Acara of the Householder

          SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER : In the previous chapter we have discussed the nature of seven Tattvas along with the nature of Samyagdarsana. After dwelling upon the nature of jiva and Ajiva Tattvas, we have, in the first place, explained the nature of 'Yoga' (vibratory activity of soul) and its effect in the mundane and embodied supermundane souls. Secondly, the nature of passions with their multitudinous forms of existence and operations has been made out. Thirdly, we have unfolded some causes of the auspicious and the inauspicious Samparayika Asrava, and have concluded the topic of Asrava and Bandha after dwelling upon the views of Kundakunda regarding them. Fourthly, the nature of Samvara, Nirjara and Moksa has been briefly dealt with, inasmuch as they are exemplified in the ethical development of the soul to be explained in this and the following chapters. Fifthly, we have discussed the nature of Samyagdarsana form the Vyavahara and Niscaya points of view, and have emphasizedits importance for the authenticity of knowledge and conduct. In other words, we have seen how any discipline contributing to the highest spiritual welfare, which is the crowing phase of life, presupposes spiritual conversion, which is itself an evidence for regarding Jaina ethics as spiritual. Thus, in the absence of Samyadarsana all intellectual knowledge and ethical conduct will deprive the as paint of superb attainments, of which he is potentially capable.
          RIGHT CONDUCT AS AN INTERNAL NECESSITY OF THE SPIRITUALLY CONVERTED : We now proceed to deal with the nature of right conduct, which transforms the potential excellence of the self into actuality. With the light or right knowledge, which enables the aspirant to look into his infirmities, the pursuit of right conduct sweeps away the elements, which thwart the manifestation of uninterrupted happiness and infinite knowledge. Right knowledge illumines the path, and right knowledge emancipation presupposes right conduct as well. Really speaking, right conduct emanates from the internal necessity, which the right believer has developed in him. Thereby, he then expunges the disharmony existent between his present and future conditions, and between his potential conviction and actual living. Thus, the right believer is ardently desirous of manifesting the natural modification of the soul by pursuing the right course of discipline.
          VITARAGA CARITRA AND SARAGA CARITA ; INAUSPICIOUS ACTIVITIES ARE IN NO WAY THE PART OF CONDUCT : So important is the pursuit of right conduct for releasing the transcendental nature of self that Kundakunda calls it Dharma. Such conduct as will conduce to the emergence of a state of self which is devoid of infatuation (moha) and perturbation (ksobha) by virtue of the subversion of all kinds of passions in their most comprehensive extent is called Vitaraga Caritra. This should be distinguished from Sara Caritra, which results in auspicious activities by virtue of auspicious psychical sates, and this amounts to a fall from the pinnacle of truth and normality. In consequence, as the former results in liberation, it is to be pursued ; and as the interest of arriving at the summit of spiritual perfection. In spite of this bondage the virtuous deeds may, in some measure, be considered to be the part of conduct,

1 Prava. 1. 7.      2 Prava. II. 6 and Comm. Amrta.

 but the inauspicious activities emanating from inauspicious psychical states can in no way be the part of conduct, hence they are to be completely relinquished. Thus, in order to stamp out the inauspicious psychical states from the texture of self, the aspirant must abstain himself root and branch from violence, falsehood. Theft, unchastely and acquisition. The engrossment of the most intense passions, which can be wiped off by negating to perform the vicious deeds. This affirmation does not imply the nullification of the previously mentioned inauspicious activities, which result in inauspicious Asrava, but it simply signifies the grouping of them under different heads. This negative process of purifying the self by weeding out these villainous actions of necessity requires the pursuance of the positive process of non-violence, truthfulness, non-thieving, chastity and non-acquisition. Both of these processes keep pace together. 

          DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE SPIRITUALLY CONVERTED AND PERVERTED SOULS REGARDING THE PERFOMANCE OF MORAL AND EVOL ACTIONS: We cannot forbear mentioning in passing that even a right believer may be occupied with the aforementioned evil deeds ; the recognition of which would at the first sight tend to annul the distinction between the wise and the ignorant, or between the spiritually converted and perverted souls. But this assumption is based on a certain misapprehension. Notwithstanding their extrinsic similitude they evince intrinsic disparity; i.e., the wise under some latent constraint unwillingly perpetrate such evil actions, and the ignorant rejoicingly commit them. From this it is obvious that right belief is not incompatible with the most intense forms of inauspicious activities. It will not be inconsistent if it is laid down that both the wise and the wise and the ignorant are capable of extirpating inauspicious psychical states. But the difference is that while in the former case there is spiritual morality, in the latter, there is only dry morality, which is possible without spirituality. Dry morality is socially useful, but spiritually barren ; while spiritual morality is fruitful both socially and spiritually. Being subtle and far reaching, the limited comprehension. We may simply say that, for the spiritually converted, morality is a means ; while for the perverted it is an end in itself. It is to be borne in mind that morality, of whatever type, can in no case be useless ; hence it deserves our respect wherever it is witnessed.

          NECESSITY OF PARTIAL CONDUCT : To revert to our point. It is astonishing that in spite of not being the part of conduct in any way, the aforementioned vicious deeds refuse to be completely relinquished at the start on account of their being ingrained in the mind of man. Hence, there arises the concept if limited morality technically called Vikala Caritra (partial conduct) in contrast to absolute morality known as Sakala Caritra (complete conduct) wherein these vicious deeds are completely renounced. He who observes the former, being not able to renounce the vices to the full, claims the title of a 'layman'; while he who observes the latter, being able to hold the spirit of renunciation to the brim, is called a 'Muni'. We shall now confine ourselves to the former, deferring the consideration of the latter to the subsequent chapter. 

          NECESSITY OF PARTIAL CONDUCT : To revert to our point. It is astonishing that in spite of not being the part of conduct in any way, the aforementioned vicious deeds refuse to be completely relinquished at the start on account of their being ingrained in the mind of man. Hence, there arises the concept of limited morality technically called Vikala Caritra (partial conduct) in contrast to absolutemolarity known as Sakala Caritra ( complete conduct) wherein these vicious deeds are completely renounced. He who observes the former, being not able to renounces the vices to the full, claims the title of a 'layman' ; while he who observes the latter, being able to hold the spirit of renunciation to the brim, is called a 'Muni'. We shall now confine ourselves to the former, deferring the consideration of the latter to the subsequent chapter.

          PRIVILEGED POSITON OF MAN : The ethics of the Jaina answer to his metaphysical findings, which point to an infinite number of independent souls and an infinite number of material particles together with the other principles already discussed. Of the infinite number of conscious principles varying from the one-sensed to the five-sensed, man alone is recognised as the terminus of evolution. In other words, only man is capable of unfolding his potential attributes perfectly. To express it differently, though every soul is potentially divine, yet the attainment of freedom is rendered possible only when the soul achieves a human form ; hence the importance of human birth.

          PHILOSOPHY OF RENUCIATION : Animate and inanimate objects are not on themselves auspicious and inauspicious. They are called auspicious and inauspicious, when they are considered in relation to the mundane souls. They very often wield influence over, and react upon, the mundane souls to the extent of engendering either mild passions or intense passions in the structure of self. In other words, the mild or intense passions, which arise owing to the karmic accompaniment, gratify their subtle persuasion in hankering after particular types of objects. Intense passions are vice, and mild passion is virtue, To illustrate, Bhakti is a mild passion, but lustful thought and voluptuousness is an intense passion. Because of this parallelism between the outward objects and the inward psychical states, the inward psychical states, the renunciation of extraneous objects assists in destroying corresponding intense passions. If the

1 Ratna. Srava. 50.          2 Kartti. 90. 

giving up of certain external things does not, for some reason or another, result in the destruction of the internal intense passions and in the development of Bhakti, study and meditation, the discipline so observed would amount to futility. Hence, the giving up of intense passions is of great significance, although, in common parlance, Vairagya is understood to convey the withdrawal from the external world of wife, children etc., yet the underlying hidden meaning consists in removing the filth of intense passions, which will necessarily lead to the turning of selves from them.

          Intense passions manifest themselves in violence, falsehood, theft, unchastity and acquisition, which have been represented to be vices. As we have said, the elimination of these vices requires the cultivation of virtues of non-violence, truthfulness, non-thieving, chastity and non-acquisition. Of these virtues, non-violence is the fundamental. All the rest should be regarded as the means for its proper sustenance, just as the field of corn requires adequate fencing for its protection. The householder can partially acquire these virtues which are than called partial non-violence (ahimsanuvrata), partial truthfulness (satyanuvrata), Partial non- thieving ( acauryanuvratai), partial chastity (bramahacaryanuvrata) and partial non-acquisition (parigraha- parimananuvrata). We shall now dwell upon the aforementioned vices one by one, and shall derive from them the scope of partial vows of the householder .

          COMPREHENSIVE MEANING OF HIMSA : We begin with Himsa. Speaking from the transcendental point of view, we may say that even the slightest fall from complete self-realization is to be regarded as Himsa. In other words, Himsa commences with the appearance of passions, whether mild or intense , on the surface of self. Considered from this perspective, the concept of Himsa includes both virtue and vice. But here we are concerned with the meaning of Himsa as vice or intense passion only. From this point of view, therefore, falsehood, theft, unchastely and acquisition are the illustrations of Himsa. Thus Himsa summarises all these vices. In its popular meaning, which shall be dealt with presently, Himsa distinguishes itself from falsehood, theft, uncastity and acquisition. In the former, the Dravya-pranas and the Bhava-pranas are directly injured ; whereas in the latter cases, the Pranas are indirectly afflicted.

1 Sarvartha. VII. 1.       2 Puru. 44.           

          POPULAR MEANING OF HIMSA: The term Himsa may be defined as the committing of injury to the Dravya-Pranas and the Bhava-pranas through the operation of intense-passion-infected Yoga (activity of mind, body, and speech).  Suicide, homicide and killing of any other life whatsoever aptly sum up the nature of Himsa, inasmuch as these villainous actions are rendered conceivable only when the Dravya-Pranas and the Bhava-pranas pertaining to oneself and to others are injured.  The minimum number of Dravya-Pranas has been considered to be four, and the maximum has been known to be ten; and the Bhava-pranas are the very attributes of Jiva.  The amount of injury will thus be commensurate with the member of Pranas injured at a Pranas injured at a particular time and occasion.  If the bodily movements etc,. are performed with circumspection, nevertheless if any living being is oppressed, it cannot be called Himsa, for the infection element of intense passion is missing.  On the contrary, even if, by careless bodily movements no animate body is oppressed, the actions are not free from Himsa.  Here though the soul has not injured others, yet it has injured itself by defiling its own natural constitution.  We may thus say that both the indulgence in Himsa and the negation of abstinence from Himsa constitute Himsa.  In other words, he who has not abandoned Himsa, though he is not factually indulging in it, commits himsa on account of having the subconscious frame of mind for its perpetration.  Again, he who employs his mind, body and speech in injuring others also commits Himsa on account of actually indulging in it.  Thus, wherever there is inadvertence of mind, body or speech, Himsa  is inevitable. 

          PURITY OF EXTERNAL BEHAVIOU TOO IS NECESSARY :  It will be the height of folly and impertinence if any man conceitedly argues that it is no use renouncing the performance of certain actions, but that the internal mind alone ought to be uncontaminated.  But it is to be borne in mind that in lower stages, which exceedingly fall short of self realisation, the external performance of a man ahs no meaning without his being internally disposed to do so.  Hence the external and the internal influence each other; and in most cases the internal precedes the external.  Thus, in no case, the outward commission of Himsa, without the presence of internal corruption can be vindicated.  He who exclusively emphasizes the internal at the expense of the external forgets.

1. Puru.43; Tasu. VII.13.                  2. Puru.45.           3. Puru.46,47.4Ibid.48. 5Puru.48. 

the significance of outward behavior.  He loses sight of the fact that the impiousness of external actions necessarily leads to the pollution of the internal mind, thus disfigure in both the aspects, namely, the internal and external.  In consequence, both the Niscaya and Vyavahara Nayas, i.e. both the internal and external aspects should occupy their due places. 

          JUDGEMENT OF THE ACTS OF HIMSA AND AHIMSA:  We may point out here that the Jaina philosophers do not blink the possibility of the disparity between the exterior behavior and the interior state of mind; and consequently they do not get perplexed in judging the acts of Himsa and Ahimsa, i. e., which act will bear the fruit of Himsa, and which act will be judged as Ahimsa?  Aneminet Jaina author Amrtacandra, in his celebrated book, Purusarthasiddhyupaya, dwells with great clarity upon the above facts.  First, he preaches that he who does not explicitly commit Himsa may also reap the fruits of Himsa because of his continual mental inclination towards indulging in Himsa; and he who apparently employs himself in the acts of Himsa may not be liable to fruits of Himsa.  Secondly, owing to one's intense passion one may be subjected to grave consequences even by committing trifling Himsa, while, owing to mild passion, the other escapes the sad and serious consequences in spite of preparation gross acts of Himsa.  Thirdly, it is amazing that, in spite of the two persons following the same course of Himsa, divergence at the time of fruition may be exhibited on account of the differences in their states of mind and intensity of passions.  Fourthly, though Himsa may be committed by one, yet consequences may be suffered by many.  Similarly, though it may be committed by many, the consequences may be suffered by one.  From all these we may conclude that the point of reference in judging the acts of Himsa and Ahimsa is the internal state of mind. 

          KINDS OF HIMSA : Having explained the philosophy of Himsa, we now proceed to Enquirer into the kinds of Himsa.  It is of two kinds, namely, intentional and non-intentional.  The letter has been again subdivided into Udyami, Aramhi, and  Virodhl.  The intentional perpetrator of Himsa engages himself in the commitment of the acts of Himsa by his own mind, speech and action; provokes others to

1.puru.50    2. Puru.51  3.Ibid.52.    4.Ibid.53.    5.Puru.55. 6. Jainadarsanasara, p. 63.     7. Ibid.p.63. 

commit them; and endorses such acts of others.  Besides, himsa which is unavoidably committed 1) by reason of one's own profession, 2) by the performance of domestic activities, and  3) by defending oneself, one's neighbor, one's belongings and the like from one's foes is denominated:  1) Udyami, 2) Arambhi and 3) Virodhi respectively. 

          AHIMSANUVRATA : Now the householder, being snared in the meshes of infirmities, is incapable of turning away completely from Himsa; hence of the two-sensed to five sensed beings.The commitment of Himsa  in being engaged in a certain profession, in performing domestic activities and in adopting defensive contrivances. Cannot be counteracted by him. Thus he commits intentional injury to one-sensed J1vas, namely, the vegetable-bodied, the air-bodied, the fore-bodied etc.; and non-intentional injury in performing Arambha (domestic activities), Udyoga (profession) and Virodha  (defense). He can therefore observe the gross form of Ahimsa, which is known as Ahimsanurata. Even in the  realm of one-sensed Jivas and in the realm of non-intentional injury he should so manage to confine his operations as may affect the life and existence of  a very limited number of J1vas.2    In these two provinces the point to note is that of alleviating the amount of injury that is apt to be caused and not is that of total relinquishment which is not possible without jeopardizing the survival of man. Nevertheless, Himsa, even in the realm of one-sensed J1vas and in the realm of non-intentional injury, is unjustifiable. If we reflect a little, we shall find that man is subject to Himsa by the very condition of his existence. Yet intrespsravsating the matura; weight of Himsa by falling foul upon one another and by our cruel treatment with the annual and vegetable kingdoms, we should endeavor to alleviate this general curse, to the extent which we are capable of doing, by conforming ourselves to the sacred injunctions enjoined by Jaina spiritual teachers.

1 Puru. 75.;  Caritra Pahuda. 24;

Ratna. Srava. 53; Kartti. 332;

Saga. Dharma. IV. 7,;

Amita. Srava. VI. 4. 

2 Puru. 77; Vasu. Srava. 209. Yo . Sa. II.21. 

          For the observance of Ahimsanuvrata, the householder should avoid the use of 1) wine, 2) meat, 3) honey and five kinds of fruits known as Umbra, Katsumura, Pakara, Bada, and Papilla. 1) Drinking, first, breeds certain unhealthy and base passion like pride, anger sex passion and the like which are nothing but the different aspects of Himsa.2 secondly, it stupefies the intellect, which sinks virtue and piety, and results in the commitment of the mean and morally depraved deeds of Himsa.3 Thirdly, being the repository of abundant lives, wine necessarily entails injury to them. 2) As regards meat-eating, first, the procurement of flesh is inconceivable in the absence of the infliction of injury on the sentient beings, and even though it is obtained as a consequence of the natural death of living beings, Himsa is inevitable owing to the crushing of creatures spontaneously born therein, Secondly, the pieces of flesh which are raw, or cooked, or are in the process of being cooked, are found unceasingly to generate creatures in them, so that he who indulges in meat-eating is incapable of avoiding hurt to them. A plausible argument is sometimes adduced in support of meat-eating: beans and pulses too are to equated with flesh as these are endowed with life like the bodies of camels, sheep and animals. However shrewd the argument may be, it contains the fallacy of undistributed middle. Somadeva observe, 'no doubt flesh may constitute the body of an animate object, but the body of any animate object is not necessarily composed of flesh, just as the Neem is a tree, but any tree is to Neem. In a similar vein, Asahara cogently points out that though flesh and vegetables indubiously possess lives, the latter are proper to be used as food to the exclusion of the former, inasmuch as though both mother and wife possess womanhood, wife alone is justified in gratifying our sex-passion, and not the mother. 3) The use of honey is objected to on the ground that it is procured by injuring the lives of bees and of the young eggs in the womb of bees : and even if it is gathered when the honey naturally drops down, it causes destruction to the live spontaneously born therein. The

          1 Puru. 61, 72.; Saga. Dharma. II. 2.; Amita. Srava. V. 1.;  Puru. 64.

          3 Puru. 62; Vasu. Srava. 70, 77,; Amita. Srava. V.2.

          4 Puru. 63; Amita. Srava. V. 6; Saga. Dharma. II. 4, 5; Yas and Ie. p. 262.

          5 Puru. 65, 66; Amita. Srava V. 14; Saga. Dharma. II. 78.   6 Puru. 67, 68.

          7 Yas and Ic. p. 263.      8 Saga. Dharma. II. 10.     9 Puru. 69, 70. 

five kinds of fruits known as Umara, Kathumara, Pakara, Bada and Pipala are the breeding grounds of various living organisms, and their use for deistic and other purposes is also forbidden owing to the injury caused to them. Again their use after they get dry on account of the passage of time causes himsa, because it is due to our excessive attachment to such odious things.

          Again, the following points should be noted for the observance of Ahimsanuvrata. First, one should not sacrifice animals for the adoration of gods, being dominated by the perverted notion of receiving benediction in return. It is inconceivable how the gods seek satisfaction and serenity from such inhuman deeds which cause unbearable pain to the animals. Secondly, it must to be obligatory to kill the animals for the entertainment of guests, a pious design by impious means. Thirdly, to harbor the nation that the vegetable food necessitates the killing of innumerable lives abiding in it as compared with the slaughter of one living being may be fascinating at the inception, but it is imprudent in view of the facts that the body of an animal possesses countless microscopic lives which will be inevitably injured in its killing; and that the five-sensed Jiva would entail more inauspicious Asrava, i.e., vice owing to the occupation and consequential loss of more Dravya and Bhava Pranas than those of one-sensed Jivas belonging to the vegetable kingdom. Fourthly, (snakes, scorpions, lions and the like should not be killed on the ground that by so doing large number of lives will be saved, and that they (snakes, scorpions etc.) will get the opportunity of avoiding the accumulation of more sin by their continued violence. Fifthly, under the weight of misconception that those who are in distress and calamity on being killed will soon obtain relief from anguish and agony, the living beings should never be obtain relief from anguish and agony, the living beings should never be killed. Lastly, moved by the pangs of other beings should not provide one with the flesh of one's own body to appease one's appetite.          

          STAGES OF DEFILEMENT OF A VOW AND THE TRANSGRESSIONS OF THE HOUSEHOLDER'S VOW OF AHIMSA : We have dwelt upon the nature of Ahimsanuvrata, which is obligatory for every householder to pursue. The vow should be followed with proper understanding and comprehen-

1 Puru. 72. 2 Puru. 73. 3 Puru. 79, 80.     4 Ibid. 81.   5 Ibid. 82, 83.

6 Puru. 84. 7 Ibid.  85.  8 Ibid. 89. 

sion. Sometimes it so happens that on account of the short understanding or on account of the irresistible force of passion, the purity and enthusiasm diminish and the result is the defilement of a vow. This must at once be avoided in order to maintain its sanctity. When such corruption rises in the mind, it is called atikrama; when further development occurs towards its defilement, say, collection of means to overthrow it, vyatikramai is the name given to it; when we have indulged in it, it is said to be aticara; and lastly, when excessive indulgence in it, it is said to be aticara; and lastly, when excessive indulgences is witnessed, anacara results.  These four are the stages of defilement of a vow.  To illustrate, to simply think to enter another man's field is Aticara; and to move, sit and lie down in the field is Anacara.  Accordion to Amrtacandra that which hampers the purity of the vow is called Aticara.  Every vow should be observed with great purity, care and zeal, since only such vows can bear desired fruits, and serve as a means to the moral and the spiritual up liftment.  In spite of every care the mind may, under the influence of society, ill-health, fear and passion, deviate from the prescribed path.  Hence, defects origination in the observance of vows may be of many types, but the Jaina Acaryas have mentioned only five for each vow, so that we may direct our mind towards them and shun them.  Now the five transgressions of the householder's vow of Ahimsa are:  1) Tying up living beings, 2) Mutilating them, 3) beating them, 4) overloading them, and 5) withholding their food and drink. 

          NATURE OF ASATYS (FALSEHOOD): We now turn to the exposition of the nature of falsehood and Satyanuvrata.  To begin with falsehood, it concerns itself with the expression of intense passion through the outlet of speech, which expresses itself in language and gestures.  Dispassionate speech is synonymous with the mystical realization which is the height of truth man is capable of achieving.  Intense-passion-infected speech is complete falsehood.  Mild-passion-infected speech, is, to coin a new word, semi-truth, i.e., truth descended in the mundane and embellished form, for example, to speak noble, beneficial and benevolent words; this certainly amounts to the gliding and lapse from the superb

          1 Bhavanaviveka, 192, 193.              2. Puru. 181

          3 Puru. 183,; Ratna. Srava., 54 Ta. su. VII. 25. Uvasagadasao, 1.45,; Saga. Dharma. IV. 15, Amita. Srava. VII. 3. 

heights of mystical truth.  The perfect souls of Tirthamkaras who preach for the upliftment of human and other beings should not be regarded as being moved by the mild passions of compassion and benevolence, inasmuch as they speak for the god of all without any selfish desire and without constraint of mild-passion.  It follows from what has been described that falsehood, bin the expression of intense passions, is a double fall from the loftiest heights of truth.  It defiles both the internal soul and the external demeanor, the social living and the spiritual upliftment, hence it should be forsaken in the interest of advancement.  

          We now define falsehood.  It implies the making of wrong statement by one who is overwhelmed by intense passions, such as anger, greed, conceit, deceit and the like.  We may point out here that it does not mean merely the pronouncement of the existent as non-existent, nor can it be said to embrace merely the proclamation of the non-existent as existent, but it involves also the misrepresentation of the true nature of the existents and the use of speech which arouses intense-passion and causes pain to others.  Accordingly, truth must not mean merely the announcement of the existent as existent, but it must mean also the use of words which are soothing, gentle and ennobling.  It should be borne in mind that, even if by our most vigilant and gentle speaking, others are somehow perversely and painfully affected, we shall not be considered as transgression and setting at naught the vow of truth.  Ontologically speaking, no word is pleasant or unpleasant in isolation and in itself.  It is the spirit that counts.  A word, being the modification f Pudgala, has infinite characteristics.  Therefore it possesses the potency of affection others in infinite ways, all of which are incapable of being known by imperfect human beings.  In calling a word pleasant or unpleasant, the circumstances, the place and time, the character of the man, the mental and physical effects on himself and others that surround him should all be counted.  Thus, according to Amrtacandra, the first kind of falsehood refers to the affirmation of the existent as non-existent; the second refers to the declaration of the non-existent as existent; the third refers to the representation of the existing nature of things as different from what they really are; and the fourth is indicative of the speech which is 1) condemnable (garhita),

1 Puru. 91. 2 Puru. 92. 3 Ibid. 93. 4 Ibid. 94. 

2) sinful (savadya), and 3) disagreeable (apriya). To explain the fourth form of falsehood, 1) back-biting, ridiculous speech, harsh language and violent words are comprised under condemnable speech. Besides, useless gossiping, language inciting unfounded beliefs, and superstitions should also be grouped under it. 2) Sinful speech comprises the use of language for defense, for running the household and for professional purposes. 3) Disagreeable words are those which arouse uneasiness, engender fear, excite repugnance, inflame dollar, and intoxicate brawl.

          SATYANUVRATA : Of these forms of falsehood, it is beyond the power of the householder to shun totally the use of words concerning his household affairs, the affairs relating to his profession and safety; and these necessarily entail Himsa. The avoidance of sinful (savadya) speech is not possible without imperiling his life, and that of his dependents, just as it is not possible for him to abandon the Himsa of one- sensed Jivas. Thus the householder should abandon all other forms of falsehood except sinful speech. This is the gross form of the vow of truth or Satyanuvrata. It should be noted that Samantabhadra allows not telling the truth, if it endangers the life of any one in Satyanuvrata. The truthful man should denounce exaggeration, fault-finding and indecent speech; and speak words that are noble, beneficial and balanced. He should be grave, equanimous, noble- characterized  personality, philanthropist, kind and sweet-tongued. He should not extol himself, and calumniate others. Nor should he hide the merits of others that are existent, and describe those of himself that are non- existent. In order to maintain the purity of the vow, one should steer clear of the following Aticaras, which are; 1) false preaching. 2) divulging the secrets of a couple, 3) forgery, 4) not to return the deposited articles of a man in full, if he has forgotten the actual number, and 5) disclosing one's secret purposes. 

          Nature of STEYA ( STEALING) : We now proceed to deal with the nature of stealing (steya) and Acauryanurata. Stealing means the

1 Puru. 95.  2 Ibid. 96.   3 Puru. 96.   4 Ibid. 97.   5 Ibid. 98.

6 Ibid.  101.    7 Ratna. Srava. 55 ; Vasu. Srava. 210.

8 Kartti. 334,; Yas. and Ic. p. 266.   9 Yas. and Ic. p. 266.

10 Yas. and Ic. p. 266.       11 Puru. 184; Tasu. VII-26., Uvasagdasao I. 46., Saga.  Dharma. IV. 45;. The Aticaras of this vow show wide divergence. We have followed the Tattvarthasutra and its commentary, the Saravarthasiddhi.     

taking of things without their being given by the owner. This necessarily implies the presence of internal intense passions in one's own mind. In this world, transient the external Pranas, of a man, and he who thieves or plunders them is said to commit theft, inasmuch as this is tantamount to depriving a man of his Pranas. This, then, is not other than Himsa. 

          ASTEYANUVRATA OR ACACURYANUVRATA : Not to take anything without the permission of others is a discipline par-excellence; but it lies beyond the power of the house- holder ; so he is required to use such things freely as are of common use without their being given, such as well-water, sand and the like. This is Acauryanuvrata or gross from of the vow of non-stealing. According to Samantabhadra the observer of the householder's vow of non-stealing neither takes himself those things which are unfired, placed, dropped, and forgotten by others nor gives them to anyone else. Karttikeya includes even the purchasing of costly things at reduced prices under stealing, which is probably due to the fact that one may sell a thing after getting it by improper methods. Somadeva holds that the underground property belongs to the king or the  state; so also the property of unknown ownership. To take  the possession of property at the death of one's own kinsman is justified, but, when he is alive, his sanction is required to sustain the householder's vow of non-stealing. The householder who gives himself to this vow must abstain himself from the following Aticaras.
adulteration, 2) abatement of theft, 3) receiving stolen property, 4) violating sates rules, and 5) the use of false weights and measures. 

NATURE OF ABRAHMA (UNCHASTITY) : We now pass on to dwell upon the nature of unchastely and Brahmacaryanuvrata. The copulation arising from sexual passion is Abraham. This is Himsa in two ways. In the first place, many living beings are deprived of their vitalities in the vagina in the sexual act, just as a hot rod of iron, when it is introduced in a tube filled with sesames seeds, burns them up. Secondly, psychical life is affected because of the emergence of sexual

1 Puru. 102.                   2 Ibid.         3 Puru. 103.                   4 Puru. 104.       5 Puru. 106.   

6 Yo. Sa., II. 66; Ratna. Srava. 57; Vasu. Srava. 211 ; Amita. Srava. VI. 59.

7 Kartti. 335. 8 Yas. and Ic . p. 265; Saga. Dharma. IV. 48.

9 Yas. and Ic. p. 265.     10 Puru. 185, Ratna. Srava. 58; Tasu. VII. 27.; Saga.

   Dharma. IV. 50.; Amita Srava. VII. 5.; Uvasagadasao. I. 47; Carittrasara. P.


11 Puru. 107.   12 Ibid. 108. 

Passion and so also the material Pranas are affected owing to the lethargic condition consequent upon coition.1

          BRAHMACARYANUVRATA:  The householder cannot relinquish copulation as such.  Hence he should abstain himself from the sexual and lustful contacts with all other woman except his nuptial partner.  This is Brahmacaryanuvrata or gross form of the vow of chastity.  According to Vasunandi, the householder following this vow should not succumb to the unnatural ways of sexual satisfaction like masturbation, sodomy and the like and should not copulate even with his own wife on the pious days (Asthma and Caturdasi) of each fortnight.  Samantabhadra defines Brahmacaryanuvrata as renouncing lustful contacts with another man's wife, and as seeking contentment in one's own wife.  Such an observer of vow neither enjoys another man's wife, nor instigates another person to do so.  Somadeva enunciates the vow of gross chastity as chastity all women or concubines as one's mother, sister or daughter with the exception of one's own wife.  " Wine. Meat, gambling, music with song and dance, personal decoration, intoxication, libertines and aimless wanderings -  these ten are the concomitants of sexual passion."  Besides, "One should be careful not to excite oneself by erotic acts, aphrodisiac potions and erotic literature.  The breaches of the vow of gross chastity are: 1) taking interest in match- making, 2) sexual association with married woman, 3) sexual association with unmarried woman, 4) unnatural methods of sexual enjoyment, and 5) inordinate sexual desire.

          NATURE OF PARIGRAHA ( ACQUISITION):  We now proceed to dwell upon the nature of acquisition and parigraha- parimananuvrata.  The most comprehensive characteristic of parigraha is attachment, which follow as the modification and operation of Mohakarma. The  definition of Parigraha as attachment is scientific, since it embodies the entire connotation signified by the term. It believes, in the first place, that those who have the least vestige of a feeling of attachment, notwithstanding the external renunciation of all worldly acquisitions,

1.       Puru. 109.  2. Ibid. 110.                   3. Vasu.Srava.212.                                                     TOP

4.  Ratna. Srava. 59.      5. Ibid. 59.  6. Yas. And Ic.p.267;

Amita. Srava. VI. 64, 65. 7. Yas. and Ic.p.267.     8. Yas. and Ic.p. 267.

9. puru. 186; Dharma Bi. 159; Tasu. VII. 28; Uvasagadasao. I. 48;

Srava. Prajna. 273; amita. Srava. VII.6. We have followed Pujyapada's meaning of the Aticaras.  10. Puru. 111. 

are far from non- acquisition.  Secondly, it expresses that the possession of external things is not possible without internal attachment.  Thus both the internal attachment and the possession of external things come within the sweep of Parigraha.  We may now say that if one is disposed to remove the internal attachment, one should correspondingly throw aside external possession also.  In the presence of external possession, if non- attachment is claimed, it will be self- deception possession cannot be perforce with us.  It may happen that, despite insignificant external possession, one may have conspicuous internal inclination for possession, just as a poor man may have.  But this must not brush aside the difference in internal attachment corresponding to the kind of external possession.  In other words, there occurs internal variation in attachment by virtue of the longing one possesses for the kind of external objects.  For example, attachment is feeble in a young deer which continues to live on green blades of grass in comparison to a cat which kills a host of mice for procuring its food.  Thus, the external and the internal influence each other. 

          KINDS OF PARIGRAHA: Parigraha is of two kinds: the external, and the internal.  The former again admits of two kinds: the living and the non- living; and the latter is recognised to be of fourteen kinds, namely, perverted belief, laughter, indulgence, ennui, sorrow, fear, disgust, anger, pride, deceit, greed and desire for sexual enjoyment with man, with woman and with both. 

           PARIGRAHA and HIMSA: Parigraha as such can never preclude Himsa; and those who wish to practice Ahimsa should avoid the internal and the external attachment.  So Ahimsa will be commensurate with the degree of avoidance.  Perfect non- attachment, and consequently perfect Ahimsa is rendered possible only in the life of Arahantas, and, below this, only degrees of Aparigraha are possible. 

          PARIGRAHA- PARIMANANUVRATA: The householder is incapable of renouncing all Parigraha.  Hence he should shun perverted belief and Anantanubandhi and Apratyakhyanavarna kinds of passion; and  should accordingly limit the Parigraha of wealth, cattle, corn, servants, buildings, etc.  inasmuch as the spirit of renunciation is the right

1. Puru. 112                   2. Puru.113.                   3. Puru. 121.        4. Puru.115 to 117.        5. We have already dealt with these kinds of passion in the previous chapter.  

Principal.  This is Parigraha- parimananuvrata or the gross form of the vow of Aparigraha.  We may say in passing that the householder's  vow of Aparigraha would tend to annul the economic inequality rampant in society and thereby everybody will be able to get things of daily necessities at least.  To- day, men nations are striving for the enhancement of their wealth and territory at the cost of others with the consequence  that the individual and national tensions are increasing. Parigraha is detrimental, when it engenders inordinate clinging. An attitude of a philanthropist is essential to the observance of the vow of Parigraha- Parimananuvrata.  In  order to sustain the purity of the vow the violations of the limits regarding 1) house and land, 2) gold and silver, 3) cattle and corn, 4) male and female servants, and 5) clothes and utensils, should be avoided.  Samantabhadra has spoken of the other breaches of the vow, namely. 1)the keeping of a larger number of vehicles than required, 2) accumulating  necessary articles in large number, and 5) the over- loading of animals. 

          Householder's LIFE AS MIXTURE OF VIRTUE AND VICE: We have so far dealt with the nature of the five Anuvratas.   Violence, falsehood, stealing, unchastely, and acquisition are the different vices.  They amount to a fall from the heights of mystical experience.  The middle way is to lead the life of virtue. It is to be borne in mind that the three types of non- intentional Himsa, the Himsa of one- sensed Jivas, the use of Savadya or sinful language, the act of sexual intercourse with one's own wife, the use of common things without permission, and the keeping of limited Parigraha-  all these are householder's vices, which may be socially justifiable, but cannot be justified spiritually.  In other words, looked at with the social eye, they are not regarded as vices, but the eye of spirituality considers them to be so.  Thus, in the life of the householder pure virtue in the sense of mid passion is an impossibility; his life is always a mixture of virtue and vice.  The condition of that householder who does not strictly follow the partial vows is pitiable.  Virtue, in his life,

puru. 124 to 128; Ratna. Srava.61; Vasu. Srava. 213  Amita Srava. VI. 73;

Kartti. 340; Saga. Dharma. IV. 61.

puru. 187; Ta. Su. VII. 29; Uvasagadasao.I-49; Saga. Dharma. IV.64; Amita. Srava. VII. 7.

Ratna. Srava. 62. 

will be a mere accident, and sometimes a social compulsion.  This, then, will be a pseudo- virtue as distinguished from genuine virtue springing from the inner consciousness of sin.  It is only in the latter case that the vows are trustful and conducive to the moral, social and spiritual ennoblement. 

          REELECTION ON AND THE REPETION OF CERTAIN IDEAS FOR THE PROPER OBSERVANCE OF THE VOWS: Now, in order that the vows may be fixed in mind and pursued with great zeal, the author of the Tattvarthasutra has advised us to reflect on the following ideas and to repeat them in mind very often.  First, one should ponder over the troubles that may be faced in one's own life in this world, and over the afflictions that may fall to one's lot in the life hereafter, as a result of indulging in the five types of sins.  To illustrate, it should be thought that any one never believes an untruthful man.  Confinement and disrespect and other inconceivable mental and physical pains are the punishments he has to bear in this life.  Besides, he will have to take birth at odious places and in disgraceful forms as a result of falsehood.  Similarly for other sins.  Secondly, one is required to think that by cultivating the four noble habits, namely, universal friendship with the living beings in general, appreciation for those who are virtuous, active compassion for the distressed, and indifference towards the arrogant and the incorrigible, one is facilitated in the observance of the vows.  Thirdly, one should think over the transitoriness of the worldly objects and  sensual pleasures, and over the impermanence, the unsubstantantiality, and the foulness of the body. 

          CONCEPT OF MULAGUNAS: The five vows together with the total abandonment of wine, meat and honey have been called Mulagunas (Primary moral characters) by the ethics- logical philosopher, Samantabhadra.  The conception of Mulagunas has been for the first time proclaimed by this eminent saint- philosopher.  The content and the number of the Mulagunas are dynamic, which is evidenced but the fact that the later Acaryas have modified them in accordance with the time, place and the nature of disciples. In this ever transforming world, new conditions emerge, and consequently new sedatives become indispensable.  There can be no sovereign remedy for all times and persons of different age.  The Mulagunas which are the steeping stones to higher progress

1. Ta. Su.VII.9.     2. Ta.Su.VII.11.    3.Ta.Su.VII.12.     4.Ratna. Srava.66. 

are, therefore, to be changed in the light of the conduct and character of persons.  Thus the forms may change but not be criterion, i.e., not the fundamental principle of Ahimsa in its comprehensive sense.  After Samantabhadra Jinasena substitutes gambling for honey and does not disturb the other Mulagunas.  A  tremendous change which has been effected in the content is due to Somadeva.  He substituted five Udambara fruits for five Anuvratas, and keeps the remaining three, namely, to abstain oneself from wine, meat and honey, as Samantabhadra has done.  Amitagati increases the number of Mulagunas by appending the avoidance of eating at night to the  renunciation of wine, meat, honey and five Udambara fruits.  Though this eminent Acarya has mentioned neither the name, ' Mulaguna,' nor their number, a little reflection would suffice to witness both.  In the end of the chapter he has mentioned that at the start these puru Gunas should be practiced; and regarding number, if five Udambara fruits are considered as one we have five Mulagunas, and if as five, we have nine Mulagunas.  The mentioning of the fact by Amratacandra that even the worthiness of Jaina discipline is acquired by virtue of outright relinquishing the eight kinds of things, namely, meat, wine, honey and five Udamabara fruits, is suggestive of eight Mulagunas.  It is apparent from Vasunadi's view  of the first stage of householder's conduct that he is regarding the abandonment of meat, wine, honey, five Udamber fruits, gambling, hunting, prostitution, adultery, and stealing as the Mulagunas.  Asadhara mentioned  the view of other Acarya who has prescribed somewhat different Mulagunas, namely, the abandonment of meat, wine, honey, five Udambara fruits and night, as also the devotion to the adorable five (Arahanta, Siddha, Acarya, Upadhyaya and Sadhu), the use of water strained though a cloth, and the compassionate attitude  towards the sentient beings.

1.Vasu. Srava. Intro.p.35                  2.Yas. and Ic.p.262.       3. Amita    Srava.v.1.      4. Amita Srava. V.73.         5. Puru.74. 6.Vasu.Srava.57 to 59.

7. Saga. Dharma.II.18.  8. Kinds of food- (Amita. Srava.VI.96, 97):

Asana:- "All that is swallowed: grains, and pulses of all kinds, particularly the staple, boiled rice."  (Jaina Yoga, p. 39);

2. Pana:- "All that is drunk: Water, milk, the juice of fruits." (ibid.p.39);

Khadima:- " All that is chewed or nibbled: fruits and nuts" (Ibid.);

Svadima:-  "All that is tasted or severs as a relish, pepper, cumin seeds' etc,. 

in saying that the eating of any kind of food at night occasions more Himsa than the eating by day in sunlight.  The controversy centers round the question of its avoidance in the life of the householder at a particular stage.  Of the eleven stages of the householder, to be dealt with in the sequel, kundakunda,1 Karttikeya 2   and Samantabhadra 3 enjoin the total avoidance of eating at night at the sixth stage of advancement.  Somadeva 4 and Asadhara 5 include this in Ahimsanuvrata, though the latter has prescribed its  partial avoidance in the preparatory stage, i. e., Paksika stage, to be dealt with afterwards.6  Amitagati 7 enumerates the total avoidance of eating at night in the Mulagunas, thus necessitating its observance at the inception of householder's life.  Vasunandi prescribes its total abandonment even before commencing the observance of the rules of conduct formulated for the 1st stage of householder's conduct.8  Thus he is in harmony with Amitagati. Hemachandra 9 prescribed the avoidance of eating at night in the Bhogopabhoga parimanavrata. 

          AVODIDANCE OF EATING AT NIGHT AS THE SIXTH ANUVRATA: Viranandi and camundaraya 10 regard the avoidance of eating at night as the sixth Anuvrata.  They count it is as a separate Anuvrata in addition to the five Anuvratas already dealt with.  The corroboration of the fact of regarding the avoidance of eating at night as the sixth Anuvrata may be made from Pujyapada's 11 commentary on the Tattvarthasutra where in reference has been made to the prevalence of the view that it is the sixth Anuvrata.  That Amratacandra has enunciated the importance of total abstinence from eating at night just after propounding the nature and extent of the five vows of the householder is significant of the view that he implicitly regards it as the sixth Anuvrata. 12 Neither has he comprised it in Ahimsanuvrata, nor has he included it in the eight requisites which make a man worthy of Jaina discipline, nor has he mentioned its abstinence at any particular stage of householder's Dharma.  All these considerations oblige us to infer that he was  implicitly in favour of recognizing this as the sixth Anuvrata.  Why has he not explicitly described it to be so may, on the one hand, owing

          1. Caritra Pahuda; 22. 2. Kartti. 382.       3. Ratna. Srava. 142.

          4. Yas. and Ic.p. 264.     5.Saga. Dharma.IV.24.  6. Saga.Dharma.II.76.

          7. Amita Srava.V.1.        8.Vasu.Srava.314.                   9.Yo.Sa,II.48.

          10. Acarasara.V.70;Caritrasara.p.13.        11 Sarvartha. VII.1.

          12.Puru. 129.  

to his unreserved faithfulness to the old tradition of recognising Anuvratas as five in number, and on the other, owing to his desire to avoid the aforementioned controversy centered round it. 

          DIFFERENT CONCEPTIONS OF THE GUNAVRATAS AND THE SIKSAVRATAS: After dealing with the five vices, the five Anuvratas, the various conceptions of Mulagunas, and  the avoidance of eating at night, we now propose to dwell upon the nature of Gunavratas and Siksavratas, which are recognised as the seven Silavratas.1 These Silavratas serve  the useful purpose of guarding the Anuvratas. 2 To be more clear, they effect a positive improvement in the observance of the Anuvratas.  The Sravaka Prajnapti distinguishes between the Gunavratas and the Sikksavratas by saying that the former are observed for the whole life, but that the latter, for a limited time.3  Asadhara also draws a distinction between the two by pointing out that, by the observance of the  Gunavratas, the Anuvratas are observed in a better way, and that, by the observance of the Sikksavratas, the individual gets inspiration and training for the life of renunciation.4  The two seemingly different views do not exclude each other, but the one implies the other.  The former view emphasis's the time element, whereas the latter one lays stress on the functions performed by the Gunavratas and the Siksavraatas.  There is perfect unanimity among the Jaina Acaryas regarding the number of Silavratas.  All of them agree that there are three Gunavratas and four Siksavratas.  Of the three Gunavratas, the Digvrata and the Anarthadandavrata have been recognised by all the Acaryas as the Gunavratas; and of the four Siksavratas, the Atithisamvibhagavrata has been unanimously regarded as the Sikkksavrata; and all the Acaryas except Vasunandi include the Samayikavrata and the Prosadhopavasavrata in the Siksavratas.  Vasunandi has not recognised them at all as any of the Vratas.  Different schools of Vratas have emerged owing to the controversial nature of Desavrata, Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata and Sallekhana.  Kundakunda5 regards Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata as the Gunavrata and Sallekhana as the Siksavrata Sikasvrata without any mention of Desavrata in the scheme of Silavratas.  Karttikeya6 enumerates Desavrata in the Siksavratas, and regards Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata as the Gunavrata.  Umasvati 7 seems to consider Desavrata to be the  

         1. Dharma.Bi.155; puru.136. Caritrasara,p.13.   2.Puru.136

          3.Srava.Prajna. 328       4.Saga.Dharma.VI.24    5.Caritra     Pahuda.25,26.     6.Kartti. 367,            7. Ta.Su.VII.21. 

[Please see your table next file name Table Page. 92] 

          Gunavrata and Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata to be the Siksavrata.  Samantabhadra1 and Kattikeya agree in respect of the names of Vratas, but the former slightly varies the order by putting Desavrata first in the order of Siksavrata.  Karttikeya, Umasvati and Samantabhadra discuss the nature of Sallekhana after the Silavratas.  Vasunandi regards Desavrata as the Gunavrata and bifurcates Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata into Bhogavirati and Paribhoganiviitti and includes them in the Siksavratas along with Sallekhana.  Thus, in the Digmbara sect of Jainism five tradition are witnessed concerning the Silavratas, namely, the tradition of Kundakunda, Karttikeya, Umasvati, Samantabhadra, and Vasunandi.  In the Svetambara sect of Jainism two traditions are witnessed, first, the tradition of Umasvati and secondly, the  tradition of the Upasakadadas and the Sravaka Prajnapti which is  followed by Haribhadra, Hemachndra, Yasovijaya etc.  The second tradition agrees with Karttikeys and Samantabhadra with  slight variation in the order of Vratas.  The different traditions, we may point out, are due to the differences of interpretations caused by differences in time, place and trends of though, and not due to the non- conformity with the fundamental principles of Jainism. 

          We shall now dwell upon the nature of each of the Silavraras.  Kundakunda in the Caritra Pahuda 3  has simply enumerated their names without explaining their nature according to his own interpretation.  So it is very difficult to guess his mind by means of mere names.  Though Umasvati has not mentioned the names, Gunavrata and Siksavrata, the great commentators like Pujyapada4 and Vidyananda 5 have mentioned the first there as the Gunavratas, and the last four as the Siksavratas. 

          NATURE OF DIGVRATA: We now proceed to deal with the nature of Digvrata.  All the traditions recognise this as the Gunavrata.  It consists in fixing the limits of one's own movements in the ten directions.6 For the purpose of demarcation are utilized the well known signs, such as oceans, rivers, forest, mountains, countries and Yojana stones.7 As regards the time limit, Samantabhadra8 and Akalalanka 9

1. Ratna. Srava. 67.91.  2. Vasu. Srava. 217, 218. 271, 272.

3.Carita Pahuda. 25,26.          4. Sarvartha.VII.21.       5 Slolavarttika.p.467.

6.Srava.Prajna. 280; Kartti.342; Ratna.Sravaa.68; Subhasita.

792;Ta.Su.Bha, VII.21; Ya.Sa.II.1. 7. Ratna.Srava.69; Puru.137; Caritrsara.p.14; Vasu. Srava.214; Sarvartha. VII.21; Saga.Dharma.V.2; Raja.VII.21.        8. Ranta.Srava.68.

9.Raja. VII.21/20. 

explicitly  prescribe its life- long observance, while the other Acaryas implicitly state so.  The Sravaka Prajnapti 1 tells is that since the householder is like a heated iron ball, his movements, wherever they are made, entail Himsa.  If the area of his movements is circumscribed, he will thereby save himself from committing Himsa as such outside tat area.  Thus by the avoidance of even the subtle sins beyond the determined limits, the Anuvrati (householder) becomes like a Mahavrati (ascetic) in respect of the regions lying beyond those limis.2 Besides, the Karttikeyanupreksa3 tells us that by fixing the limits in all the ten directions the passion of greed is controlled.  This may be explained by saying that the Digerati has automatically renounced the getting of wealth, even if it can be easily got, from the area outside the limits.4  It will not be idle to point out here that the limitation of movements in the external world tends to reduce the internal passions, thereby fulfilling the purpose for which the Digvrata is enjoined. 

          The five transgression of the Digvrata are: Going beyond the fixed limits of space 1) in upward direction, 2) in downward direction, 3) in other directions, 4) extending the filed of one's activity by increasing boundaries, and 5) forgetting the limits.5