are within one's won reach is more commendable than the renunciation of those things that are neither possessed, nor likely to be possessed in future.  Samantabhadra points out that Vrata does not consist in giving up things unsuitable to oneself along with those which are not worthy to be used by the exalted persons, but that it consists in

 Vasu. Sruva. 216.

2 Ratna. Srava. 81; Tasu. VII. 32; Puru. 190.; Caritrasara. p. 17. Dharma. Bi. 163; Amita. Srava. VII. 10; Saga. Dharma. V. 12.

3 The Upasakadasa and the Sravaka-prajnapti put 'bringing together the parts of implements' in place of the fouth as mentioned above.

4 The other name for his used by the Upasakadasa, th Tattvarthasutra, the Sravaka Prajnapti, etc. is Upabhga-Paribhoga-Parimanavrata. Here Upabhoga is equivalent to Bhoga' and Partibhoga is equal to ' Upabhoga'.

5 Ratna. Srava. 83; Amita. Srava. VI. 93; Yo. Sa III. 5. Saga. Dharma. V. 14; Yas. and Ic. p. 283.

6 Kartti. 350; Ratna, Srava. 82; Sarvartha. VII. 21. Saga. Dharma. V. 13.

7 Vasu. Sravva. 217, 218.

 the deliberate renouncement of the suitable objects of senses, since the above two types of things are not even used by commonplace persons.  Amrtancandra tells us that the layman should renounce, according to his capacity, the use of  objects which are not prohibited.

          TWO KINDS OF ABNEGATION IN BHOGOPABHOGAPARIMANAVRATA: In the Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata abnegation is of two kinds: Yama and Niyama; the former is for the whole duration of life, while the latter is for a limited period.  Three types of things, namely, 1) objects causing injury to living beings processing more than oneness, like meat and honey; 2) objects developing spiritual laziness like wine, opium, seeds of thorn-apple, the intoxicating hemp and the like; and 3) objets causing injury to infinite one-sensed Jivas forming one body like ginger, radish, carrot etc., along with butter, flowers of Ketaki etc., should be forsaken for life.  Besides, the use of objects like ornaments, conveyance etc., which have been considered as not necessary and the use of objects detested by the exalted personages like variegated colored clothes, odd dress and the like, should be forsaken either for life or for a limited period of time.  The renouncement for life or for a limited period of time.  The denouncement for a limited time, i.e., for an hour, a day, a night, a fortnight, a month, a season or half a year, should be made concerning food, conveyance, couch, bathing unguents, betel-leaf, clothes , ornaments, copulation, music and singing, since the householder cannot dispense with these things altogether.  By virtue of pursuing such discipline, Animas is observed owing to not incurring Himsa arising from the use of the articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga, that have been renounced.

          After dealing with the Digambara view of Bhogopabhogavrata, we now proceed to point out the Svetambara view.  The Upasakadsa and the Sravaka Prajnapti tell us the Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata concerns itself with the purity of food and that of occupation. 9

1 Ratna. Srava. 86 .         2. Puru. 164.                   3. Ratna. Srava. 87 ; Saga. Dharma. V. 14.

4 Sarvartha. VII. 21.        5 Raja VII. 21/27; Caritrasara. p. 25.

6 Ratna. Srava. 88, 89.

7 Puru. 166.

8 The puit of food means the avoidance of such food as causes Himsa of mobile beeings, for iinstance, meat, honey etc.

9 The purit of occupation signifies the abandonment of such evil trades as cause a good deal of Himsa for instance, livelighood from charcoal, trade in animal by-products etc.  

 "Other topics included at least by the Svetambaras under the Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata are the renouncement of the Ananta-kaya, the Abhaksyas and Ratribhojana."  Here we observe that the Gigambara version of the Vrata includes both the elements of Yama and Niyama under its scope, but that the Svetambara version seems to comprised only the element of Yama.

          BHOGOPOABHOGAPARIMANAVRATA AS GUNAVRATA AND SIKSAVRATA: Notwithstanding the delineation of the nature of Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata by the indifferent traditions of the Gigambaras without any marked difference, Vasunandi and the commentators of the Tattvarthsutra, namely, pujyapada and Vidyanandi enumerate this in the Siksavratas, while Samantabhadra and karttikeya count this as Gunavrata.  This difference of opinion is on account of the dual nature of the vow itself.  It possesses both the elements of Yama and Niyama characteristics of Gunavrata and Siksavrata respectively.  So it can be interpreted both ways.  The difference is of emphasis and not of nature.

          The five transgressions of this vow according to Umasvati are: eating 1) articles having life, 2) articles in contact with those having life, 3) articles mixed with those having life, 4) articles not well-cooked and 5) fermented and aphoradisiacal articles.  These Aticaras are too narrow to include the comprehensive extend of the Bhogopabhoga, so, it seems Samantabhadra has framed different Aticaras.  The five Aticaras according to Samantbhadra are: 1) eating 1) articles having life, 2) articles in contact with those having life, 3) articles mixed with those having life, 4) articles not well-cooked and 5) fermented and aphrodisiac articles.  These Aticaras.  The five Aticaras according to Samantabhadra are: 1) constant craving for the venom of sensual enjoyment, 2) dwelling upon bygone pleasurable experiences, 3) too much indulgence even after enjoyment, 4) having acute craning for the gratification of senses in future, and 5) too much indulgence during enjoyment.

          After dealing with the nature of Digvrata, Anarthadandavrata, Devastate and Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata, we now turn to the

1 Srava. prajna. Comm. 287, 288.

2 Plants having infinite one sensed Jivas, such as ginger, radish, carot etc.

3 Things not fit to e eates such as ice, ocurds kept for more than two days, tainted food etc.

4 Jaina Yoga. p\. 102. ( For the detailed traeatement of Anantakayas and Abhaksyas, see jaina Yoga. 110-116). We have already discussed this separately.

5 Tasu. VII. 35; Raja. VII. 35. Puru. 193; Caritrasara. p. 25; Dharma. Bi. 162;

6 Ratna. Srava. 90.remaining three Vratas, namely, Samayika, Prosadhopavasa and Atithisamvibhaga which are unanimously pronounced as Siksavratas.

          NATURE OF SAMAYIKA: Samayika is the positive way of submerging the activities of mind, body and speech in the Atman.   Amrtacandra tell us that the purpose of Samayika is to attain the Atman after espousing the economies state of mind produced by renouncing attachment and aversion to the objects of the world.  Samantabhadra defines Samayika as relinquishing the five types sins to the farthest extreme during the time fixed for the act of Samayaika.  The Sravaka Prajnati tell us that Samayika negatively implies the abandonment of snuffle actions and positively, the practice of non-sinful actions.  The economies state of mind, in the as of the householder, is equivalent should be distinguished from Sddhopayaoga, the ideal to be achieved through strenuous self-denial.  Jus as Samyagdarsana is at the root of liberation (Moksa ), so Samayika is at the root of the conduct for Moksa.  Reflection on the nature of the would as inauspicious, transitory, and full of pain, and reflection on the nature of salvation as auspicious, permanent and blissful-both these constitute what is allied the content of auspicious deliberations.5

          The consideration of seven requisites, namely, 1) place, 2) time, 3) posture, 4) meditation, and threefold purifies, namely, 5) mental, 6) bodily, and 7) voal, is necessary for the successful performance of Samayika.  10 That place which is free from disturbing noise, gathering of persons, and insects like mosquitoes, flies, etc., is the solitude, whether it is a forest, a house, a temple or any other place, should be chosen to perform Samayika.  2) Samayika should be performed three time as a day, i.e., in the morning, noon and evening.  The great Acarya Amrtacandra says that the householder should consider the act of Samayika as obligatory and perform it at least twice a day, i.e., in the morning and evening.  He further remarks that its performance at other times will conduce towards the enhancement of the spiritual and moral characteristics, hence it is not

1 Raja. VII. 21/7; Caritrasara. p 19.     2 Puru. 148                                                                                  TOP

3 Ratna. Srava. 97.                             4 Srave. Prajna. 292.

5 Ratna. Srava. 104.                           6 Kartti. 352/

7 Kartti. 353.                   8 Ratna. Srava. 99.          9 Kartti. 354

10 Puru. 149. 

 improper, but beneficial.  Samantabhadra says that one should perform Samayika till the time one fixes for it according to one's own mental states.  After with drawing oneself from all kinds of worldly activities, and after subduing all mental disturbances, one should increase the duration of Samayika on the fasting and half-fasting days.  It should also be gradually enchanted daily, since Samayika serves as a great cause for fulfilling the five vows.  3) Sitting and standing postures are generally recommended for the performance of Samayika.  4-7) The aspirant should purge the mind of sensual pleasures by concentrating on the sermons of the Jina, adopt submissive and surrendering gestures, and finally, either repeat the devotional hymns mentally or absorb himself in self-meditation.  He should bear hardships caused by cold, heat, insect-biting as well as troubles created by enemy without breaking silence, and without disturbing the purity of physical, mental and vocal activities.  By the performance of Samayika he who keeps in view the aforementioned requisites is naturally led to abandon even all the subtle vices which entangle the householder.  And for the time one fixes for the act of Samayika, one approaches asceticism.

          The five transgressions which should be avoided are: Losing one's control over 1) mind, 2) body and 3) Speech, 4) Lacking interest in Samayika, and 5) forgetfulness of Samayika.

          NATURE OF PROSADHOPAVASAVRATA: Samantabhadra and others enunciate the Prosadhopavasavrata as renouncing the four kinds of food on the eighth and fourteenth lunar days in each fortnight.  Probably keeping in view the infirmness of disciples, Karttikeya also includes the eating of unseasoned food once a day in the Prosadhopavasavrata, and Amitagati and Asadhara also comprise the taking of

1 Puru. 149.           2 Ratna. Srava. 98.          3 Ratna. Srava. 100

4 Ratna. Srava. 101.        5 Kartti. 35.           6 Kartti. 355, 356.

7 Ratna. Srava. 103, Caritrasara. p. 19.

8 Ratna. Srava. 102; Kartti. 357 ; Puru. 150

9 Ratna Srava. 102 ; Kartti 357 ; Puru. 150.

10 Ratna. Srava. 105. puru. 191 ; Ta su. VII. 33; Dharma. Bi. 164; Srava. prajna. 312-317.

11 Ratna. Srava. 106.

12 Puru. 151 ; Saga. Dharma. V. 34 ; Amita. Srava. VI 88 ; Tattvarthavrtti. VII. 21 Kartti. 359 Yas. & Ic. p. 282.

13 Kartti. 359.                           14 Amita. Srava. VI. 90

1        Saga. Dharma. V. 35. 

only water in this Vrata.  The observance of this Vrata requires the performance of meditation, the study of spiritual literature, and the avoidance of batch, perfumes, bodily embellishment, ornaments, cohabitation and household affairs.  The Sravaka Prajnapti prescribes that the relinquishment of food, bodily embellishment, cohabitation, household affairs should  be effected either partially or completely in the Prosadhopavasavrata.  Here we observe that though the Digambara Acaryas allow the partial renunciation of food, they prescribe complete relinquishment of cohabitation, bodily embellishment and household affairs in observing the Prasadhoopavasavrata, as we have said above.  As regards the place for the performance of this Vrata, a temple, the abode of Sadhus, a Prosadhasala, or any holy place should be chosen for one's stay.

          PROCEDURE OF PRASADHOPAVASAVRATA: Amrtacandra notably lays down the procedure for observing the Prosadhopavasavrata.  After renouncing all household affairs and all worldly attachment, one should undertake the vow at the middle of the day previous to the Prosadha day.  After this, one should repair to a sequestered place, forsake all  sinful activities, renounce all sensual pleasures, and observe due restraint of body, speech and mind.  After passing the rest of the day in auspicious deliberations, the evening should be occupied with the performance of Samayika.  The night should be passed on a pure mat after getting over sleep by being engrossed in the study of spiritual literature.  On the next morning, after performing Samayika, one should engage oneself in the worship of Jina with Prasuka objects.  In the same prescribed manner, the day, the second night, and half of the third day should be spent with circumspection.  Thus, sixteen Yamas (48 hours) constitute the time of Prosadhopavasavrata.  "The Svetambara writers mention a period of twenty-four hours"  and lays down the procedure of the Vrata fundamentally in the same way as above.  The difference consists of moron details.

          PROSADHOPAVASAVRATA AND THE FIVE SINS: On account of being free from all sinful activities the observer of Prosadhopavasavrata approaches the complete vows only pursuable by the saints.  He

          1 Kartti. 358. Ratna. Srava. 107, 108; Amita. Srava. VI. 89. yas Ic. p. 282.

          2 Srava. Prjna, Comm. 322l /sarvartha. VII. 21 ; Caritrasara. p. 22.

          3 Puru. 152 to 157.

          4 jaina Yoga, p. 142.                 5 Ibid. p. 145. 

eschews the Himsa of all kinds of Jivas because of the renunciation of the articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga.  He shuns falsehood, stealing, acquisition and unchastely on account of the control of speech, the abstinence from all misappropriation, the absence of the feeling of attachment, and the avoidance of sexual intercourse respectively.

          NATURE OF ATITHISAMVIBHAGAVRTA: We now proceed to represent the nature of Atithisamvibhagavrata.  According to Karttikeya, he who after acquiring certain qualifications, offers four kinds of gifts in conformity with the nine fold ways of entertaining the three kinds of deserving recipients is announced to be legitimately pursuing the Atithisamvibhagavrata.  The offering should be made for mutual ennoblement without expecting any return.  It will not be amiss to point out that Samantabhadra denominates this vow as Vaiyavratya, probably to extend the scope of the vow. It also includes the fact of removing the ailments of those pursuing the path of renunciation, of massaging their feet, as well as of serving them in various other ways.  Besides, it is to the credit of Samantabhadra that he renders devotion to Arahantas obligatory for those who follow this vow.  According to the Sravaka Prajnapti, this vow consists in offering pure food to the saint by keeping in view the following things: Place (desa), time (kala), faith (sraddha), respect (satkara), and due order (karma), Haribhadra explains these terms in the following way: place signifies the area producing wheat or rice etc.; time means famine or otherwise; purity of mind is faith; the formalities of standing up, offering seat, worshipping, following the saint when he is returning etc., come under

          1 Puru. 158, 159.

          2 Ratna. Srava. 110 ; Puru. 192; Raja. VII. 34; Dharma. Bi. 166.           Caritrasara. pp. 22-23. Saga. Dharma. V. 40.

          3 We shall presently deal with them.

          4 Kartti. 360, 361.

          5 Puru. 167; ratna. Srava. 111.            6 Ratna. Srava. 112.

          7 Ibid. 118

          8 Srava Prajna. 325, 326. 

 respect; due order points to the articles of food to be offered one after there other.

          CONSIDERATION OF FIVE OBJETIVES FOR THE ADEQUATE OBSERVANCE OF THIS VOW: This vow comprises the consideration of the five objectives for its adequate observance, namely, 1) classes of deserving recipients, 2) qualifications of a donor, 3) things worthy of gift, 4) method of giving and 5) yield of gift.  1) Merit develops with respect to the degree of conduct along with Samyagdarsana.  Hence three kinds of deserving recipients have been recgonised.  a) The saint who has consecrated his life for the achievement of liberation, and consequently, who has absolutely forsaken all the sins stands at the highest rung of the ladder of merit.  b) The householder who pursues the twelve vows or observes the discipline prescribed by he eleven stages of advancement (eleven Pratimas) stands at the middle of the ladder of merit.  c) He who is endowed with the characteristic of Samyagdarsana but who does not observe the right course of ethical discipline stands at the last rung of the ladder of merit.  We shall now describe the nature of I) Kupatras, ii) Aparas, and iii) Karunapatras in order to distinguish them form the aforementioned three kinds of Part's (deserving recipients).  I) In the absence of Samyaggdarsana he who is adhering to vows, performing austerities, and striving for the betterment of living beings is designated as Kupatra (not entitled to the gift to be offered with religious devotion).  In other words, sheer moral purity in the absence of spiritual or religious conversion cannot be the objet of devoted offering.  We may point out in passing that this aspect of Dana thrown light upon the spieitualisation of Jaina ethical living.  Ii) He who possesses neither moral conduct nor Samyagdarsana should be regarded as Apatra (not entitled to the gift as such).  Apatra is a curse to society, iii) children and such persons as are very old, dumb, blind, deaf, foreigner, diseased, and indigent should be given suitable things out of compassion.8 We cannot

1 Srava. Prajna. Comm. 325.

2 Vasu. Srava. 220

3 Vasu. Srava. 221 ; Puru. 171 ; Amita. Srava. X. 4; Saga. Dharma. V. 44.

4 Vasu. Srava. 222 ; Puru. 171 ; Amita. Srava. X. 27 to 30; Saga. Dharma. V. 44.

5 Vasu. Srava. 222. amita. Srava. X. 32. Puru. 171; Saga. Dharma. V. 44.

6 Amita. Srava. X. 34, 35. Vasu. Srava. 223.

7 Amita. Srava. X. 36, 37, 38. Vasu. Srava. 223.

8 Vasu. Srava. 235. 

forbear mentioning that Bhakti Dana should be distinguished from social charity (Dana) inclusive of Karuna Dana.  The three Patras (deserving recipients) receive gifts out of devotion but Kupatas and Karunapatras should be given from moral or social point of view.  It is to the credit of the Jainas that they have not ignored the social aspect of Dana in emphasizing Bhakti Dana or Patra Dana.  2) As regards the qualifications of a donor concerning the Patra Dana, the donor must possess the seven virtues; namely, belief in the result of Dana given to the Patras, affection for the merits of Patras, pleasure at the time of giving and after giving, knowledge of the suitable gifts proper to the different Patras, absence of longing for worldly benefits, control over anger even at a critical juncture, showing real enthusiasm in such a manner as may astound even the wealthy persons.  All these are respectively called: faith (sraddha), devotion (bhakti), joy(samtosa or taste), wisdom (Vienna), unattachment (alubdhata, or alaulya), forbearance (ksama), and enthusiasm (sakti or sativa).  The Tattvarthabhasya enumerates eight characteristics, namely, absence of jealousy towards the recipient (anasuya), absence of sorrow in giving avisada), absence of condescension towards the recipient (aparibhavita), joy in giving (pritiyaga), auspicious frame of mind (kusalabhisamdhita), absence of desire for worldly benefit (drstaphalanapeksita), straightforwardness (nirupdhatva), and lastly, freedom from desire for other-worldly benefits (anidanatva).  3) To consider the things worthy of gifts, generally four kinds of gifts have been recgonised; namely, food, medicine, books and fearlessness.  Food, medicine, Upakarana (religious accessories) and the place of shelter is the other list of four objects.  All these things should be worthy of the Patras.  Only such things should be given as are useful for the pursuance of studies and for practicing austerities of a very high quality, and as do not bring about attachment, aversion, incontinence, pride, sorrow, fear and the

1 Amita. Srava. IX. 3-10. Vasu. Srava. 224. Caritrasara. p. 26. Saga. Dharma. V. 47.

2 Ta. su. Bha. VII. 34. (I have practically followed the transaltion given in the Jaina yoga. pp. 13-154) Amrtacandra enumerates almost the same characteristics. (Puru. 169)

3 Kartti. 362. Amita. Srava. IX. 83, 106, 107. Vasu. Srava. 233.

4 Ratna. Srava. 117. Caritrasara. p. 26. yas. and Ic. p. 283.

5 Upakaranas differ for a Svetambara nd a Digambara monk. We need not mention them here.

like. 4) The gifts should be given according to the nine fold ways of entertaining a Patra.  This process consist of reception, offering a high seat, washing the feet, adoration, salutation, purity of mind, purity of body, purity of speech and purity of food.   The saints should be entertained with the above formalities but the other Pates according to their merits.  5) As regards the yield of gift, greed is overcome by Dana and consequently Atithidana amounts to the renunciation of Himsa.  Besides, just as water washes away bloods, so proper gifts to saints would for certain wipe off the sins accumulated on account of the unavoidable household affairs.  The paying of obeisance to the holy saints causes noble birth; the giving of Dana to them entails prosperous living; their servitude promotes high respect; their devotion determines gracious look; and the extolling of their virtues brings about celebrity.  Vasunandi tells us that the gift to Patras is just like a seed sown in a fertile land; and the gift to Apertures is just like a seed sown in a barren land.

          The five Aticaras of this vow are;  1) placing food  on things having life, 2) covering food with things having life, 3) offering food at an improper time, 4) offering some other person's food, and 5) lack of interest or jealousy towards the other giver.

          TWO WAYS OF DESCRIBING THE HOUSEHOLDER'S ETHICAL DISCIPLINE: VRATAS, AND PRATIMAS: We have so far endeavored to expound the characteristic nature of Anuvratas, Gunavratas bad Siksavratas.  The last two types of Vratas, which are called Salivates, are capable of educating the individual for the exalted life of renunciation.  They deepen his consciousness of sin, thereby encouraging him to shun totally the causes of subtle Himsa, which prevent the full-fledged performance of the auspicious Dhyanas (Dharma and Sukla).  It is evident that

1 Puru. 170.

2 Puru. 168. Vasu. Srava. 225. Kartti. 360. yas. and Ic. p. 284. haribhadra includeds these processes in Satkara, while commenting on the definition of the vow given by the Sravaka prajnapti. ( Srava. prajna. Comm. 325).

3 puru. 172.                    4 Ratna. Srava. 114.                  5 Ratna. Srava. 115.

6 Vasu. Srava. 240, 241, 242.

7 Sarvartha. VII. 36. Raja. VII. 36. The names of these Aicaras are the smae in Digambara and Svetambara works, but the meaning differs slightly. we have followe dPujapada's meaning.

We shall deal with these two Dhyanas in the subsequent chapter.  

whatever sour of Himsa remains in the life of the householder, who pursues the partial vows, is consequent upon the employment of the materials of Bhoga and Upabhoga.  Now he whose heart has been illumined, who has developed in him the capacity of discharging the obligations which result from the arduous life of asceticism proceeds towards  the gradual and the systematic renunciation of the articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga, till  he arrives at the full life of a saint.  To express it differently, the elevated outlook of life negatively depends upon narrowing down the compass of Bhoga and Upabhoga to the irreducible extent, and positively, upon steadily deepening the meditational aspect of life.  The negative aspect deserves to be extolled only when it is accompanied by the positive phase of meditational development or auspicious female and disposition of mind.  In our study of the Jaina ethical works, we find the exposition of the Acura of the householder on the ground of Anuvratas, Gunavartas and Siksavratas as only one of the ways of its presentation.  This method of Approach to the conduct of the householder is itself capable of effecting moral and spiritual advancement by systematically prescribing the renouncement of the objects of Bhoga and Upbhoga.  The outstanding  advocates of this sort of presentation are Umasvati, Samantabhadra, Someday, Amitagati, Amrtacandra and Hemacandra.  Of these religio-thical saints, Umasvati, Amrtacandra and Hemacandra have to all intents and purposes subscribed to this view, whereas the rest, in spite of their having represented the householder's ethical discipline on the aforementioned pattern, have also referred to another way which shall be henceforth discussed.  The notable champions of another way, i.e. of the way which seeks to represent that Aara of the householder on the basis of eleven stages, which are technically called eleven Pratimas, are Kundakunda, Karttikeya, Camundaraya and Vasunandi.

          RECONCILONCILIATION OF THE TWO WAYS: These two ways may,  at the first sight, appear to present two divergent outlooks of Jaina ethical discipline, but a little reflection would convince us that the divergence is only superficial.  The two are so closely related that is the former way fo representation is pushed ahead for spiritual development we are capable of having systematic stages of advancement.  To be more clear,

1 Caritra pahuda. 22 Kartti. 305, 306.

3 Caritra sara, p. 3.                 4 Vasu. Srava. 4.


the vows of Samayika, Prosadhopavasa, and Bhogopabhogaparimana give us the nine stages of advancement towards the life of asceticism.  Thus there is no unbridgeable gulf between the two ways of delineation.  There is continuity and not a chasm between them.  Besides, the latter way of exposition on the basis of eleven stages is chronologically prior, the credit of logical priority comes to the former.

          THE ELEVEN PRATIMAS:  The eleven Pratimas which have been mentioned by Kundakunda, Samantabhadra, Camundaraya, and Vasunandi are denominated 1) Darsana, 2) Vrata, 3) Samayika, 4) Prosadha, 5) Sacittatyaga, 6) Ratribuktityaga, 7) Brahamacarya, 8) Arambhatyaga, 9) Parigrahatyaga, 10) Anumatityaga, and 11) Uddistatyaga.  The usagadhasao also speaks of eleven Pratimalas, but does not mention their names.  Karttikeya enumerates twelve Pratimas but it should not be considered as the violation of the traditional number which is eleven since the first stage enumerated by Karttikeya is  indicative of Samyagadarasana, i.e., of spiritual conversion which has not been separately enumerated by other Acaryas but has been included in the 1st stage mentioned  by them.  The remaining are the names of the eleven Primates.  Hence, there is no divergence from traditional enumeration.  Somadeva, in the first place, effects variation in the order of certain stages and secondly substitutes 'Diva-Maithuna-virati' for 'Ratri-Bhukti-virati.  The former deviation from the traditional presentation has received no support at the hands of subsequent thinkers, while the latter one has been assimilated in their ethical discussions.  We shall presently dwell upon each of the eleven Pratimas and shall swell as endeavor to point out that the aforementioned three

1 Sat. Vol. I-p. Kasaya Pahuda. Vol. I. p. 130.

2 Caritra Pahuda. 22.             3. Ratna. Srava. 137 to 147.

4. Vasu. Srava. 4.

5 uvasaga. 70. Abhayadeva, the commentator of the Uvasagadasao, mentions the names of eleven Pratimas in the following way : 1) Darsana, 2)Vrata, 3) Samayika, 4) prosadha, 5) Kayotasarga, 6) Abrahma-varjana, 7) Sacitta-tyaga, 8) Arambhatyaga, 9) Presyatyaga, 10) Uddistatyaga and 11) Sramanabhuta. (Uvasaga. Comm. pp. 74-77) we observe that the names of Pratimas given by the Svetambaras are somewhat different from those given by teh Digambaras. But we shall point out afterwards that the contents do not differ much.

6 Kartti. 305, 306.            7 Vasu. Srava. Intro. p. 50. 

Vratas (Smayaika, Prosadhopavasa, and Bhogopabhogaparimana) are capable of explaining the nine stages of ethical headway.

          DARSANA PRATIMA : The fist stage is Darsanapratima. After the attainment of Samyadarsana the aspirant who should be styled Darsanika Sravaka resolutely forsakes the use of odious things such as meat wine and the like, and becomes indifferent to worldly and heavenly pleasures, and nourishes the spirit of detachment. In conformity with the views of Vasunandi, he who has acquired Samyagdarsana and has relinquished the use of five Udamabara fruits and refrained himself from gambling, meat, wine, honey, hunting, prostitution, adultery and stealing, should be designated as Darsanika Sravaka. In addition to the relinquished of the above indulgences, Vasunandi very emphatically cries down the practice of taking food at night, and argues that he who indulges in eating at night cannot claim to be practicing even the observances of the first stage. If we pause a little to ponder over these decline actions of the observances of the first stage, we can very easily conceive that this stage comprises the Mulagunas in addition to Samyagdarsana. Hence, the various conceptions of Mulagunas may give us various enunciation's of the first stage. It is in all probability due to the recognition of this fact that Somadeva calls the first stage 'Mulavrata'. It will not be out place to point out that the characterization of this stage in accordance with Vasunandi is so comprehensive as to comprise under it all the preceding formulations concerning Milagunas. It has not the stringency of Samantabhadra's and Jinasena's conceptions of Mulagunas wherein five partial vows have been included and not the excessive mildness of Somadeva's view. The pronouncement of the seven kinds of additions to calamitous habits (saptavyasana) tends towards the inclusion of the four types of sins to some extent, namely, Himsa, falsehood, stealing and unchastity. Hence it is that in some measure the view of Samantabhadra and Jinasena is included in it. We need not mention how the Mulagunas prescribed by Amitagati, Somadeva are completely comprehended in it.

 1 Karti. 328, 329.     2 Ratna. Srava. 137; Caritrasara. P. 3.                                                       TOP

3 Vasu. Srava. 57 to 59.     4 Ibid. 314.

5 Abhayadeva mentions under this stage only the attainment of Samyagdarsana.

6 Vasu. Srava. 59; Vasu. Srava. Intro. P. 50.

7 Gambling, meat, wine, hunting, prostitution, adultery and stealing. 

Thus Mulagunas and Samyagdarsana may depict the 1st stage. Just as the conception of Mulagunas is dynamic, so the portrayal of the first stage will also be dynamic character. In other words, this stage is capable of involving the abandonment of newly evolved evil tendencies that may mar the spiritual and the moral advancement owing to Samyagdarsana. It is of capital importance to note that the first stage is the stage of mental preparation accompanied be the initial training of the will by following the short course of ethical discipline. We regard the separate treatment of Mulguna as more correct, than the one along with Samyagdarsana, since they are capable of being observed even by the great majority of commonplace persons, by virtue of which the social structure may be morally defended.  

          VRATA PRATIMA : The second stage is called Vrata pratima. This second rung of the ladder of the householder's evolution of conduct comprises the scrupulous observance of Anuvratas, Gunavratas and Siksavratas.2 We have already dwelt upon the nature of these vratas, so need not turn to them again.  

          SAMAYIKA AND VRATA PRATIMA : The third and fourth stages bear the designations of Samayika and Prosadha Pratimas respectively. A  question may be asked : when Samayika and Prosadhopavasa have been treated as Siksavratas, why have they been regarded as constituting the third and fourth Pratimas respectively ? It is really a question and this becomes all the more puzzling when we find that Samantabhadra and Karttikeya who recognise Samayika and Prosadha as both Vratas and Pratimas have practically prescribed the same course of discipline to be observed. In Samayika Pratima, Karttikeya has prescribed the resoluteness of mind, body and speech despite all perils to life, while Samantabhadra has represented this characteristic in Samayika as Vrata, but has distinguished Samayika as Pratima by prescribing the

1 Abhayadeva prescribes only the observance of the Anuvratas in this stage. (Uvasaga. comm. p. 76)

2 Ratna. Srava. 3178/ Vasi/ Srava/ 207.

3 Abhayadeva also recognises the performance of Samayika and the observance of Prosadhopavasa in these two Pratimas ( See uvasaga. Comm. p. 76)

4 Kartti. 371, 372.            5 Ratna. Srava. 103. 

necessity of performing Samayika thrice a day, which characteristic has been included in Samayika as Vrata according to Karttikeya. In Prosadha as Pratima and Prosada as Vrata no significant distinction has been made by Karttikeya and Samantabhandra. We may now say that the distinction which has been made is quite insignificant for being calculated as supplying the adequate warrant for recognising these Vratas as indecent Pratimas. The argument of Asadhara that these Silas, which were subserving the purpose of guarding the Anuvratas, become in Pratimas independent Vratas, bears little cogency, since though these Silas, no doubt serve the purpose of custodian, yet it is unintelligible how they cancel the designation of being called Vratas. The word 'Sills' prefixed to Vratas evinces simply particularisation and not the cancellation of their being understood as Vratas. May be, on account of this overt duplication, Vasunandi has totally set aside these Vratas from Salivates, and his simply represented them as the two Pratimas. If Kundakunda and Karttikeya have wedded with this mode of delineation, i.e., have recognised Samayika and Prosadha as both Vratas and Pratimas, it is to point out their paramount importance for marching towards deep spiritual life. As a matter of fact, these sum up the entire spiritual life of the householder. Besides, Samayika and Prosadhopavasa are closely interrelated and so influence each other. Prosadhopavasa assists in the due performance of Samayika and sometimes Samayika encourages the performance of the other with purity and zeal. Thus if Vasunandi is theoretically justifiable, Kundakunda and Karttikeya are practically so. In the science of spirituality theory cannot countervail practice. So, if these two Vratas are elevated to the rank of Pratimas, it is to favor the deepening of spiritual consciousness, and hence it is justifiable.

          THE REMAINING PRATIMAS : Having vindicated the claims of Samayika and Prosadhopavsa as Pratimas notwithstanding their recognition in Vratas, we now proceed to enquire into the nature of the remaining Pratimas. All the subsequent stages rest on the relinquishment of Bhoga and Upabhoga. Sacittaga Pratima consists in renouncing the use of articles having life, namely, roots, fruits, leaves, barks, seeds

1 Ratna. Srav. 139.

2 Kartti. 354.

3 Saga. Dhama. VII. 6. 

and the like. The observer of the discipline prescribed by this stage does not also feed others with those things which he himself has renounced. The next stage is recognised to be either 'Ratri Bhuktivirati' or 'Divamaithunvirati.' Kundakunda, Karttikeya and Samantabhadra subscribe  to the former view while the other authors like Amitagati, Chmundaraya, Vasunandi , Somadeva and Asadhana recognise 'Divamaithunavirati', i.e., abstinence from sexual intercourse in the day. According to Karttikeya he who has ascended this stage neither eats food nor feeds others at night nor suggest others to do so. We may now say that this stage refers to the limitations of both Bhoga and Upabhoga. The next stage known as Brahmacarya Pratima prescribes absolute continence. This is indicative of the further limitation in the objects of Upabhoga. The eighth stages of householder's advancement which is known as Arambhatyaga signifies the discontinuance of service, cultivation, business, in short, the means of live hood. Besides, he neither suggests others to do business etc., nor commends those who are doing so. The next stage, namely, Parigrahatyaga Pratima enjoins the abandonment of all kinds of accusations except clothes, and in those too the observer is not attached. The statement of Samantabhadra and Karttikeya that the observer of this stage should renounce all kinds

1 Kartti. 380; Ratna. Srava. 141; Saga Dharma. VI. 8; Vasu. Srava. 295. Abhayadeva, regards this Pratima as the seventh in order and prescribes the same course of discipline as above (Uvasaga. Comm. p. 76)

2 kartti. 380. Abhayadeva calls this pratima by the name of Kayotsaga and regards this as the fifth in order and includes in it the avoidance of cohabitation in the da. he also prescribes the observance of the Gunavratas and the Siksavratas in addition to the Anuvratas in this Pratima. (uvasaga. Comm. p. 76)

3 Caritra pahuda. 22.                 4 kartti. 382.          5. Ratna. Srava. 142.

6 Amita. Srava. VII. 72             7 Caritrasara. p. 38.         8 Vasu. Srava. 296.

9 Vasu. Srava. Intro. p. 50.                 10. Saga. Dharma. VII. 12.

11 Jarttu, 384. Vasu. Srava. 297. Ratna. Srava. 1432. saga. Dhrma. VII. 16. Abhayadeva defines it in the same way, though the order of the pratima is the sixth.

12 Ratna. Srava. 144. Vasun. Srava. 298. Abhayadeva holds that the aspirant himself should not indulge in any activity for livelihood.

13 Kartti. 385.        14. Vasu. Srava. 299 

 of Parigraha internal as well as external should mean the renouncement of all Parigraha except clothes. In the tenth stage, the aspirant refuses to give advice or suggestion regarding mattes concerning the householder, hence it is called Anumatityaga Pratima. Here all the  objects of Bhoga and Upabhoga have been renounced except clothes, and proper food cooked for him. The highest point of householder's discipline is arrived at in the eleventh stage when the aspirant renounces home and goes to the forest where ascetics dwell and accepts vows in the presence of a Guru. He performs austerities, lives on food obtained by begging, and wears a piece of lion-cloth. Thus he is designed as excellent Sravaka and the stages is called Uddistatyaga Pratima. Vasunandi gives a twofold classification of this stage, first, the excellent Sravaka with one cloth, and secondly the same with the one lion-cloth. The former applies instruments for cutting of his hair. Keeps broom to avoid injury to small living beings, takes meals once a day either in the palm of his hand or in some pot in a sitting posture, and observes fast by renouncing all kinds of food on the four pious days (Astami and Caturdasi ) of the month. This distinguishes him from the latter who pulls out his hairs, and takes his meals in the palm of his hand, other things being common to both. In both the cases, food is begged either from one house after the monks have taken their meals and fast is observed if food is not obtained from there, or from different houses in case food is not received at one house.


  1. Kartti. 386.     Ratna. Srava. 145.  Abhayadeva recognises  neirther the Parigrahatyaga Pratima nor the Anumatityaga Pratime.  He speak of Presytyaga Pratima, which implies the esfusal to make use of other for livelihood.

2. Kartti. 388. Ratna.Srava. 146. Vasu.Srava.300.

3. Ranta. Srava.147. According to Abhayadeva, in the Uddistatyaga Pratima the aspirant does not take food prepared for himself; he either shaves his head or keeps a top- knot.  In the Sramanabhuta Pratima he either shaves his head or pulls out his hair.  Besides he keeps a broom and a begging bowl (Uvasga comm.pp.76-77)  These two stage almost correspond to the two-fold division made by Vaunandi as mentioned above.

4. Vasu.Srava.301

5. Vasu.Srava.302,303,311; Saga. Dharma.VII.39,40.

6.Vasu.Srava.304 to 309, Saga.Dharma. VII. 41 to 44, 46. 

representing the house-holder's ethical discipline. This has emerged on account of the tendency of comprehensive systematisation. Sallekhana (to be henceforth discussed) which is included by Kundakunda in Vratas is taken out by other Acaeyas from the extent of the Vratas and is given a separate place. Besides, the Mulagunas, the Vratas, and the Pratimas appear to be somewhat detached from one another. Though the conception of Pratimas is capable of including Mulagunas and Vratas, yet it mingles Mulagunas with Samyagdarsana. Thus it detaches Mulagunas from their original function for which they have been designed, namely, for preparing commonplace persons morally and for deciding the minimum of morality. Again, though Mulagunas and Vratas along with Samayagdarsana are capable of giving rise to Pratimas, yet Sallekhana remains isolated. Thus the conception of Pratimas suffers from two defects; first, of curbing the freedom of Mulagunas to embrace wide extent, and secondly, of not including Sallekhana within them; and the conception of Mulagunas and Vratas along with Samyagdarsana, from one defect of not comprising Sallekhana with their purview. Probably keeping this in view, Jinasena has devised an all-comprehen-sive way for describing the Acara into Paksa, Carya and Sadhana. The follower of this discipline is called Paksika, Naisthika, and Sadhana respectively. Asadhara has adopted this way as the basis of his Sagaradharmamrta. He who has set his face against the intentional injury to all mobile living beings, and who observes Mulagunas is called Paksika. He is to abstain himself from wine, meat, honey, five kinds of Udambara fruits and seven kinds of bad habits already mentioned, and from eating corn-food at night. He is further to devote himself to worship Arahantas, revere Gurus, offer gifts to the Patras and try to earn fame by meritorious deeds of charity and the like. Besides, he should practice universal friendship, appreciate meritorious personages, be compassionate towards the miserable and be indifferent towards the perverted. The aspirant who devotes himself to the observance of Pratimas which also include Vratas in styled Naisthika. And lastly, he who practises Sallekhana is called Sadhaka. Thus we see that all the previous ways of describing the householder's discipline have been properly harmonised.

1 Adipurana. 145.        2  Saga. Dharma. I-19, II-2.

3 Saga. Dharma. II. 17, 76.   4 Ibid. I. 19. 

          NATURE OF SALLEKHANA AS DISTINGUISHED FROM SUICIDE :  After reconciling the threefold ways of describing the householder's ethical discipline, we now proceed to explain the conception of Sallekhana as recognised in Jainism. It implies the enervation of external body and internal passions in a legitimate way by the gradual removal of the causes of their nourishment so that one may renounce the present body with a view to having a new bodily modification. To be more clear, the abandonment of the bodily frame on being confronted with the uneschewable calamity, famine, senility, and disease for the sustenance of spiritual practices has been regarded as Sallekhana. This signifies that  the process of Sallekhana is to be adopted either in special circumstances when the religious observances are being endangered on account of unavoidable bodily infirmities and the like, or on the occasion when the time of natural death has been in all probability. No doubt, the body which is the medium of the upliftment of the soul is to be properly nourished and cared for and the diseases are to be seriously met with any retreat. But if the body refuse to respond to our earnest endeavors, we should not falter to forsake it like a villain in the interest of saving the peace of mind. Thus if one is encountered with the causes of the termination of duration of the present life one should resort to the performance of the process of Sallekhana, which is not other than the spiritual welcome to death. This is not yielding to death, but a way of meeting the challenge of death undauntedly and adequately. This happy embracement of death has been calculated to carry the spiritual dispositions to the next birth, but it is not very easy to practice. Those who have submitted themselves to vicious deeds throughout their lives cannot easily think to adopt the process of Sallekhana. Thus it requires an earnest endeavour from the start. Samantabhadra declares that austerities, if they have been truly, deeply, and successfully performed, must bear the fruits of noble death. "Self-restraint, study, austerities, worship, and charity, all become useless if the mind is not pure at the last hour of life. Just as the training of a king who has learnt the use of weapons for twelve years, becomes useless if he faints on the battle field." It is to be remembered that the mere loss of the strength of the body is of no

1 Sarvartha. VII. 22.                           2. Ratna. Srava. 122.

3. Saga. Dharma. VIII. 20; Amita. Srava. VI. 98, yo sa. III. 148.

4 Saga. Dharma. VIII. 5, 6,7. 5 Puru. 175. 6 ratna. Srava. 123.   7 yas. and Ic. p. 287.


consequence if it does not lead to the conquest of passions. The flagellation of the body must issue in the denial of passions. The resignation of body to death has not been considered to be as difficult as the observing of self-control, and the fixing of one's mind in the Atman, when the vital forces depart from the body. Thus the emphasis is on thee rejection of passion, and consequently this noble death serves for the fulfillment of Ahimsa. It is on account of this insistence on the abnegation of passion that the process of Sallekhana must needs be distinguished from suicide which is perpetrated by the cruel dominance of passions through the mal-agency of water, fire, poison, inhibition of breath and the like. Suicide is easy when compared with the adequate performance of Sallekhana. The latter is undertaken only when the body fails to answer to the spiritual needs of the individual and when the inevitability of death is a matter of undisputed certainty; while suicide may be committed at any time in the life time under the spell of emotional disturbance or passionate attitude of mind.

          PROCESS OF SALLEKHANA : To deal with the process of Sallekhana, the aspirant must attain the purity of mind by renouncing attachment, aversion and infatuation. Afterwards in modest and sweet words he should make his earnest request to the members of his family and others around him to pardon him for the vicious deeds committed by him to afflict them wittingly and unwittingly. He should also forgive them from the bottom of his heart for being troubled by them on certain occasions. He should then practice the five Mahavratas and engage himself in the study of scriptures with adequate zeal without allowing himself to be seduced by grief, fear, hatred, and the like. Nourishment is to be renounced gradually so that mental disturbance may be avoided. The persistence of equanimous mental state is the prime necessity. The physical renunciation of food to enervate the body must needs be balanced by the enhancement of the strength of the spirit. In other words, the gradual renunciation of the causes of physical nourishment. In the first place, only milk and whey should be continued after having abandoned the solid food, then

1 Saga. Dharma VIII. 22.                    2. Ibid. VIII. 24.

3. Puu. 179.                                                 4. Puru. 178

5 Ratana. Srava. 124 to 128. 

after giving up even the former, only hot water should be taken. Subsequently fasting should be observed. Then after entirely devoting himself  to the meditation on the fivefold holy names of Arahanta, Siddha, Acarya, Upadhyaya and Sadhuy, the aspirant should bid fare well it his body.

          While practising Sallekhana, the Sadhaka should avoid the following faults : 1) desire to live, 2) desire to die, 3) remembrance of friends, 4) revival of past pleasures, and 5) expectations for future prosperity. Samantabhandra takes out 'revival of past pleasure' and puts 'fear' in its place. According to the Uvasagadasao the defects are 1) longing for this world, 2) longing for the next world, 3) longing for life, 4) longing for death, and 5) longing for sensual pleasures.