Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - ASPECTS OF JAINA RELIGION

Front Page

Fore Word

Preface
CONTENTS
Illustrations
ANTIQUITY OF JAINISM
FUNDAMENTALS OF JAINISM
DOCTRINES OF JAINISM
  SALVATION - PATH OF JAINISM
  ETHICS OF JAINISM
  DISTINCTIVENESS OF JAINA ETHICS
  DIVISIONS IN JAINISM
  STATUS OF JAINISM IN INDIA
  CONTRIBUTION OF JAINISM TO INDIAN CULTURE
  JAINISM AND OTHER RELIGIONS
  SIGNIFICANCE OF JAINISM
  GLOSSARY OF JAINA TERMS

STATUS OF JAINISM IN INDIA




(vi) The Hoyasala Rulers

The Hoyasala rulers during their reign from 1006 to 1345 A D over their kingdom of Halebid in Karnataka did strongly extend their support to Jaina religion. In fact like the earlier Gariga kingdom, the Hoyasala kingdom in the I lth century also owed its creation to a Jaina saint by name Acharya Sudatta. Further it has been specifically reported that many of the Hoyasala kings and their Generals extended their patronage to Jainism and that they very carefully looked after the interests of the Jainas.


(vii) Kalachun of Kalyan

In addition to these major dynasties and their rulers it has been emphasised that the Kalachuri rulers (from 1156 to 1183 A.D.) of Kalyan were Jainas and naturally in their time Jainism was the state religion.


(viii) Minor Rulers

On the same lines the Alupa kings of Tuluva (i.e. modern South Kanara district of Karnataka) showed leanings towards Jainism and the inscriptions reveal that Jainism was patronised by these Alupa kings. Further, Jainism was the state religion of the minor states of Punnata, of the Santaras, the early Charigalvas, and the Korigalvas. as testified by their inscriptions. Similarly, the Rattas of Saundatti and Belgaum and the Silaharas of Kolhapur were Jainas by religion.


Thus from early ages various royal families came forward as champions of Jainism and it is no wonder if their example was followed by their feudatories.



(B) In Andhra and Tamilnadu

In the far South, Tamilnadu discloses traces of Jaina domi�nation almost everywhere and on many a roadside. a stone image of

Tirthankara may be seen either standing or sitting cross-legged. From the ancient and important sarigama literature and other archeological and epigraphic sources it is evident that Jainism flourished in the Tamil country from the earlier times intelligible with our present means. Jaina epigraphs have been discovered in Anantapur, Bellary, Cuddapah, Guntur, Krishna, Kurnool. Nellore, North Arcot, South Kanara, and Vizagapattam districts of former Madras Province. These Jaina epigraphs and other Jaina relics clearly indicate the larger vogue that Jainism once had in that part of the country.

Thus the whole of south India comprising the Deccan, Karnataka, Andhra and Tamilnadu was a great stronghold of Jainas, especially Diagambara Jainas, for more than one thousand years. Apart from the provincial capitals, Shravana-belagola in Karnataka was the centre of their activities and it occupies the same position even upto the present day.

Jainism, however, began to decline in south India from the 12th century due to the growing importante of Srivaisnavism and Virasaivism.


3. JAINISM IN WEST INDIA

Jainism had very close relations with western India, that is, Gujarat and Kathiawar, where we find the largest concentration of the Jainas at present. Here on the Mount Girnar in Junagarh district, Lord Neminath, the 22nd Tirthankara of the Jainas, attained salvation. Here in the Council of Jaina ascetics held at Valabhi in the year 993 after Lord Mahavira, that is, in 466 A.D., the Jaina canon was, for the first time, reduced to writing. Just as south India is the stronghold of Digambara Jainas, similarly, west India is the centre of activities of Svetambara Jainas.

Regarding the migration of Jainas to these parts of India, it is thought that the migrations must have taken place by 300 B:C. from Eastern India. In this connection the Cambridge History of India has given the following conclusion:

�From the facts that the Jainas tell us something about the reigns of Chandragupta Maurya and his son Bindusara but at the same time they have practically nothing to tell about the reigns: of Asoka and his : successors in East India and that the division of the Jaina Church into two great sects of the Digambaras and Svetambaras had probably begun after the regin of Chandragupta Maurya. It is concluded that the Jainas were probably already at this time, i.e., 300 B.C., gradually losing their position in the kingdom of Magadha, and that they had begun their migration towards the western part of India, where they settled and where they have retained their settlements to the present day.


(A) In Gujarat

Jainism flourished in Gujarat during the days of Rastrakuta monarchs, many of whom were devout Jainas, and it received a further fillip at the hands of that veteran Jaina ruler Vanaraja of Chavada family. About 1100 A.D., Jainism gained a great ascendancy when the Cha-lukya king Siddharaja and his successor Kumarapala openly professed Jainism and encouraged the literary and temple building activities of the Jainas.

During the days of Baghelas in the 13th century A.D. Jainism received patronage through the hands of Vastupala and Tejapala, the two famous Jaina ministers of the time. They were responsible fc%r constructing the beautiful temple-cities at gatruiijaya, Girnar and Abu.

Afterwards_even though Jainism did not receive the royal patronage as before, still it continued to hold its position and the numerical and financial strength of Jainas gave their religion a place of honour which is acknowledged even to this day.


(B) In Maharashtra

As in Gujarat, in the region of Maharashtra also the Jaina religion had settled and flourished from ancient times. In Jaina religion the siddha-ksetras, that is, the places from where Jaina saints and great souls had attained salvation, are considered sacred and ancient places of veneration and such siddha-ksetras are found at as many as four places in Maharashtra. that is, at Gajapantha (Dist. Nasik), Mangi-tungi (Dist. Khandesh), Kunthalagiri (Dist. Oosmanabad) and Muktagiri (Dist. Amraoti). In this connection it is worthwhile to note that such a siddhaksetra is not there in �the entire area of south India. Further, it is evident from ancient Prakrit Jaina literature that Lord Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara, had visited the Marathavada region of Maharashtra during his religious propagation tour of different parts of India. Moreover, in Jaina religion the mountain-caves and cave�temples are considered more ancient and sacred and in northern India such Jaina caves are found only in Udayagiri and Khandagiri hills in Orissa But in Maharashtra such ancient cave-temples. in developed forms. are found at Ellora (Dist. Aurangabad), Ter (Dist. Oosmana�bad) Anjaneri (Dist. Nashik) and at many other places in the interior areas. In this respect it is asserted from recent archaeological researches that out of total number of Jaina caves and cave-temples in India. Maharashtra has got the largest number, that is more than 75 percent. Again, it is pertinent to note that from ancient times the seats of respected Bhattarakas, that is, religious heads. and their mathas. that is. monasteries were located at different places in Maharashtra like Kolhapur and Nandani in western region, hatur in Marathavada region and Karanja and Nagpur in Vidarhha region in Maharashtra. Similarly it is quite clear from literary evidences that from ancient times most renowned and influential Jaina saints like Acharya Samantabhadra. Virasena. Jinasena and Somadeva were intimately connected with Maharashtra also and had composed their sacred works and literary masterpieces in this region. Furthermore, it is remarkable to find that before the advent of Muslim rule in Maharashtra, continuously from the 3rd century A.D. the powerful ruling dynasties like the Satavahanas of Paithan, Cha~ukyas of Kalyan, Rastrakutas of Malakhed, Yadavas of Devagiri and gilaharas of Kolhapur and Konkan had extended their royal patronage, in a large measure to Jaina religion.

As a result we find that the Jainas and the Jaina religion had a prestigeous position in Maharashtra during the ancient and medieval periods The same position is continued to the present day and in this regard it is pertinent to note that the largest proportion of Jaina population in India today is found in Maharashtra. According to 1981 Census of India, out of the total Jaina population of 32,06,038 in India, the largest number of Jainas, viz. 9,39,392 are in Maharashtra and next to Maharashtra the population of Jainas in other states is, Rajasthan (6,24,317), Gujarat (4,67,768), Madhya Pradesh (4,44,960), Karnatak (2,97,974), Uttar Pradesh (1,41,549) and Delhi (73,917). It means that out of total Jaina population in India the largest,that is, 29.3 percent Jainas are in Maharashtra followed by 19.5 percent in Rajasthan, 14.6 percent in Gujarat and 13.9 percent in Madhya Pradesh. In other words, as many as 43.9 percent of the total Jainas in India are concentrated in western India comprising the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. It is thus evident that western India is the stronghold of Jaina religion.



4. JAINISM IN NORTH INDIA

When by 300 B C the migration of Jainas began from eastern India to different parts of the country, one of their branches was firmly established in north India from the middle of the second century B.C. and was settled in the Mathura region. What gravana�belagola was to the Jainas of South, Mathura, in the old kingdom of 9urasenas. was to the Jainas of North. The numerous inscriptions excavated in this city tell us about a wide-spread and firmlv estab�lished Jaina religion. stronglv supported hv pious lay devotees and very zealous in the consecration and worship of images and shrines dedicated to Lord Mahavira and his predecessors. As these inscrip�tions range from the 2nd century B.C. to the 5th century A.D., it is clear that Mathura was a stronghold of Jainas for nearly a thousand years.

Another centre of Jaina activities in the North was Ujjayini. It was the capital of Maurya Emperor Samprati who was the Jaina Asoka Since we find several references to Ujjayini in the Jaina literature, it seems that the city might have played an important role in the history of Jaina religion.

The archaeological and other evidences brought to light from different parts of north and central India establish close relations of various rulers with Jainism During the Mohammedan period Jainism could not get the royal and popular support as it used to receive before but it succeeded in holding its own without much trouble. Jainas even could secure some concessions for their holy places and practices from the liberal minded Vlughal emperors like Akbar the Great and Jahangir.

It is recorded that emperor Akbar was very favourably inclined towards the Jaina religion. In the year 1583 A.D. he made animal 3laughter during the Paryusana days a capital offence throughout his vast empire. This tolerant policy of the Great Mohgal was revoked by his successor Jahangm. A deputation of the Jainas which visited Jahangir in 1610 A.D. was able to secure a new imperial fcrman or rescript under which the slaughter of animals was again prohibited during the days of the Paryusana.

During the Mohammedan period, however. the Jainac particularly increased in the native States of Rajputana, where they came to occupy many important offices under the state as generals and ministers. In this connection Col. Tod remarks that:

�The officers of the state and revenue are chiefly of the Jaina laity. The Chief Magistrate and assessors of Justice in Udaipur and most of the towns of Rajasthan, are of this sect. Many of the ancient cities where this religion was fostered, have inscriptions which evince their prosperity in these countries, wherewith their own history is inter�woven. In fine, the necrological records of the Jainas bear witness to their having occupied a distinguished place in Rajput society; and the privileges they still enjoy, prove that they are not overlooked.�
(Vide Col. Tod, J.: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. II, pp. 603-605).