Samyagadarsana and the Seven Tattvas 

          SHORT RETROSPECT:  we have devoted our previous chapter, in the first place, to the exposition of the Jaina view of reality in general, and have endeavored to expound how the ontological nature of beings is in accord with experience. Secondly, we have shown that Pramana, Naya and Anekantavada are the epistemological counterparts of the Noumental reality, and that Syadvada is the vehicle of expression and communication of the ontological nature of things. Thirdly, we here dealt with the nature of the six kinds of substances with special attention to the self. Lastly, we have indicated the various expressions of the ethical ideal, and have endeavored to point out that they convey indited meaning.

1 Panca. 39. and Comm. Amrta.                   2. Panca. Comm. Amrta. 38.

3 Dravya. 40. 

          MITHYATVA AS THE GREAT OBSTACLE TO THE HIGHEST RELISATION: We have seen that the ultimate goal of the spiritual aspirant is the achievement of the perfect state of existence. The ideal is not something situated in a distant land, but it consists in the relisation of the transcendental nature of one's own self. It is the self in its veritable, dignified and ontological nature. We may pose a simple question: how can an innate nature of a things be remote from it ? or how can the original qualities since beginning's past. Notwithstanding the ideals the realization of one's owe true self, the effort for its revival and actualization is not so attractive as may be expected ? Rather the life of flesh is becoming easier than the life of the spirit. It is overwhelmingly astonishing, but it is a fact, and undeniably stares us in the face. This convincingly gives one to understands that there is an intermediary something which compels one to cling to the creature comforts and earthly pleasures, and offers great resistance to the realisation of the sublime end. Confronted with this recognition, we cannot deny that there exists a principle kwon as Avidly (nescience) , Mithyatva (perversity), and Ajana (ignorance) commonly recognised by all the systems of Indian philosophy, though with different interpretations due to their diverse metaphysical outlooks. Thus Mithyatba at as a barricade to the soul's true life it is life it is at the root of all evils, the see of the tree of Samaras. Tiposions all our activities so as to check the realisation of the Summum Bonum  of life. Moreover, it is responsible for the perversity of knowledge and conduct alike the whole outlook, knowledge and indent are vitiated by it Spartans. So long as Mithyadarsana is operative, all our efforts to witness the sun of self's glory are bound to fail it is to be rooted out in the interest of rendering its unwholesome functions null and void. In other words, Samyagadrasana (spiritual conversion) is to be attained, which in turn will make knowledge and conduct right and conducive tot the attainment of liberation. It is obey after the acquisition of Samyakva (spiritual inversion) that the soul attains the primary qualification for even marching towards emancipation from the wheel of misery if Mithyatva is at the root of Samaras Samyaktava is at the root of Moksa. But in after the dawn of Samyaktva, i.e. after the knowledge becomes right, the conduct relevant to Nijsa cabbitive effected akk at once owning to there operation of certain other predisposition's and occupations of the soul. Consequently is adopts at the outset partial conduct, keeping in view the ideal of perfect conduct. In the present chapter we shall deal with the nature of Samyagadrasana (spiritual conversion), since it forms the base for the start of the spiritual journey. We shall then turn to the consideration of partial and complete conduit in the next two chapter, namely 'Acara of the Householdersand Aara of the Muni' 

          TATTVAS AS THE SIE QUA NO OF THE ETHICAL AND THE SPIRITUAL LIFE: Before we embark upon the study of Samyagadarsana, it will be worth while to begin with the nature, importance and ipications of the seen Tattas inasmuch as the proper understanding of the these will enable us to understand the meaning of Samyagadarsana (spiritual conversion). The insight to the nature of these Tattas is the sine au non of the ethical and the spiritual life. The unambiguous and graphic apprehension of the Tattvas is indispensable for the deliverance of the self. The march towards the spiritual goal presupposes the faith in the Tattvas and their learn consciousness. The two lines of thought relating to the Tattvas and the Dravyas need not be confused with each other, but the purport of each is to be borne in mind. The Jaina philosophers have two purposes- metaphysical interpretation f the universe and salvation of thew soul- in view the six Dravyas which have been dewelt upon in the previous chapter, are the expressions of the metaphysical curiosity of the human min, while the seen Tattvas are the manifestation of its ethical and religious inquisitiveness. The latter deal with the spiritual disease and its causes, as also wit the means to cure it and the cured state; i.e. they deal with Samsara and its cause, as also with Moksa and it cause Thus the aspirant must know Bandana and its cause; namely Asraa, as well as Moksa and it scausesl namely Samovar and Nirjara. In addition to these five Tattvas it is necessary to have the knoledge of the self which is bound, but which is to made free The bound state of existence presupposes the recognition of on conscious (Ajiva) principle, by which the self is bound from beginning less past. Thus the study of these sever Tattvas: 1) Jiva, 2)Ajiva, 3) Asrava, 4) Bandha, 5) Samvara, 6) Nirjara and 7) Moksa is of primary importance for a person longing for emancipation. Instead of the seven Tattvas Kundakunda 1  speaks of the nine padarthas, i.e. he appends

1 Samaya. 13. 

they (Punya ad Papa) an be easily included in Asrava and Bandha. So their separate enumeration has not been considered proper by other Acaryas like Umasavati and Pujyapada. If Kudakunda has done this it is simply in the interest of elucidation , and not with a view to distorting the number and purports of the Tattvas. Now we propose to dwell upon the Tattvas since they are Basle to the aspirant's spiritual career. 

          JIVA TATTVA : Let us first begin with the Jiva Tatta; for the enunciation of the remaining six Tattvas�Ajiva, Asrava, Bandha, Samvara, Nirajara and Moksa loses all significance if the Jiva is not enumerated first. To comprehend its are prior to the consideration of the other Tattvas is necessary, inasmuch as it is the self (Jiva ) which is bound, and it is the self which seeks freedom from bondage. The reflection on Badha and Moksa, and the inquiry into them are inconceivable in the absence of the subject or the self whoosh nature is to reflect and Enquirer Hence it is obvious that the clear and precise nature of the self is to be boron in mind prior to the comprehension of the other Tattvas. the exposition of the remaining six Tattvas is useful for understanding the life history of the soul, which is quite essential to spiritual progress. In our previous inquiry into the nature of Jiva Dravya, we have dealt with the character of the empirical self together with its barrows form so subsistence, and in ourdiscussion of the nature of the ethic ideal we have referred to the transcendental nature of self; hence to reiterate them here will be unnecessary. 

          AJIVA TATTVA : Let us now turn to the Ajia Tttava, which should be distinguished from the Aj1va Draya. In Jainism Aj1va Dravya signifies the existence of five substances with the exception of Ji1va.  Of the five substance, the four Dhrama, Adhrama, Akasa and kala have no malignant influence on the nature of the soul Pudgal the fifth, however, has been exercising its limiting and vripling influence on the empirical conscious principle from all eternity, and thereby has been obstruction the manifestation of its inherent excellence. Thus the Aj1va Tattva I contrast tot he Aj1va Dravya should mean simply Pudgala (matter). Inasmuch as the Tattvas, as we have already pointed out, possess spiritual significance and so contribute I toto towards the winning of one's own salvation. We have also already looked into the nature, the functions and the forms of pudgala  in the preceding chapter to repeat them here will be unnecessary insight into the nature of the Aj1va Tatta will yield insight into the nature of the material biding force, which is to be shaken of if the freedom of the soul is to be sough. The enslavement of the Ji1va in the body of matter is abused by the subtle and invisible matter, known as karma and the accomplishment of freedom from bondage must consequently imply the removal of the Karmic particles of matter from the soul. The remaining five Tattvas arrived at by the reciprocal interaction f self and matter deal with 1) the influx of material Karmas into the soul, 2) their absorption into it, 3)the cessation of their inflow, 4)the elimination of the accumulated filth of material Karmas and lastly 5) emancipation from them.  

          ASRAVA AND BANDHA:  Of the sever Tattvas the nature of Ji1va and Aj1va Tatta having been discussed, we now propose to dwell upon Asraa and Bandha, it is Asraa (the influx of Karmas into the soul) which prepares the ground for Bandha (absorption of the Karmic particles into the soul). The latter derives all its meaning and significance from the former. Bandha is parasitical in character. It owes its life and existence to Asraa. If Asraa is denied, Bandha will ipso facto be denied; and in consequence human anguish and affliction will to unsubstantial to have room for any spiritual endevlu now one is naturally led to Enquirer into the cause of inflow of Karmic matter. The fundamental and legitimate use Asrva (inflow of Karmic matter into to he soul ) is the vibratory activity of the soul caused by the action of mind, body and speech, which is technically called' Yoga' 1  This 'Yoga it may be noted, is the most comprehensive cause of Asraa, since it embraces both the empirical souls and the Ji1vam muktas or the Arhantas within its range. We may point out here that this 'yoga' is also one of the caused of Bandha we shall explain this point afterwards. Here it will suffice to say that Yoga alone does to create empirical bondage. The empirical self from the beginnings past is under the malignant influence of passions accruing from the association of Karmic matter. Consequently, Yoga also with passions attracts fresh material partials which get trasormed automatically into Karmic particles and engender empirical bondage of the soul These attach themselves to the soul, just as the hot iron ball when placed in water, absorbs it from all side, or just as lied or wet cloth gets the 
1 Tasu. VI. 1,2. 

surrounding sand particles into it.1  In short, Asrava is due to Yoga, while Bandha is due to Yoha on the one hand, and passions of the other. Ina difference way Yoga alone and Yoga with passions are the causes of Asraa and Bandha. The example of the former is the embodied supermpirial soul, while that of the latter is the empirical soul but the Asraa and the Bandha in these two souls should be clearly distinguished,. We shall endear to explain this distinction later on. At present we proceed to point out the attar of yoga and passions. While dealing with this, we shall indicate the assess of Asraa and Bandha in a manner which may explain the whole mundane suffering and existence, as also the cause of the sojourn of the transcendental self in the embodied condition, namely the Arhat state or the Joan mukatastate. Such an exposition may inspire the aspirant to tripe out all the conditions the writhing the final achievement of the Siddhahood. 

          NATURE OF YOGA: The legitimate use of Asrva is Yoga, as has been mentioned above, now we have to note that the two, namely, yoga and Asrava, are identical, inasmuch as the vibrations occurring in the Predacious of the soul by reason of the activity of speech, body and mind synchronies with the inflow of Karmic particles Further, the endeavor to set the speech body and mind in pertaion which results in the abortion of Pradesas a of the soul is allied Yoga. 2 Arahantas and empirical souls possess this sort of endear but the Siddhas are destitute of all endeavor, and hence destitute of Yoga; for they have no activity of speech, body and mind Now, Yoga as the endeavor is causally related with Yoga as the vibration of the soul, or the operation of mind, body and speech. Therefore, sometimes the endeavor is allied Yoga, and sometimes the vibration; so both are correct in view, of the definition of 'Yoga ' 3  The maximum possible number of Yogas is three, i.e. it varies with the evolution of Jives from the one-sensed to the five sensed. Such is the general nature of Yoga which inevitably draws the Karmic matter towards the soul. Thus Yoga prepares the ground for empirical bondage on the presence of other condition, and consequently, for the perpetuation of worldly area. In other words, the whole responsibility and burden form the attraction of Karmic particles toward the soul devolves upon Yoga,

1 Rajava. VI. 2/ 4, 5.                 2 Sat. Vol . I-p. 279.

3 Sat. vol. I-p. 140; Gomma. Ji. 215. 

thought their assimilation which leads to the obscuration and distortion of the divine attributes characteristic of the transcendental self, is incumbent on the presence of there baneful material of passions. So we  shall now deal with the bondage by Yoga and bondage by Passions. 

          TYPERS OF BONDGAGE YOGA OCCASIOS: We here shown dependence of Bandha upon Asraa, which is primarily conditioned by Yoga. The bondage of the soul by Karmic particles admits of fourfold classifications amply, 1) type bondage Prakriti Bandha, 2)space bondage (Pradesa Bandha), 3) Duration bondage (Sthiti Bandha ) 4) Intensity of fruition bondage (Anubhaga Budha ) 1  Let us deal with them one by one (1)The nature of bondage after the transformation of material into karmica partials wooing to the vibratory activity of soul, has been designated as type bondage. This type bondage which may safely be said to correspond to the transformation of food into different bodily constituents has been regarded as innumerable or as many as 148 . 3  The eight types of Karmas are : 1) knowledge-covering (Jnanavaraniya) , 2) intuition vovering (darsanaaraniya), 3) Feeling producing (vedaniya) 4)delusion producing (mohaniya)  5) Longevitydeteemining ( ayu ) 6) Body making (nama), 7) Status determining (gotara and lstly , 8) Obstruction generating ()antaraya .4) (2) The reality between the Karmic particles and the Pradesas of the soul along with the volume of matter attracted through the same agency of Yoga has been styled space bodngae (pradesa bandha) This bondage itself signifies that none of the pradesad of soul is left without the particles of Karmic matter which are quite subtle Thus Yoga has been credited with the two functions of Space bondage (Pradesa Bandha ) and Type bondage ( Prakriti Bandha ).5

1 Tasu. VIII. 3, gOMMA. kA. 89.

2. Sarvartha. VIII-4.; Rajava-VIII. 4/3.                    3. Gomma. Ka. 7.

1.     Gomma-Ka 8; Tasu. VIII-4.

2.     Sarvartha. VIII-3. P. 379.

* 1-2) That which obscures knowledge and intuition. 3) Taht which holds up natural bliss and produces pleasure and pain. 4) That which obstructs right belief and right conduct. 5) That which determines the period of stay of self in a particular body. 6) That which is responsible for th4e construction of a particular body. 7) That which determines status in society. 8) That which causes handicaps in the enjoyment of wealth and power. 

          TYPERS OF BODAGE PASSION OCCASION: The incessant continuation of the Karmic particles in association with the self up to a retain periods of time, is called duratuio bondage (sthitibadha ) and effect producing potency with which the Karmic particles become impregnated is known as intensity of fruition bondage (aubhaga bandha ) The latter refers to the experiential aspect of the individual soul and is the cause of differences perceptible in world at large. Tese two types of Bahdha are abused by passion 1 which are , as a matter of fact reposnsible of the defiled state of dispassionate activity is arrived at and translated in to the life of the individual soul. Action with o passion is a matter of self achievement and requires arduous penance and stringent self couture, and perpetual life of mediation, keeping in view our ventral interest which is in the main ethical, we do not widh to go in details regarding the nature of the four types of Bandha, as is given in the Jaina scriptures. 

          YOGA WITH PASSIONS AND WITHOUT PASSIONS: Now we may without fear of contradiction pouch for the fact that Yoga may exist with passions or without passions I the life of the individual Corresponding to these  two types of yoga there are two types of Asraa. The one which is allied iryapatha represents the passionless Yoga, and the other, samaarayika expounds the transmigratory character of the self occasioned by the passion infected Yoga 2  The grate Acarya Amrtacandra, while commenting upon the teat of pravacanasara written by Kundakunda speaks of two types of activities as mentioned above, but with different names: viz.; 1)Janpti Kriya and 2)Jneyarthapainamana Kriya 3  In the first there is simply a supersensuous astute of knowledge which simultaneously known things as they are a, as they were and as they will be, without any distortion and predilection this activity obviously agars with the aforementioned dispassionate actively, and is superbly exemplified in the divine life of Arahanta or Ji1van mukata who is contemplated to be blissfully performing the bodily activities of standing, sitting and moving about , and the activities of sermonizing the nature and function of true religion.4

1 Sarvartha. VIII-3. p. 379.

2. Tasu. VI. 4.                 3Prava. comm. Amrta. I. 52.               4Prava. I.44. 

These activities are alsulated to be the natural consequences of the Karmic fruition though by all means destitute of attachment, aversion and infatuation. 1  Hence they are as well called, in Karmic terminology, kasayika kriyas They are stripped by the total annulment of Karmas; therefore they do to absorb and accumulate the frees Karmas to cause and recommence the mundane career .2  These activities condition Asrava of the iryapatha type which is nominal, and which does not keep the potency of prolonging Samsara indefinitely . Besides it is on account of the Yoga that transcendental self stays temporarily in the embodied condition The second type of activity, namely Jneyarthaparinamaa Kriya which is impregnated with attachment, aversion ad infatuation is deemed to transmute the inherent meanings of the animate and inanimate objects of the world it deviates us from the original, ontological significance of the things; hence it eosins Samparayika Asrava, which so intoxicates the inner life of the soul to cause perpetual rounds of birth and death. The mundane souls enmeshed in the mire of flesh illustrate this type of activity. 

          In the following pages we, first propose to deal with the passions in their multiudious form of existence and operation. And secondly we shall deal with the Samparayika Asrava generated by the passioninfrected 'Yoa' in accordance with the two types of Samparayika Yoga (auspicious and inauspicious) which results from the auspicious and inauspicious psychical states Therese senesce auspicious and inauspicious Asraas 3  These psychical states admit of innumerable distinctions and dergrees of existence, and so cause differences of Samparayika Asravaresulting in the various types and forms of mundane souls in aviaries births 4  it may be mentioned in passing that these auspicious and imposition they occupy of the scale of passions. From one extreme up to the middle of that scale we may demarcate suspicious psychical states in all their multiple forms of existence and operation, and from the other extreme up to middle of that scale there are inauspicious psychical states. There is a difference of kind and not of nature, hence they are required to be wiped out in the interest of arriving at the a come of spiritual realization.

1 Prava. I. 45.                 2. Prava. I. 45.

3 Sarvartha. VI-3.            4 Ibid. VI. 6 

          DIVERSE EXPRESSIONS OF PASSION : (A) PASSIONS ENWRAPING AUSPICIPUS AND INAUSPICIOUS PSYCHICAL STATES ALONG WITH PERERSION: The word, passion is too abridged and oversimplified and expression to make understand the position of self in its fullness. But it is very wide in its extent and very deep in aiptivation and seduction of self, so imperious and assiduously operative that it attaches our heart and mind to the transient and unsubstantial pleasure  of the world so exhaustively employing our energies that no room is spared for peeping into the glorious aspects of life. Spiritualism is darkened; dry morallism or sordid sensualist prevails. Perversions obstructs spiritualism. In the presence of perversion auspicious Bhavas are equivalent to dry moralimand I suspicious Bhavas may be equated with sordid senseulism in the wide sense. Here we have explained the word 'Passion in the sense of auspicious and inauspicious psychical states along with the perversion of the self since they bulk the true life of the spirit. 

          (B) PASSION AS SYNONYMOUS WITH THE DELUSION �PRODUCING KARMA: Again the word, passion, may be regarded as synonymous with the delusion-producing karma, the one amongst the eight types of Karman previously mentioned. This delusion- producing Karma may be subdivided into right �vision deeding Karma and fight- conduct deluding karma. Thus passion obstructs right vision or spiritual conversion on the one hand and hampers right conduct on the other. To be more clear, the functions of passion may be calculated to debar the self from having spiritual unreason, partial conduct, complete conduce and perfect conduct 1 Though the passions are four in member namely, age (krodha ) pride (mana) deceit (maya) and greed (1) lobha yet of account of the functions they are reckoned to perform they are to be regarded as sixteen. So each passion is of the flowing four kinds: 1) anantanubandhi passion i.e. that which obscures spiritual conversion, thereby preparing the ground for endless mundane career; 2)Apratya khyanavarna  passion i.e. that which eclipses the process to patria conduct; 3) pratyakhyanaarnana passion, i.e. that which arrests the aptitude for complete conduct; and lastly 4) Samijvalana passion i.e. that which baulksa the perfect type of conduct thus thwarting the attainment of arhatship 2  Besides these passions there are nine quasi-passions which are so called because of there less obstructing nature. they are:

1 Gomma. Ji. 282            2. Sarvartha. VIII. 9. 

1)Langhter (hasya) 2)Love (rati) 3) Hatred (arati) 4) Grief (soka) 5)Fear (bhaya) 6) Disgust ( jugupsa), 7) Hankering after ma (traiveda), 8) Hankering after woman ()purusaveda), and 9) Handkeri after both sexes (napunsakaveda ) Jayasena involves ander pride, deceit grew and the nine quasi passions in attchemt (ranga) and aversion (devsa ) i.e. the former includes deceit greed laughter love and hankering after ma , woman and booth while the latter enfolds anger pride hatred grief fear and  disgust 2  

          (C) LESYAS AS PASSIONES ISSUING IN ATION: In addition to the above functions envisaged to be performed by the passions they own infinitely varying degrees of intensity which issue in action , thereby beading testimony to tact that in mundane life Yoga (activity) is inextricably woven together with the passions. The one cannot be divorced from the other such and stimulation of one into the other has been styled Lesya Activity colored by passions is Lesya.3  The emphasis is upon Yofa ?(activity ) an not upon passion so as to include to Arhantas who Possess Lesya of the purest type. To express this view more clearly, the which associated the self with Karmic particles is termed Lwsya 4.  The six types of Lesyas which correspond to the six types of the intensity of passions �the interests, very intense; mild milder and the mildest�are 1)Krishna 2)nila 3)kapota, 4)pita 5) padma  6)Suckle 5  The first three are inauspicious and the last three are auspicious, hence they condition punaya and papa receptively 6. The above six types of Lesyas may be respectively illustrated by the attitude of individuals who want to relish fruits 1)by uprooting the tree,2)by cutting the trunk, 3)by cutting big branches, 4)by cutting small branches 5)by plucking only the fruits and lastly 6)by having those fruits that are fllen on the ground 7  

          (D) INSTINCTIVE ACTIONS AS PASSIONATE: Not tonally these passions expressthemselves in the forma of perversions and auwpisicous and inauspicious Bhavas and Lesya, but they acquire different designations of account of their being referred to outward objects . When the passion of greed is aroused by the perception of external objects, it is termed acquiwssive instance (parigraha samja )8 Similarly food (ahara) fear

1 Sarvartha. VIII-9.         2. Samaya. Comm. Jaya. 282.

3 Gomma. ji. 488.                     4 Sat. Vol. I. p. 386.

5 Sat. Vol. I. p. 388.        6 Gomma. Ji. 488.

7 Ibid. 506, 507.              8 Sat Vol. II. p. 413. 

(bhaya and sex (maithauna ) instincts are respectively stimulated a by food fearful objects and sex-exciting things. These instincts are nothing more the passions though with different reference and emphasis . This fact is corroborated by the Jaina scripture, the Satkahandagama which includes food instance into love (rati ;) sex instance into three types of sex passion; fear instance into fear; and acquisitive instinct into greed 1.

          (E) OTHER MANIFESTAIONS OF PASSION: Passions also excite the senses to indulge themselves in sensuous objects This may prove the knowledge by the senses is liable of be infected by passions, they work to such and extent that when pealsantn things depart and unpleasant ones come closer, one is put ot severe exited. In consequence one's serenity of mind is destroyed Again a sort of pleasure which is experienced in cruelty, in theft in falsehood and in devising means for the continuance of sensual pleasures is to be regarded as treacherous show of passions . The matter does not cease her. The study of scriptures, the devotion toward a the Guru and the like are also the manifestations of passions. 

          The passions thus assume different names according to the different function which they are kwon to perform Thtreacherous actor of passion may betray himself and deploy the drama at the world's stage in raying forms with braying nomenclature and performances. But on should not be fascinated and betrywee by sheer names and forms; on the contrary, on should behold the passions at the bottom and the root no matter whether they are in the form of kindness, philanthropy, devotion oat God, Guru and scriptures deceit and concerti, i.e. both the virtue and the vie, by penetrating through the names and forms which the passions assume, with such ans. attitude of mind, one shall not be gratified with anything less than the true realisation of spirit . it will not be amiss to poi out here that the word 'passion' has not been used in accordance with so extensive a connotation ass sketched above all places in the Jaina scriptures, but sometimes holy restricted meaning fits in particular onctext. Scriptures, but sometimes only restricted meaning fits in a particular context. To illustrate, in the Bandha chapter of the Samayasara, Kundakunda speaks of attachment, aversion infatuation and passions; the first three represent Anantaubandhi passion, and the last implies Apratyakhyanarnaa passion, Pratyakhyanavarana passion and Samijalalana passion 2 When the Tattrthasutra makes use of the word passion in seventh chapter it implies 'Samjvalana' passion 3 

1 Sat vol. II. p 414.                   2. Samaya. 280.     3 Tasu. VII-1

                    CAUSES OF SAMPARAYIKA ASRAVA : These passions with their different forms cause Samparayika Asrava. Kundakunda, in brief, described the conditions of auspicious Samparayika Asrava as 1)noble attachment, 2) compassion, and 3)a state of mind bereft of all eil thought 1  In other worries, 1)devotion towards the Deva, the Sarstra and the Guru, 2)rendering help to those who are in distresses, and are thirsty and hungry, and lastly 3) composure of mind are the elaboration of the above causes of auspicious Samparayika Asraba respectively 2  The inauspicious Samparayika Asrava results 1) from the activity mixed wit excessive sluggishness, 2)from mental states infected with intense passions, 3)from sensual indigence, 4)from the belittlement of other sad 5)from affliction and anguish caused to other 3 Besides, 1)the four instincts 2)the three inauspicious Lesyas, 3)sensual indulgence, 4)Arta Dhyana, 5)Raudra Dhyana 6)the employment of knowledge in unworthy and base objects and 7) moha in the sense of attachment, aversion and in fatuation�all these also constitute the main springs of inauspicious Sanparayika Asrava 4  The Tattvarthasutra enumerates thirty-nine kinds of causes of Samparayika Asrava; i.e. five passion infected senses (the senses of touch, taste, smell colour and sound) five kinds of vowels ness (violence falsehood theft, incontinence and accusation),  four passion (anger pride deceit and greed), and twenty-five kinds of activities 5. The twenty-five kinds of activities are : 6 1) rogjt vosopm development actions for example, devotion to the Deva, the Sastra and the Guru, 2)in fatuated actions 3) movement of the body from one place to another 4)tendency to neglect vows after one has accepted them 5) dispassionate action, 6) performance of actions out of anger, 7)working with wicked motive, 8)accepting implements of Himsa 9)actions afflicting others, 10) suicidal and homicidal action, 11-12) witnessing and touching beautifully and fascinating object to of sensual pleasure, 13) bringing into light new types of sense enjoyment, 14)answering the fall of nature in a place frequented by men, women or animals 15)putting things upon the unexamined and upswept ground, 16 performance of actions to be done by other, 17)devised for unrighteous things, 18) proclamation of other man's vicious deeds, 19)misrepresentation of s criptura injunctions on account of not being capable of observing them,

1 Panca. 135.                  2. Panca. 13 to 138                   3 Ibid. 139                                                          TOP

3 Ibid. 139.                     4 Ibid.l 140.                    5 Tasu. VI. 5.

3.     Sarvartha. VI. 5 

20)disrespectful attitude towards the way mentioned in hly scripture outlay of hypocrisy and slothfulness, 21)the perpetration of violent deeps and at commendation other man's misdeeds, 22)actions to preserve one's own worldly belongings, 23) fraudulent actions in point of knowledge, belief evt; 24)encouragement of the actions of a man engaged in perverted activities and 25) indisposition to renunciation. All these are the causes  of Samparayika Asrava in general . 

          SAMPARAYIKA ASRAVA IN PARTICULAR: The Tattvarthawurta has also described the causes of info of difference types of karma inn particular. The knowledge-an intuition covering Karman 1 are effected by observing malicious silence when the importance of emancipating knowledge is being announced, by concealing one's own knowledge, by negating, out of every, to impart knowledge to other s in spite of knowing, by obstructing the acquisition of knowledge, by denying the rut enunciated by other and , lastly, by rebutting the spiritual truth. The inflow of the suffering �producing Karaman 2  is caused by the painful mental state, by sorrow and perturbation produced by the siassociation of a person sighting with oneself, by excitability on account of being defamed by weeping owing to some internal discontent and discomposure, by doing away with one's senses strength and breathing, and by pathetic nonbeing to attract the sympathetic attention of others Charity universal compassion soft corner for those who observe vows, self control with attachment, concentration of min, body ans. speech in auspiosuous deeds and elimination of anger and greed-  al these lead to the inflow of earthly pleasure producing Karman 3 the right vision deluding Karman is occasioned by inputting faults mendaciously to omniscience scriptures and saints 4  The influx of right conduct �deluding Karma is abused by intense psychical states produced by rise of passions and quasi-passions 5  Continual prowess to violent deeps , appropriation of another man's wealth, great attachment to one's own acquisitions, sensual indigence, and appearance of Krishna lesya and Raudra Dhyana at time of death all these will cause hellish age bondage 6.  The disagreement in mind, body and speech, the preaching of false doctrines, unrestrained living , and the appearance of Nilea and Kapota Lesyas and of Arta Dhyana at the time of soul's departure from

1 Tasu. & Sarvartha. VI. 10.               2. Tasu. & Sarvartha. VI. 11.

3 Ibid. VI-12                   4 Ibid. VI-13                   5. Ibid. VI-14

6 Tasu and Sarvartha. VI-15 

the body�all these will oblige us to succumb to subhuman existence 1  Human life will result from the meekness of disposition, simple nature and behavior, mild passion and the nonappearance of ruffled state of mind at the time a of 1st breath 2  Partial vows self- control with attachment, peacefully bearing hunger, thirst and the like under compulsion, and penance without spiritual effect---all these elate to celestial birth 3  The inauspicious body- making Karman is the result of non conformity in mind, body and speech 4 it is again due to the fickle nature of mind back biting, dishonesty in weighing and measuring self censure and others' praise occasion high status determining Karman. The inflow of obstructing Karman is due to the disturbance caused to others in charitoy, gain, Bhoga and Upabhoga, and in the use of strength and power 6   

          ASRAVA AND BANDHA ACCORDING OT KUNDAKUNDA : we propose to close this topic of asrava and abhandha after dwelling upon the views of Kundakunda regarding them. The dominant note of his writings is spiritual awakening . he summarily sets tat naught all other deliberations which do not direct one's mind towers the awakening of the consciousness of divinity potential in oneself. In consequence, he lays so much stress on no other aspect of life as on spiritual conversion. He seems to have been maddened after the rpoagation of spiritualism ; hence his every expression sounds the seam note of harmony. Accordingly he represents attachment aversion and infatuation 7 as the causes of Asrava, nay, themselves as Asraa, implying thereby the ananatanubhadhi passion and infatuation which obstructs spiritual coercion he is bot babies of the fact that the occurrence of spiritual coverion  does not entail liberation then and there since perfect conduct, i.e. non conceptual mentiaonal submergence is lacking. His pronounce

1 Tasu. VI- 16.                         2. Ibid. Vi-17 18.             3. Ibid. VI-20

4 Ibid. VI-22                   5 Ibid. VI-23.                  6 Tasu. and Sarartha. VI-27

7 Samaa. 177, and Samaya. Comm. Amrta. 164, 165. 

ment that the individual after the attainment of right vision is bereft of karmic inflame, manifests his strong attitude towards the life of the Spirit. He argues that when the root of nescience is withered the green levels of imperfect conduct are incapable of binge flourished enduringly hence they are sure to fade and fall flat of the ground i.e. perfect conduct after spiritual conversion is inevitable and irresistible, if not in this life, in some other life. The antecedent conditions of Asrava, namely attachment, aversion and infatuation also are the antecendt condition of and with the presence of these impure psychical states shish emanate from nescience, the self attracts and absorbs the alien Karmic maternity its substance. To bear in mind that the objects in external world are not the causes of bondage is abundantly significant inasmuch as if they are guard as the sauces of bondage, emancipation will be a phantom and a make believe as the external object are inoperable of being dispense with existence. The question why the external object are denied possession ad association may be answered by saying that the empirical self, i.e. the self which has not yet attained that immaculate state of existence of which man is capable, is unavoidably subject to inpure  psychical states in their presence,  Hence the authentic cause of bondage is assuredly the inpure psychical states and not the environment objects. But the latter in lower stages wuwittingly charge the empirical self with profanation. 1 In consequence, we may say in passing that one should be greatly vigilant abbot one's environment in one's preparatory stages if spiritual betterment is to be strive after For explaining the cause of Bandha in a different way Kundakaunda resorts to an expression namely adhyvasana 2 which implies the confusion between self and to self. This means the absence of spiritual conversion or right vision 3 The thought of slaying and being slayed, bestowing life and being bestowed with life. Abusing pleasure and pain to other and being made happy and miserable by others, briefly, the thought of identification of the self with the inauspicious practices (violence falsehood). Unchastely and the like) and with auspicious observance illustrate the nature Adhyavasana 4 Though the self is distance from all other existing

1 Samaya. Comm. Amrta. 265

2. Samaya. 262.               3 Samaya. Comm. Amrta. 271.

4 Samaya. 247, 250, 254, 25, 256, 263, 264. 

substances, yet it identifies itself with them by the fore of Adhyasana, hence it bears the bitter fruit of transmigration. In other words, so long as the self has not abandoned the perverted tendency of indtitying itself with auspicious and inauspicious things, emancipation from the rum is of the world will elude it grip . 

          TRAANSCENTA IEEW OF SAMVARA, NIRJARA AND MOKSA: It is manifest from what has been represented that the whole mundane career results from the association of passions and Yoga with the empirical self hence the avoidance of terrestrial comforts and access, in the first place meanest the cessation of Samparayika Asrava so as to ward off the incessant assaults of subtle karmic enemies. Secondly, it means the suffocation of the indwelling foes of Karmas till they die. In other worries when the activities of mind body ans. speech are set free from the effects of auspicious and inauspicious psychical state's there results the discontinuance of Samparayika Asrava 1  Again speaking in a similar in, we may say that ht stoppage of karmic influx slow necessarily if the passions are undermined in their fullness, and the economies state of mind is translated in the life of the spirit. 2 Transcendental belief, knowledge and conduct, which amount to the true realisation of the spirit, is identical a with the accomboshemt of liberation. This is tantamount to saying that he who has soared to tlofiteseheights of spiritual relaisation of which mano is capable not only stops the influx of particles of Karman as such into the soul but also wipes out the impurity associated with the self the foreman activity is called Samvara and the latter Birjara and okras Thus in the highest state of spiritual submergence, Samvara will necessarily terminate into Moksa through Nirjara it is obey in the Siddha state of existence (disembodied state of the self for all futurity that the Samparayika and the iryapatha asrave interminably cease to function of these two types of Asrva, we are here more concerned with former one, since it is that type of Asrava that matters much to thus soul in contrast tot he iryapatha type which is of nominal value and so fades in due course.

          PROCESS OF SAMVARA, NIRJARAN AND MOKAS : The aforementioned samiar, Nirjara and Moksa from the Suddha or Niscaya or Paramarthimka pint of view appear to be easy enough to be actualized, but the

1Panca. 143.                   2. Ibid. 142. 

self is so much adducted from beginning's past to oscillating between the auspicious and inauspicious psychical states that to overthrow the relative life of virtue and vice in the interest of absolute higher life seems to be proactively impossible, and sometimes a mere strutting of imagination, a dream unrealisable. But saints have exhibited is practicability. Of curse, skipping to such a life without any endeavor on the part of self and also without the guidance of a spiritual teacher will certainly land us in desperateness and despondency . But if the instructions of the Guru are floored with all sincerity and faithfulness, the ostensible insurmountable difficulties will assuredly anise The Jaina Acaryas, being themselves great aspirations have explicitly pointed out that at the outset of the pilgrimage right belief (samyagadarsana) the nature of which shall be dealt with presently- is to be made the object of acquisition; for it alone possesses the potentiality of rendringour conduct veracious. Thereafter the inauspicious psychical states should be abandoned, and the life should be occupied with the auspicious psychical states but the householder cannot completely occupy himself with auspiriuso psychical states, hence he purses partial conduct in contradistinction to the complete conduct which is capable of being followed by the Muni alsone the is amounts to saying the Sanvara is gradual Now, it is only from the Vyaahara point of view that Samvara, Birjara and Moksa are distinguishable These three are interlined, one leading to  other I contrast of Sara and Bandha, these three Tattvas point to the ennoblement and spiritualisation of human life. As a matter of fact Samara is the inauguration of the process of Moksa The first step of whole pores commences with the dawn of spiritual conversion ( Samyagdarsana) the second points to Samvara and Nirjara and the third namely Moksa, arrives when the second is passive to the highest point. It does not hebhoveu so dwell here upon the causes of Samvara, Birjara a Moksa as the Acara of the householder and that of Muni, which will be dealt with attar, on are examples of the realisation of these three Tattvas. 

          SAMYAGDARSANA AS THE PRIME AUSE OF SALVATION: Let us owe process to deal with the nature of Samyagdrassana it is the beginning of the spiritual pilgrimage, and the foundation of the magnificent edifice of liberation. The Yasatilaka tells us that "it is the prime cause of salvation, just as the foundation is the mainstay of a palace, good luck that of beauty, life that of baldly enjoyment royal power that of victory, culture that of nobility and policy that of Government " 1  Rightness in knowledge and conduct is acquired through Samyagadrasana. Thus it from s root and backbone of what may be called religion in the sense of perpetual contemplation on the intrinsic nature of transrdental self. The Uttaadhyayana envisages that right knowledge remains unutterable in the absence of right belief and rightness of conduct is out of the question without right knowledge 2.  

          RIGHTNESS IN KNOWLEDGE AND CONDUCT IS POSSIBLE AFTER ATTAINING RIGHT BELIEF OR SPIRITUAL CONVERISON:  A question is apt to be asked: how is rightness in knowledge acquired through rightness in belief? This may be replied by saying that although I common parlance knowledge precedes belief yet genuinely speaking knowledge becomes these cause of spiritual unfolmentony after right belief is kindled and stride up here the prefix rightness does not possess epistemological significance, but is indicative of spiritual all even thought the possessor of right belief cognizes rope s a sneak twitch not doubt epistemologically invalid, still his knowlefre is considered to be fight. On the contrary, the man destitute of right belief ever though kows thing as it is falter dispelling doubt perversity and indefiniteness, does not desires to called spiritually right unwire Hence epistemological ascertainment has little to do with the rightness of knowledge which originates from spiritual conversion (right belief) in other words, in the context of supermundane experience, right knowledge presupposes right belief. Thought they are related as cause and effect they are born simutaeously, just as light comes with the lamp 3  Simultaneous emergence cannot annul their distinctness Again right conduct is preceded by right belief and rite knowledge, in their absence conduct even of the highest type will ever remain incapable of transcending morality, hence spiritualism will remain incapable of transcending morality, hence spiritualism will remain shrouded in mystery . The Darsana Pahuda tells us that right belief engenders right knowledge by vieute which the virtuous and phys path are cogitated, ant hat the possessor of right belief in turner blows away vices, and adopts sill; and thereby he enjoys propriety and emancipation .4

          But the nature of this resplendent jewel illuminating knowledge and a conduct has been construed variously in Jaina scriptures. Its varied

1 Yas & Ic. p. 248                    2. Uttara. 28/30.

3 Puru. 34.                                4. Darsana. Pa. 15, 16; of. Mula. 903, 904.


nature may be comprehended under the  Niscaya and Vyavahra points of view. So comprehensive are these espritual Nayas that they are capable of reconciling the apparently divergent nature of Samyagadarsana enacted by different Acaryas at diffident times in history of Jian thought we shall now deer with the different view of Samyagadrasan. 

          VARIOUS VIEW SOF SAMYAGDARSANA : Kundakunda in the darsana pahuda characterises the nature of Samygadarsana as the possession of firm belief in the six kinds of Drayas, the nine Padarthas as in the five Astikayas and the seven Tattaas  1.  Nemicandracarya represents the belief in the six Dravyas, the five Astikayas and the nine Padarthas as indicative of Samyagdarsana 2. The Moksa Pdahuda recognises the belief in the on-violent Dhrama, in the deer bereft of the eighteen kinds of fauots and in serous of ombosecinet as constitutive of Smyagdarsana 3. Again the Niyamasara regards the belief in the perfect souls the scriptures and the six Drayas as determining the nature of Samyagadarsana 4  Besides, according to the Mulacara and the Uttaradhyayana, the belied rind the nine Oadrathas expresses the nature of Samyagadaransan 5  Vasunandi in hi Sravakacara describes the nature of right belief as the true and unshakable connection in the perfect soils, the scriptures and the seven Tattvas 6 . some great Acaryas like Umasvati, 7  Amrtacandra 8  and the author of the Drya Samgraha 9 unanimously depict Samyagadarsana as the belief in the seen Tattaval , in the view of Svamikarttikeey, 10 in addition to the belief in the nine Padarthas acquired after ascertaining their nature through the epistemological medium of Pramana and Naya, the person desirous of possessing Samyagdarsna must also give credence to the momentous principles of Anekantavada and Syadvada The apparent diversity does not cease her but finds expression in words of eminent  Acarya, Smantabhadra, who acquiesnws in regarding the natughe of Samyagaearsana as the belief in the Appt, the scriptures and the Guru after one has eschewed the three kinds of follows , 11  and the eight kinds of pride, 12 and has espoused the eight essential of right belief 13 we have already explained the nature of six

1 Darsana. Pa. 19.                  2. Gomma. Ji 560.                   3. Mo. Pa. 90.

4 Niyama. 5.                  5. Mula. 203; Uttara. 28/14, 15.

6 Vasu. Srava. 6.            7 Tasu. I. 2.          8. Puru. 22.

9 Dravya. 41.                 10. Kartti. 311, 312.

11 Three follies : Pseudo-Deva, Pseudo-Guru, Pseudo-Scriptures.

12 Eight kinds of prid4e : Pride of 1) learning, 2) hounour, 3) family, 4) caste, 5) power, 6) opulence, 7) penance, and 8) body.

13. Ratna. Srava. 4. 

Dravyas fire Astikayas, seven Tattvas nine Padarthas Pramana, Nyaya Aekantavada and Syadvada, which have occurred in the various view s of Samygadarsna. We shall presently explain the eight essentials right belief. We first raced to dwell upon the characteristics of the Apta, the sported and the Guru. 

          CHARACTERISTICS OF THE APTA, THE SCRIPTURES AND THE GURU : 1) to be free from the eighteen kinds of defects and blemishes; namely, hunger, thirst fear anger attachment delusion oleo age disease ansxiey, death conceit, perspiration supplies, sleep birth restlessness, perturbation and love 1  to be endowed with omniscience, to be immaculate and outright pure to be devoid of any desire whatsoever, to be devoid so beginning, the end and middle and lastly to uniquely been vonet all these are the characteristics of the Apta 2. Besides without amuses defog he preaches for the benefit of the unemancipateda and suffering beings 3.  2)That alsone is true scripture which flows spontaneously out of the Apta is irrefutable is salutary for the well binges of all kinds of beings, is capable of undermining the perverse path and, lastly release the objective nature of things 4  . 3) He who refrains himself from servility to sensual indulgence renounces worldly occupations ad possessions, and is enormously cupid with the acquisition of spiritual lodge, and undergoes austerities and mediation deserves to called Sadduru.5

          Thus we here surveyed the nature of right belief as expounded by the Jaina Acaryas of eminence. They seem to have divergent views at the outset. But we may point out her that all to fore mentioned characteristics of Samyagdarsana are justifiable form the yaahara point of view . 

          BELIEF IN THE SEVEN TATTAS AS THE CENTRAVA OF ALL THE CAHRACTERISTICS METIONED: Notwithstanding the validity of all these features of Samyagadarsana from the byaahara pint  of view , the most salient and center of all these is the belief in seen Tattvas. This is dour to the fact that unflinching conviction in these Tattva evidently manifests the shoal process of the attainment of liberation , which may be understood even by unsophisticated intellects, Jaina Acaryas

1 Niama. 6.          2 Ratna. Srava. 7.          3 Ibid. 8.

4 Ratna. Srava. 9; Niyama. 8.                     5 Ratna. Srava. 10. 

 are  of pinion that belief in the Apta, the Guru the scriptures etc. is valid if it engenders belief in the Tattas. This implies that sometimes the belief in the Apta etc does not produced belief in ht seen Tattvas. It may be pointed out here that belief should not be confounded with mere intellectual comprehension and clarity though intellectual enlightenment may possible, but not necessarily, lead to arousal of right belief: it is a sort of mental attitude which brings about a kind of undeviating adhesion to spiritual truth it is not dogmatic coherence but ration ashenrnce. Traditionalism in the sense of irrationalism is to be denounce, but ratiocinate adherence is to be adopted and acute it may be considered that oly those persons that are well equipped mentally are capable of attaining Samyagadarsana, but we may point out here that the attainment of it has giggle to do with mental equipment's. Nor has it any bearing upon the fact of being born as a Jaina. Spiritualism cannot be monopolised. Wherever it extends it will undoubtedly clasp within its range the belief in the seven Tattas irrespetie of any acquaintance with their names. Their essence is significant, and not their names which may be different. The man possessing Samyagdarsna must recognise his self as his own as well as the assess of his misery, and the means for their elimination he must recognise passion as hint only fours, thought he may not know theory names yet he just have the feeling the real happiness requires therir extirpation. 

          SAMAYAGDARSANA FROM THE TRANSCENNENTAL VIEW :  If we are driven to earns reflection and are allowed to evaluate thing from the antage ground, even the belief in the seven Tattvas or the nine Padarthas misrepresents the nature of Samyagadaransana. The true nature of Samyagadarsana consists in having unflinching faith in the transcendental self. of the see Tattvas, the self shining and invasive principle is the self 1 and consequently firm conviction in pristine purity of the self constitutes what is called Samyagadearsana. Kundakaunda's Darsana Pahuda deems the belief in the true self to be expressive of Nivcaya (real Samyagadarsaan in contradistinction to the belief in the Tattvas as Vayavahara 2 Amrataandra in the commentary on the Samayasara accords to Niascaya or Suddhanaya the status of

1 Samaya. Comm. Amrta. 13.                     2. Darsana pa. 20. 

 Samyagdarsana. This is due to the fact that Suddhanaya consists in recongnising the self as unbound and untouched by Karmas and as devoid of the possibility of fusion of the accidental psychical sates of attachment, aversion and the like. It also regards the self as perdurable, as undifferentiated in spite of the psychic qualities of knowledge, perception etc., and, lastly, as destitute of the distinctions caused by impure modifications of the four grades of existence. Thus Samyagdarsana which amounts to spiritual conversion is to be equated with the belief in Suddhanaya. Hence the two are synonymous. This delineation of Samyagdarsana must not imply the cancellation of the belief in the seven Tattvas, as may be considered, but they should be comprehended and believed from the Paramathika point of view, which again points to the belief in the paramount principle of self. To sum up, the self must believe in its true nature, which indicates that Samyagdarsana and the true self are identical, the former being the inalienable characteristic of the letter. Thus Vyavahara Samyagdarsana is valid and successful if it gives rise to Niscaya Samyagdarsana. 

          KINDS OF SAMAYAGDARSANA : In the Jaina literature, different kinds of Samyagdarsana have been enumerated from diverse stand-points. Some passionate and all dispassionate souls posses Samygdarsana ; hence we may speak of Samyagdarsana as Saraga and Vitarga respectively. Again, Samyagdarsana is of three kinds. Ksayopasamika ksayika and Aupasamika, which will be dealt with in the subsequent chapter. Samyagdarsana is again of two types. When it is self-occasioned, i.e., occasioned without any manifest instruction, it is styled Nisargaja. And when it is evoked on account of the preaching of the Guru, it is entitled Adhigamaja. 

          EIGHT COMPONENTS OF SAMYAGDARSANA FROM THE EMPIRICAL POINT OF VIEW : Let us now dwell upon the eight components of Samyagdarsana. They may also be called the organs of Samyagdarsana. Just as the different organs constitute the body, so also these eight organs are the integral constituents of Samyagdarsana. The omission of even one of them will inevitably clip the wings of a  man who longs to soar high in the realm of spiritualism with the object of quenching his thirst for undying, unbarring and soul-enrapturing happiness. Samyagdarsana

1 Samaya. Comm. Amrta. 12.                     2 Samaya. Comm. Amrta. 14.

3 Ibid.                   4. puru. 22.                    5 Sarvartha. p. 10.

6 Kartti. 308, 309.                                                7 Sarvartha. I-3. 

announces that the pain arising from venom cannot be eliminated by using an incomplete Mantra. Similarly he says that Samyagdarsana with mutilated organs is incapable of undermining the disquietude permeating the empirical existence. The eight organs of Samtagdarsana are : 1) Nihsankita, 2) Nihkamksita, 3) Nirvicikitsa, 4) Amudhadrsti, 5) Upaguhana, 6) Sthitikarana, 7) Vatsalya and 8) Prabhavana. First, he who possesses the Nihsankita Anga does not doubt the multiple nature of reality seeking expression from the omniscient Jina.  Besides, he adheres to the principle that kindness to all creatures is Dharma and injury to them is Adharma.  The nature of this Anga must not point to the throttling of the inquisitive nature possessed by man.  Doubt is not reprehensible if it aims at the decision of the nature of things.  But I pushed contrariwise, it is suicidal.  The initial skepticism may lead to final certitude.  Where our crippled intellect cannot perpetrate the nature of things, belief in them is the best guide, since the Tirthankara cannot preach with prejudice. But where logic can stretch its wings, one should pin one's faith on a thing after following the course of rational thinking, so that dogmatism may not creep in. Because of the unshakable faith in the righteous path, the processor of this Anga eschews seven kinds of fear, which are ordinarily present in the perverted souls. He is not frightened when the things imparting him physical and mental pleasure part company, and when sorrows and agonies associate with him. Nor is he perturbed by the fearful thought concerning the life hereafter. Besides, he has ousted the fear of death, of discomfiture arising from disease, of heavenly and earthly accidental occurrences, of his safety and lastly of losing his affluence or self-restraint. Secondly, the Nihkanksita Anga implies that the true believer never hankers after the worldly opulence and empyreal pleasures, inasmuch as he is convinced of the fact that these earthly enjoyments are impermanent, fraught with miseries, procreative of sin and evil, and are caused by the filth of Karman. Also he does not cling to one-sided views. Thirdly, the Anga known as Nirvicikitsa signifies that there should be no feeling of disgust at the various bodily conditions caused by disease, hunger,

1.Ratna. Srava. 21.     2 Caritra. Pa. 7.; Uttara 28/31.  3 Puru. 23.                                                             TOP

4 Kartti. 414.     5 Mula. 53; Bhavanaviveka. 41, 43 to 51.   Seven kinds of fear :

1) Lokabhaya,     2) Paralokabhaya,     3) Maranabhaya,       4) Vedanabhaya,

5) Akasmikabhaya,    6) Araksabhaya,    7) Aguptibhaya.

6 Ratna. Srava. 12. 7 Puru. 24. 

thirst, cold, heat etc., or to the sight of foul excretion. The body is impure by nature but is rendered venerable by the triple jewels of right belief. Right knowledge and right conduct. The Nirvicikista Anga, therefore consists in declining the scornful attitude towards such a dignified body even if it is diseased, unclean etc., and in having devotion to superempirical qualities. Fourthly, the Amudhadrsti Anga ( non- stupidity ) consists in steering clear of the causes of perversity and in dissociating oneself from the person pursuing wrong path. According to the Karttikeyanupreksa, being overwhelmed by fear, inferiority and greed for profit, he that does not recognise Himsa as Dharma, is free from stupidity. Also the Amudhadrsti Anga insists upon the abandonment of pseudo-Guru, pseudo-Deva, pseudo-scriptures, pseudo-conduct and false common conceptions. The fifth Anga has two names : Upabrmhana and Upaguhana. He who develops in himself spiritual qualities by virtue of dwelling upon pure thoughts is said to practice Upabrmhana Anga. And he who does not lay open his own merits and the demerits of other spiritual pilgrims, but who veils the shortcomings of the spiritual pilgrims so as to save the commonly unpursuable spiritual path from blasphemy, is pronounced to be practicing the Upaguhana Anga. Though the two by denominations are different, the practicing of one of them inevitably turns our mind to the other; i.e., the cultivation of spiritual qualities ipso facto disposes one to the other; i.e., the cultivation of spiritual initiates. Sixthly, oppressed by the overwhelming intensity of passions like anger, pride, greed and deceit or by other seductive causes, the aspirant may be constrained to deviate from the path of righteousness. At such a juncture, to re-establish him in the path by reminding him of his innate glory and magnificent is called the Sthitikarana  Anga. In other words, to strengthen the conviction of those who are faltering in their loyalty to Dharma and also to save him from lapses-both these constitute the Sthitikarana Anga. The seventh Angais Vatsalya, which implies deep affection for spiritual matters, for the integral principle of non-injury, and for those who are spiritual brethren, Or he who is devoted to the meritorious persons, follows them with great respect, and speaks to them nobly, is said to have

1 Ratna. Srava. 13.     2 Ibid. 14.       3 Kartti. 417. 4 Puru. 26.  5 Puru. 27.  6 Ratna. Srava. 15.; Puru. 27; Kartti. 418. Ratna Srava. 16.; Puru. 28.

8 Kartti. 419. 9 Puru. 29.; Ratna. Srava. 17.    

Possessed Vatsalya Anga. Lastly, Prabhavana signifies the impressiveness of glorifying one's own self with the ten Dharamas or the triple resplendent jewels. It also implies the dissemination of the religion propounded by the conqueror of passions through the medium of exceptional charity, austerity, devotion, and profound learning and other means best suited to time and place. 

          CHARACTERISTICS ACCOMPANYING THE SUBSISTANCE OF RIGHT BELIEF :          In addition to these eight Angus constitutive of Samyagdrana, there are certain characteristics, which accompany the subsistence of, right belief in the being of self. First, there are four characteristics, namely, 1) manifestestation of passions in mild forms, 2) Salvage, 3) Astikya and 4) Anukampa . Someday observes that just as the virility of a man, which cannot be perceived with the senses, can be ascertained from his relation with women, or the generation of children, or his fortitude in danger, or the execution of the designs, similarly, the existence of the jewel of right faith, although, extremely subtle owing to its being the condition of the soul may be inferred from the qualities of prasama, samvega, Anukampa and astikya. Secondly, there are three other characteristics which are also possessed by the true believer, namely, 1) censuring his own sins in his own mind, 2) divulging his own weakness of conduct before the Guru, 3) devotion to Arahantas. These are respectively called ninda, garha, and bhakti. Thirdly, the true believer is exceedingly scrupulous in not allowing the filth of pride to maculate the self, thus striking out eight kinds of pride; namely, pride of 1) learning, 2) honour, 3) family, 4) caste, 5) power, 6) opulence, 7) penance, 8) and body, from his mind and demeanor. 

          COMPONENTS OF SAMYAGDARSANA FROM SUPEREMPIRICAL PERSPECTIVE : Having explained the nature of Samyagdarsana, its integral constituents and its accompanying characteristics from the empirical point of view, we now proceed to expound their nature from the superempirical viewpoint, except the superempirical nature of Samyagdarsana which has already been dealt with. To begin with the constituent elements of right

1 Kartti. 420.        2 Puru. 30.; Ratna Srava.  18.; Kartti. 421, 422.

3 Rajava. I. 2/30.  4 Yas. & Ic. P. 255.        5 Ratna. Srava. 25. 

belief, first, the follower of the Nihsankita Anga frees himself from the inroads of doubt regarding the nature of transcendental self and expels the seven kinds of fear from the being of his self. He kindles the superempirical choice of fixing himself in the real self by belief. The wise man recognises his own self as the real universe, which is enduring, and so any other world other than this concerns him not. Hence he thinks that the fears relating to this life and future life are childish and false. Besides, in view of the true self the distinctions expressed by the words 'this life' and 'future life' and unfounded and artificial, as also the fear relating to them. The recognition of self as transcending mundane pleasure and pain, as enduringly existent, as naturally possessing the affluence of Darsana and Jnana, as living with the real prana of knowledge which is incapable of parting with it in its life-history, as not capable of giving place to other foreign qualities, dissipates the fear of pain, safety, losing one's belongings, death and accident respectively. Such is the adamantine belief that it does away with all obstacles that hamper it, Secondly, he who evinces no yearning for the fruits of Karman is called the author of the Nihkanksita Anga. Thirdly, the Nirvicikitsa Anga implies the non-abhorrence of the natural qualities of things. Fourthly, in following the Amudhadrsti Anga, the self has developed a sort of insight which prevents it form identifying itself with the auspicious and inauspicious psychical states. Fifthly, the Upabrmhana Anga signifies the development of the spiritual power, which ipso facto veils the other pseudo-characteristics of one's own, self. Sixthly, the re-establishment of self in knowledge and conduct constitutes the Sthitikarana Ahga. Seventhly, the deep affection for the three jewels or for the self is entitled Vatsalya. Lastly, the Prabhavana Anga fosters the self to manifest the eternal light in order to dispel the darkness of ignorance. 

          CHARACTERISTICS ACCOMPANYING SAMYAGDARSANA FROM THE SUPER- EMPIRICAL PERSPECTIVE : As regards the characteristics from the super-empirical view-point, we may say that on account of the seed of wisdom, the wise man acquires unswerving conviction in the true self. Consequently, he denies all association with the auspicious and inauspicious activities. He does not consider himself to be their author, thus destroys

1 Samay. 228.     2 Samaya. Comm. Amrta. 228.     3 Samaya. Comm. Amrta. 228.

4 Samaya. 230.   5 Ibid. 231.    6 Ibid. 232.    7 Samaya. And Comm. Amrta. 233.

8 Ibid. 234.      9 Ibid. 235.      10 Ibid. 236. 

the foundation of all ignorance. Apart from this, he regards himself as no longer their enjoyer. Whatever he does or enjoys, all is due to the irresistibility of the force of Karman and his weakness, but internally he does not relish them because he has acquired the taste for something noble and excellent. 

          SAMYAGDARSANA AS FORMING THE SPIRITUAL BACKGROUNG OF JAINA ETHICS : We have endeavored to explained the nature of Samyagdarsana by frequently describing it as the unflinching and sturdy belief in the Tattvas, which eventually leads us to have the belief in the transcendental nature of self. This naturally creates an impression of its momentousness in the domain of spiritualism. Without Samyagdarsana conduct is incapable of surpassing the province of morality. An ascetic who bases his asceticism on the mere moral concepts cannot be said to be superior to a householder whose interior has been illumined with the light of Samyagdarsana, inasmuch as the former is paving the way for the achievement of empyreal pleasures far away from the blissful state of existence, while the latter's face is turned in the right direction, which will in due course yield whatever is worthy of his inherent nature. The auspicious Bhavas are regarded by the spiritually converted persons as the temporary places of stay, when they find themselves incapable of staying at the pinnacle of Ruth and realization. These Bhavas serve as a halting place for them and not as a permanent dwelling. Thus such aspirants absolve themselves even from subconscious egoism in performing auspicious activities. On the contrary, those who are only morally converted regard  the acquisition of auspicious mental states and performance of auspicious  activities as ends in them, hence they are bound to endless mundane existence, which shall deprive them of spiritual bliss for all times before spiritual conversion. Besides, their profound learning and the austere penance's performed by them even for thousands of years or more are spiritually unfruitful in the absence of Samyagdarsana. Kundakunda undauntedly declares that the wise man even in enjoying the conscious and non- conscious objects by the senses simply sheds off the Karman, and thus avoids fresh bondage. This may at the outset appear paradoxical but it is justifiable, since he undertakes a detached view of things and performs certain actions owing to the inefficiency of counteracting the force of Karman, This is not the case
1 Panca. Comm. Amrta. 135, 136.       2 Darsana. Pa. 4, 5.     

With the ignorant man who adds fresh filth of Karman on account of his attachment to things. All this is to emphasize the importance of Samyagdarsana and not to encourage one's indulgence in the life of flesh. Thus we may say that the whole Jaina Acara, whether of the householder or of the Muni, is out and out sterile without having Samyagdarsana as forming its background. In other words, without the assimilation of Samyagdarsana which is nothing but the belief in the superempirical conscious principle, the entire Jaina Acara is a labor wholly lost. Thus it is grounded in spiritualism. We can scarce forbear mentioning that Jainism is not merely ethics and metaphysics but spiritualism too which is evidently manifest from the persistent emphasis laid by all the Jaina philosophers without any exception on the variable achievement of emancipation is practiced and pursed. Thus spiritualism pervades the entire Jaina Acara; hence the charge that the Jaina ethics is incapable of transcending morality, and does not land us deep in the ordinarily unfathomable ocean of spiritualism gives way.