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 ֻ֓ ל ־ ã֮ ֟֟. ֓֓ ־ ӯΤֵӟԟ֓ ִֻ֕ ։ ֻ. ӓ ־ ״ ־ָ פӟ 'ã֮' Ӿ 'ֵӟ' ֟. ӯΤֵ֓ ָ֣, ֛֚, ָ֛, ֻ־, ӕֲ ָ֓ ך Ɵ֟. ӓ ܵ ִ֮֯ ןԯ Ӳָӓ ߓ . ֯ Ӳָ ֮֟֟. ֳ֟ ꛻ Ӳָӿ ӓ ׬ ֟.

ӯΤֵ Ӳָ֓ 45 ִӯ 33 ִ֓ ֮֟. ֿ Ӯ ָ 31 ִ֓ δ ֻ֮ . ־ָ δ ֮ߟ ֟. ӟָ ã֮ߵӮ δ ֻ֮. ִԓָӟ ã֮ Ӳָ֯ ׳֮ ֙֟, ןԯ ߟ ߟ, ӯΤֵ֓ ֬ Ӝ á ָ ֟, ӛ־ָ ּ Ӭ ֟֟. ןԯ ֬ Ӳָ ֬ ׾޵֚ ֟׾ֵ֕ ֮ Ӯ 18 ֟ӟ ןԯ Ӳָ ֬ ׯ־ á ָ ޵֓ Ӥ פ. Σ ֕ פ . 18 ֟֓ ֙ ֙ ָּӓ ߚ ã֮֯ ֻ ֯þ ֯þ֮ ֻ. ָ֓ ׾ָ ֕ ӓ ֿ ־ֵ ״֟.

ןԯ ׾ָ ֯ӣ



ןԯ ׾ָ ӯΤֵӟ ӣ ß֟ӟ ֻ. ӯ ֮ߵ ֯ӣ . ӣ֓ ã֮֯ ָ֛֬ ֵ֓ ׳ (ִ ) Ӯ . ӓ ֮ ֯ ֕ӟ߻ ә׻ֵ Ӿӟ . 1783 ֬ ֻ. Ӿ֟ 1808 ֬ Ӯ ֻ. Ӯ פ ֻ , ֮֬ ޵֚ ֯ ־þ֓ ֲָ ֛, ß׾ 鿙߮ ƻ ָ ֯ ꓵ ־ ӓֻ . פ֕߾֮ ־ָӟ ꓵ Ӿ־ָ ֓ ֵ פ ֟. ִԓ Ӿ־ָ ִԓֻ׾ֻ ֟. ֓ ׾ָӟ Ӯ ־߮ ֬ ӑ֓ ã֮֯ ֓ӓ Ӿ '֯ӣ' ֛.

ӣӟ߻ ֬ӑ֓ ׬֯ן 敵֕ ָ֕ ֟֟ ֬Ӯ ӓ ֖ ֮־ ֟ ׾׬֯ ӓ ֮֮ ־ ֟. ӣ֓ Γָ ׿ִ ָӟ ׬ . ָܵ ָ֟ ӣ֓ ־ .



֮֯ߵ ӑ



ִ֬ԓ פӲָ Ӳָ ӯΤֵֿ ָ֬֟: ־Փ֓ ׸ֵ . ָӟ ׿־ֵ ןָ ӯΤֵ ִ֬Եӓ . ֮֯ߵ Ӿ ꯵ӑ ֟ ֟. ™ ִ֬߻ ָ ꛶ Ӯ Ɵ . ӯֵ֦ ן ֓߮ . Ԯָ֓ . ׸ ӓ ָ֮֮ ׾.. 205 ֬ ֿ Ӿ֓ Ӳָ ֬Ӯ ӯΤֵ ãֻ֯. פӲָ, Ӳָ ӓ ׮״ԟ ӟָ ־ 70Ԯ ӣ֓ ã֮֯ ֻ. ӯΤֵ ԙ ֓ ֯ ָ֓ γ־ֻֿ . Ӥ, ™ ַ ӿӟ߻ ֕Ӯ ֓ ӑ֓ ֵ֓Ԯ ָ ֮ פ .

ӑ֓ ׮ ݮ ֟ ֟. ӓ ֓ ׯӓ ߟ ֟ ֟ӟ ֮ ߟ ֟. ݮ ԓ ߟ ֟ ֮ Ӥ ַ ־Ӯ 'ִԻֳ' ֟. ӓ ־ ε פӲָ ֬ ָܵ Ꟶ. ָӟ ֲָָ ֓ ־ӟ (֮ӟ) áֵӮ ׌ ֻ ֮ ֟ ֮ߟ ֟. ֬  ֵ֮ (ֻן) ֮֯ߵ . Ӯ ׻ƻ껵 ־ߟ߻ ƸӾֹ פ , ֮֯ߵ ӑӟ ־ֿ, , ׮ֵ׌, ־׻ פ ӣӓ ֚֚֯ . ֕ ™ߟ Ӳָӿ ִ֮ . Ӳָ-֮ ִ-ӣ ӑӟ ֵ: ֮ ־ӟ. ָӟ ִӓ ֮֓ Ӳָ ӯΤֵӟ ֻ֮ 껵 ֳֻ ֮֓ ߿ ׳֮ . ־ָ ӓ ־֟. :- ָו֟Ӯ ־׻ ־ָ ׻ƻ .

֕ ӯΤֵ֓ ֵ . ӑ֓ ֻ ߮ . ֣ׯ ׾δӾ֟֓ 15 ֵ֟֯՟ ӯΤֵ ֻ֟ ֻ֓ δ ״֟. ָ ־֜֬߻ . . 1316 (׾.. 1451) ׿ֻֻӟ ֮֯ߵ ӑ֓ ִן ִ֓Ӧ ӓ ִ׬ֻӓ ״.



ñֻ ӯΤֵ.

. ֮Ӥ ֵ֓Ԯ ֻ֯ ֦ ׸ӟ ñֻ ӯΤֵ֓ . Ӯ ׻ƻ , '˳ Ըֻ ֟ ׻ֻ֓ ֌ߴ ޵ӟ ֓ Ӳ ָ־ ֯δ ־ ӟ ָ. Ӯ ֟ ֦ ֻߓ ָ ԓ ׳ ֻ֓ ֙ ֙ ֮ ֻ֓ ׻ƻ ֙ ׻ƻ , ֳֻ߯ӟ ԯ á ָ ߟ ִֻ ׾δ ֕֓ 柵ӟָ 136 Ԯ Ӳָ ֟ ֬ ֻ. . ֮Ӥߓ ֟֯δ פӲָ Ӯ ֻ֯ ݮ֟ ޵֚ ޛ á ָ ֯ ñֻ ӯΤֵ ޵ӟ ֻ. ӯΤֵ֯֓ Ӳָ ӯΤֵ֓ ע ֻ. '

֣ꓵ ֻ ߻ֹ ֯ ֻ껵 ӓ ֓߮ ן ִߟ ֵ֯֙ (ִί֙) ֯ ֻ . ӟ ֬ ݮ Ӯ ֻ֯ ݮ֟ áӛ֮ ֻ֓ ִӓ ד֡ Ӳָ 22 ָ ֜ ֬ ֻ֯ ݮ֟ ֻ֓ ־ֹ פ . ӓ ñֻ ӯΤֵ֓ פ .

Ӳָ ֟֟ , ־ ã׾ָ ֦ӓ ñֻ ӑ֓ ע ֻ. ӓӟ֓ . . 80 ֬ ӑ ׾ָ פӲָӓ ֻ. ־ֹ ӯΤֵ֓ ß֟ ֬ . ֟ ο Ɵ , ñֻ Ӳָӓ ԕ פӲָӓ ? ֓ ִָ֮֬ ָ ֣ ֜껵 ן ִ߾ֹ ״ . ߻ ׿ֻּ֯ӟ . ־߸ӓֵ ֳ- ׸֟Ԯ֓ 鿵 ֜ . ֓ ־ ֿ֮ ן ֬ , ӓ ֮֙־ָ ޛá ֙ . ֳָ Ӳָ ӯΤֵӟ ֻ֮ . ־ֹ ï™ פ֟ , ־ָ ֜ ֬ӓ ֓ ӯΤֵ ֮ ֻ .



ָ.



ָӿ , ܵ֟: ִ֬ פӲָ Ӳָ ӟ ׾ֳ֌ . ӟָ Οӟ ֿ, ֓ ӯΤֵ ֮ ֻ. ־ . ־߸ӓ ֵ ֓ Ӯ ָ֮ .





7 .

׾׾֬ ֮.



߸.



ӓ ֮ , ֮޵֓ ֮µ ™֓ ߓ ִ֓ ֟ , ֙ ™ ָ ֡ ֮֟. ָӟ ֮ ׮ֻ ߓ . ֓ ֚ ָ ֻ֯ ־þ֓ . ֓߮ ֓ ֓ ָ סֵӾָ ; Εꓵ ֚ 㬤 ߟ ֟ ָӮ ޛ ֟. ־ ߣӓ ֮ סֵ ӟ ֻ ָãӟ֓ ֟ ֻ ӓ ߣ׿־ֵ ־ ߣӮ ãӟ ֟ ֻ ӓ ߣ׿־ֵ ־ ߣӮ ֻ֯ ӿָ֯ӯָ֟ ֻ֟ ֻ껵 ֕֓ ӓֻ֮ Ӿ֬Ԯ . ӟ߻ ߮ ߣ֮ ָ פݾֵ֕ Οԯ֤ 㬤 ֯ ֻ. ־־ ߣ ״ֳ֣֮־֮ ֓ ֟ ։ . Ư׸ ޵֯ ֻ֯ ֹ޵־ãӟ ֳָ֓ 㬤ӟ ӛ ֜ 㬤 . 㬤ӓ Ԯ֮ ָ . ֓߮ ֻӟ߻  㬤ӟ . ֜ ־ ָ ӯ ֯ןֵ֤֯֯ԟ ֜ . ׿ֿ֣־ӿ ֕ ֓ (ײײָ) ִֵ ָ ԟ ӓ ִָ Ӯ 껵 㬤ӓ Ԯ áִ֬ ־ֵ ״ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֹ޵־ãӟ ו֤֮ ןִ ֻ ֻ ־ֵ ״. ֕ ָ ִ֬ԓ ֵ  פ֟ ֻ ָ  ֟ӟ ִ֬ ֜ ӯ ֟ 㸾֟ סֵ Ꟶ. ֢֕ ׮֑ 껵ִ Ӥ ִ֤ ֟  ֟ߵ ֻ֮ ; סֵӓ ִ ֕ ֓ ִ ֻ֮ ֻ . ֓ ß֓ 'ן ׾ֳӟ' ִԮֵ ֕ӓ Ɵ ״ ™߮ ֻ֟ . ֟ ַ ־߸ӓ Ԯ ӓ ָδ֓ ™߮ ߟ ӟ.



֕

. ־߸ӓ ֟ ֕ ֓ . ֕ ֻ֯ ֚ ֬ . ֬ ִ֙ (֟ ֡) ֮ ָ֟ ֟Ӯ ־ָ δ ; ־ ֮ ֑֮ 㬤 ֿ֟֡ ֟ ָ־ֵ ־ֻ.



֕ ֮



Ӭ-߸ ֕ ֮ ־߸ ־ӟ֓ ֵ . ֕ ו֟ ִԟ ן֟֓ ָδ . ֵ֮ߓ ֕ Ӧ֪ ֮ ֓־ָ δ . ־ ֑֮ 㬤 ֕ ֮֮ Ӧ֪ ֻ֯ פ֮ .



ִ֙ Ӧ㯟



ִ֙ Ӧ㯟֓ Ӿ ָߵ ןӟ ָӮ ׻ƻӻ . Ӥ֓ 韵ӟָ ָ־־ ӓ ֟ӟ ㌟ ֓ ֯ן 껵 ֓ ֳָ־ ߸ ִ֮֙ Ӥ ־ԟֵ֯՟ ֻ֯ ִ֕֓ ׾ßָ ƻ ָߵ ִ֙ Ӧ㯟 .



׻-ξ֟ ָ



֕ ָ֓ ׿ֻֻ־ֹ פ , ֮ ֟-ԓ ִ ֟ ׿ִ ֻ֯ ֚׾ֻ ־ָ δ . Ӿ ׾ֵ֕ ֯ ™ ֮ ӓ ֻ֯ ֵӓ ׾ֻ. ӟָ ֮ ֬־ָ δ . ߻ ӛ ֮֕ Ƣ, , , ֤ӓ ָ֕ ֚ ָ֓ ׬֯֟ þָ. ָָ ָ ָδ ֕ ֻ .



ָ֕ ָ-ֻ



ד֟ꛓ ־ָ ״ֻ껵 ׿ֻֻӟ ׻ƻ , 'ָ֕ ָ-ֻ Ӯ ֻ֯ ָδ֮ ־ ֡ӓ ׮֤Ի֮ . 飾߾ָ߻ ־ ֕Ӯ ӓ ֖ ׿ָ־Ӭ ֻ֮. ӳָߓ ֕ ֮ ָ ֻ֯ ָ ֜և ־ ֜֟Ӯ ִ׾ֻ ֻ֯㸻 ; ָ֕ ָ-ֻ ָ֣֓ ֕ .



ָ֮ ָ



ִԟ ֓ ߸ . Ӯ ֕ (ןָ) ֓ ֵ֮ ֡ ֓ ־ וָ׾ֻ ֕֓ . ֟Ӯ ׯ֙. ֻ֕Ӯ Ƹ׾ֻ. ֮־ӓ ׬ָ ־ָ ֻ֯ ׬֯֟ ִֵ . ֣ ֕ ָ֕ ֕פ ֓ ֳָ־ , ֯, ֮, , ֮־ פ ך֓ ֵ֜ ו. Ӯ ִ֮֓, Ӳӟ, ӛ׻ ס֮, -׾ָ֪֬, -֕, פ ֤ Ꟶ.



ִָָ ִӛֵ



֕ ִֻ֕֓ ֯ן . ֓ ָδ־ָ ֕ Ƨ . ֻ֤֕֓ ֮ ֳָ־ 'ִָӬָ' ֤ ״ֻ. Ӳ 㬤ִ֬ ׾ֵ֕ ״ִֻ '߸ ֟ޛ' ֟ ֟. ֓ ו־ָ 'ָ֕-' ֻ. ֬֯㸓 ӟ סֳ֮ ߸ֻ ָ֮ӟָ ֻ '-ֻ ޛ' ֤ ״ֻ. ֳּ 㬤ӟ ָ־ָ 'ִָ-ִָ' ֻ֮. ӓ ִ Ӯ ֮֟ '֟-׬š' ֟ .



֯֟ ָ֕



־ӿߵ ֕ ֳָ ֻ־ָ ֙ ־ӿߵ ֮֕ ֻ ӿ֓ ֕ ׾֬Ԯ ӓ Ӯ֯֟ߓ ֵ . ָ֕ ֯ן ִӛֵ ӓ ׬ ִԟ ߸ . וִ֮֬-, ִӟ׬֯ן, ֯Γޛ, ֯Γޛ-ޛֵ, פ ӓ ֤ Ꟶ. Ӯ ֻ㌵ ָ ׾ֵ֕ ״׾ֻ. ָ 㬤ӟ ָ. ӓ ֵָ֕ . ֮ ޛ ָ֕ ׾֬Ԯ Ӯ ֻ֯ ӟ ֻ.



֓׸ ֕



֓׸ ӿ 㸾֟ ִ֬ . ӓ־־ ֵ֟ӟ߻ ׿ֻֻӟ ׻ƻ , ֓׸ ֕Ӯ ֜և ӛ ֕ӓ ֳָ־ ֻ֯ ֕ ִ׾ֻ (׾ֻ).



֕



ִԓ ֵ . ', , ֬, ֻ־ ד֡ ֛ ߻ ֕ -ԓ ӟ ֟ . ֓ οßߟ ׻ƻ . ߓ ꤸ ֻ㌵ ֕Ӳָָ ֓ ƴ 㬤 .



֓־֟ ָָ



֓ ֕֓ Ӿ֮ ӿ ֓־֟ ׾ֻ . ֓֕ ִԟ . ִ֬ԓ γ־֚֮ ָ ֵ . ֓ ӿӟ ꚴ ־ ׮ִ ֻ. Ӯ ֻ֯ ׬, ֵֻ֟ ֕ ָָӟ ָ֧ 欤 ֵԟ ָδ ׾ֻ. ָָ ӟ ֬ ָδ ߸ . ӟ ָ ָ֕ ӟ ֬ ָδ ߸ . ӯ ָ ֮֕ ָָ߲ ֜ևԟ ָ . ָӟ ָ֕Ӯ ֮֓ ֛껵 Ꜷӟ ָ֓ ָδ ׾ֻ.



ָ֮֕



. . 1787 ֬ ִ긓 ָ֕ ׾ֵ֕ Ӯ ָ֚ӯӮ ִ : ו, ־ֻ ָ֕ Ӭ ִ긓 ֻ֕֯ (־ƮԸ) ֮׾ֻ. ָ Ԯ ָ֚ӟ : ָָ֛ δ . ָ ֕Ӯ Ӯ ִ ֻ֟. ָ֮֮֕ ֻ֯ ֿꙶ Ɵ ֡ ָδ֮ ӛ פ. ָӟ ָ֚ӓ ׌ ׾ֵ֮֕ ָ֮֕ ֖ פ , ָ ָ֚Ӯ ִ ֯渻 ־. ָ֮֕ þִߓ ֖ ӑ֮ ߟ ־Ɵ. ֲָָ ִ׮֟ ֡ ֟ ֯׾ ™ ֙ . ֮ Ʒ֓ ։ ֟ ָӮ ֻ'ָ֕Ӯ ־ , ӓ ֖ӓ ֻ֮ ; ߾ӟ ֵ՟ ָ֚ ִӟ ξ ־Ɵ. '



ָ֮ Ӧ֕.



־ֻӟ Ӧ֕ ֮ 'ָ֮' (֯ן) ֻ. Ӯ ׾֮긓 ֕ Ƹ׾ֻ ֵ֯渓 ֕֓ ֳ֮ . ӓ ֮ 1815 ֬ ֯ӟ þԾ ֻ.



ßֻ ֻ֯.



ӡ ֯ןִ֬ ӓ Ӿ ֮ߵ . ։ ֕׮֯, ָָ-֧, ׿ֻ ִ֬ԓ ֮ ֌ ֟. 긾֛ ָ֣֓ ֑־ӿ ֕ ߬־ֻ ӓ ӡ .

ָߓ ֤ ӿ߸֕ Ʈ Ӯ ָ֣־ָ δ ߸Ӯ ӓֿ 㬤 ־ָ ׾ֵ֕ ״׾ֻ. ֓֯δ ִ֮ Ӳֵ֟־ָ ƻ , ßֻ ߻ ֻ֕֯ (־ƮԸ) . ֵ֯ӟ Ӳ 㬤 ӟ ִ ֟ ־ ֻ.



֯ן ֳ.



ֳ ߴ ֕֯ . ִԓָӟ . ָ֣֓ ֙ ֕ ߴ֤ ֓ ֬ . ֤־ָ ֓ ߓ ֻ ֟ ֕ ߴ֤ ã֟ . ־ ִֻ֮Ӯ ֮֕֬߾ָ δ . דӟ ֻ. ָӟ ֳ擵 ƕ֮ ֲӮ ߸ ן֮ 㬤֓ 㬤֓ ־ ָ ֳָ ӯ׾ֻ. ֳ ֻ֯ פ ִε ָ֓ ֻ֮ӟ š . 欤 ֮ӟ Ӭ ӓ ֻ־ָ ֮ Ƣ߾ָ߻ Ӳָߟ֓ ֮֟֬ (ִ׵) ֻ. ' ֵ ָ֜ ? ֻ֯ ֻ־ָ ֕׾ֻ ִֻ֮ӓ ֯֟߻ ֻ֯ áá ֻ ֓ ֣Ԯ ޵ ֛.



ֵ֯㸓 פ



ֵ֯-֕֓ פ֤֯ ָߓ ԯֵ՟ Ӯ ׾ֻ ֕ӟ ׿ß ־ ִ鬤 ޵ Ӯ ָ֓ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ ָ֚֕ Ӯ ָ ִ ֻ. ӯ Ƹ ֻ ӟ.

֕֓ ֤渿 פߓ ֤ ֻ ֮ ִ ו ־և ֵ֮ ֕ӟ ֯㸓 ָ֕߾ֹ ֕ ־ ֻ. ־ פ ִ֓Ӧ Ӯ  ӑי ִ긾ָ ֜և ֵ֓ ׬ָ ִ׾ֻ.

֓֯δ פ ִ֓Ӥ ֲ֛ ֵӯ ָ֓ ӟ ׯε ׾֯֡ פ . Ӿ֟ 1862 ֬ ֵ֯ ֯ ֕ӟ ֯㸓 ָ֕߾ֹ ӛ ֻ ֯㸓 ӑ Ӧ֕ פ ִ֓Ӧ Ӯ ״ ӛ ӯ׾ֻ. : ֻӟָ֮ ֜ևԓ ֻߓ ־ פ ִ֓Ӧ֮ ֻ֯ ׬ á ֻ֮ 欤 ӯ׾ֻ. פ ӟ ִԟ Ӯ 1861 ֬ ָ ו֮ײӲ ןš ׾ֻ .

߸ӓ ָδ֓ ֯ -֣ . ־ֹ פ , ݵ ֹ ִ֬Ԯֵ ָ޵ ֓ ֡ ָ޵ ָ֟ ֟. ָ ' ִ ֕' Ծ߸ ֟ӟ ִԾ߸ ֟֟. á ֮֓ .





֯־ ,

ֻ Ӿ ֵ ־.



ӓ ־՟ ׾֡ ־ ֻֻ ־ . פӲָ ӯΤ׋ӟ ־ ֦֤ 㬤 ӓִ߯ ֟Կֵ߯՟ Ӳָ ӯΤֵӟ ־ ֪ ֤߯ ֦֤ 㬤 ֟ԯֵ՟ ֻ֮ ֟. פӟ ִ׸ӟ ־ԡ ֻ֤ ִֵֻ ֟־ָ ֟. ֓ ־ á î֮ פӟ ֟֟ ֮Ӥ֮ ־ӟ֓ ֮ ֟. ֮ ӯֻ־ָ ֣֟֓ ֵӯ ֵ־ָ ξ֮֓ ִ, ֤Ծ, ֕Ծ, , ֟, ӵִ, ֯, , ӓ֮, ʓֵ. ִԯ ִԓ þֹ-׾־֮ ֟. ִԴ ־ ֻ֮-־ ֟֟. ָ ָ߻ ִՓ ־՟ ܵ֟: ָ֮֬ ֟. ξ֮֓, ֮ܵ ֚ ך ׾־֮ כ ׾ֻ ֟ ӓ ֮֓ ֤֓ ־ á ֵ֤ ֟. ִԓ פֿ ־ԓ ִׯ ֻ־ָ ־ ִ ָïָ ׻֮ ֟ ֟־ԟ߻ ֻ֯ ֟ ֻ껵 ֲָ֧֬ ִ ֟֟. ַ Ӿ ֟֟ Ӯ ִ֯֡ ֚ ִ ֮֓ ֟. פӟ ־ á ֻ֯ ֌ָ߮ Ο ־ ֟. פ ־ ֟. פ ֟. ֓ פӟ ֦֤ 㬤 ִ Ӭ ִ ־ ֟. פֿ ־ԕ פӟ ֟ ו ן Ӭ ֟. ֦֤ 㬤 ֟Կ ӟ֓֟Կ ֟֟. פ֓ ָ Ɵ ִ֕֟֟. ֿá֯δ פֿ Ο ִֵ ָ Ɵ ִ֕֟֟. ֿá֯δ פֵֿ Ο 껵ִ ָ֓ ֳ . ָ ֻ ־ԓ ֙ פ־ פӟ֓ ֟ߟ ֟. ך פֿ -֡ ׮״֢֮ ״ָ ֜ߟ ֟֟ ־ . Ӧ ָ ֟֟ ޵֮ ־ӟӓ ׳ ֟. ӟָ ֮֮ӟָ ӟ֓֟Կ Ο ֻ֓ ֟. Ο ׮֕Ի ־ ߟ ߟ ־ ӟָ ֻ ֟.

Ӳָ ӯΤֵӟ ־ 'ֵ' ֟֟. ֬ ׸ ָ ֕ ָ֓ ֻ֟ . ִ֬ ֵ ָ֓ . ׸ ֕ ֮, ֕ ; ָӿ, ֓ Ӿ ãָ ߟ߮ ֵ ֟֟. ֓ ִֻ֮ ߮ ָ . ֻ֮֬ 70 פ, ™ֻ 6 Ʈ, ִ֬ ָ Ʈ. ߟ 70 פ֓ ãָ ֓ 㸾֟ ֦֤ 㬤 ӓִ . Σִ ָӯָ . ָӟ ֟֟ , ׻ֵ֓ Ӯ ָӟ ֟֟ , ׻ֵ֓ Ӯ ֟ ֓ ָӯָ . פ 'Ӿ֔' Ӿ Ӿ֟׸ ־ ֟֟. Ӿ֟׸ ־ ֕ ֬ӓ Ծ ׮׿֟ ޵֓ פ. Ӿ֟׸ ־ ֬ ֲָָ ־ԓ ֟ פ ֹ ־ ֪ ֤ ֦֤ 㬤 ֟ԯֵ՟ ֚ פ Ӳָ ӯΤֵӟ 'ֵ' ־ ֮֟֟. פӲָ ӯΤӟ ֚ ֕ 10 פ ֻ֮ ֟֟. Ӳָӓ ֵ ֻ־ָ ַ פ֯ פӲָӓ ֻ ־ . Ӿ֟׸ ־՟ ֟ ԟ ֯ֆ֯ӟ ׾ָ ֟߻ ֲ֧ '״֓״ ' ֗ ' ״֣ . ' ִ ߟ ֟. ִ֙ ָ֮ ߸׾ֵ֕ӓ ֤֮ γ׾֟ ֵ ־Դ֬ Ӥ ־, ֻ֯ ֕ӟ ־ԡ Ԯ ֜ .



™׮ ־.



פӲָ ӯΤֵӟ߻ ָ Ɵ֯ ־ '™׮ ־' . ־ ן, ֻ ֜ Ʈ֓ ֙ ֚פ ֻ֮ ֟. ֮֟δ ֚ Ӥָ . ߯ӟ ־֮ וִ֮פ . ӓ ޵֚ þ ָ ֻ֟껵 פӟ ֟֟. ֮µ ։ ִֻ פӟ ֮־֮ ӓ ־ ָ֕ ֟. '֬Ε׾֮֬' ִ ׾֮֬ פӟ ךך ֟. ӓ 鿵 ָ֮ ֟. Ӳָ ӯΤֵӟ ֵ ־׿־ֵ ׾֮֬ Ɵ֓ ã֮ . ָӟ ӓ֟ ԟ ֮ Ʈӟ ޵֓ ׸֚ ִ֯߯ Դֵ՟ 9 פ ֻ ֟.



־߸ ֵ֮.



㬤 ֵꤿ . ־߸ӓ ֮ן֣ . פֿ ָ ԟ ־ ֯ֆֻ֯ פ ־ָ Ӥ ֯ֆֻ֯ Ӿ ӟ γ־ ֬߮ ֵ֮ ָ֕ ֟. ֟:ֻ ׮֑֟. ֡ ־ԕ׮ ֳ ֵ֮ ֟. ־ ָ־ԟ ֕ ָָӮ ֯ֆֻ֯ ֕ӟ ־߸ ֵӟߓ ߸ ֬־֟ ָָ .



߸-֮-ֵ֮.



ӓ ןִ ߣ . ־߸ Ӯ ֮ (ֻ֖֮) ֯ ֻ֮ӟָ ӓ ƻ ִԯ֤ ֬ӟ߻ ֕ ָӟ ׾ֻ֯֓ ־ԟ־ָ ֻ. ֓ ôן ֜ ֪ ן֤֯ ߸ ֮ ֵӟ ֻ֮ ֟. ֟ ׾. . 2001 ֬ Σִ֟: ; ־ ֕ߴ֬ ӟָ ִ֬ ӛߓ ƕָ֓ ߸ ֮ ֵ֮-־ ӟ ֮ ꚶ δ־ָ ָ֕ ޵ӟ ֻ.



֯ӓִ.



פӲָ ӯΤֵ֓ ֮֟δ ֮֓ ֻ ־ ԓ ֟ ֵ֓ 'ָ' ֻ, ™ ӟ ָָ ־ԟ֓ Ӧ ֮ ߟ . ־ 'ֻ֮֯ӟָ ֖֮֓ ָ' דӟ ß , ƴ ָߟ ַ ׮ Ӵ֮ ֡ ׻ƻ־ָ ӓ 㬤ߓ ָ ֮ ֬ӟ ׾ֵ ׿׾ֻ ׮ָ פ. ӓ Ӿ ¯֤ӟ ֲֻ . Ӯ ֻ־ָ '֙ӛִ' ִ ֬ӟ-ӣ֓ ֮ . ֮ ֻ־ָ ֲֻ ֵ֓ծ ӣ á׮ֲ֬ š 㬤 ӓִߓ פֿ ֟׾Ԭ ӑƟ á֓ . ִ ֯ӓִ ן֣ פ. ӟ ֬ ֻ. פֿ áӓ ֟. Ӳָӟ ן 㬤 ӓִ ֮ ӓִ ֮֟֟ פֿ ִ ӣ֓ ֟.

ָ߻ ־׿־ֵ Ο ߣӓ ֳ, ֮, , ֻ֖֮ ׮־ פ ֻ֟ . פֿ ־ ֻ֮ ֟֟. - ך Σִ ߣ . ֳ֤ ӓ ֮-ֵӟ Ӿ ׮־-ן֣ ָ֕ ֟.



߯־ֻ.



ָ ֻ֟ ֯־ ִ֬Ԯֵߓ ָ֕ ֟. ָӟ ׿־ֵ ־ ӟ , ӯδ ָ Ӥ ֮֟֟. ־Դ֬ ־՟ ׬ ֮ߵ ߯־ֻ Ӿ פߓ . ֮ ֪ 30 (־õ) פֿ ֟. ֱ-þ֓ ָ ָ פֿ Ӭ ו ן פӓ ֻ֮֙ ִ߯Ӯ ׾ֿ֓ ֟. ָָ ֮߯ . ֟ӯ ֻ֟ ֻ . ָӟ ֻ ֓ Ɵ . ߕ ֓ ӲӬ . ִ֓Ӧӓ ꬵ֬߻ ִָֿ֮ ־֟֟. ָ ִ֙ ֓ פݾֵ֕֓ ֮֟֟. ָӟ ִֵӟ ֟֟֓ . ָ ֟ Ӥ-ӟ ֲ֟ӟ ״ ߟ.  ִӲӬߓ Ӿ֟ 705, ׾.. 840 ֬ ׻ƻ ׸ӿ . ӟ . ־߸ӓ ׮־֓ Ԯ Ӯ ׻ƻ , ־߸ ־ָ֮ ־ ߾Ӯ ֤ ־֯ӟ ֻ. ߻ Ӥ ӟ ֟ ӯ޵ 3 ֛֚ Ʈ ƻ ֟ ֮ ִ־õ γ֟ ӓ ׾ָ֬ ԓ ֿ Ӯ ׌ ֯ . ָ ֵָ֓ Ӯ ӓ . ߯ ־ֻ. ־ פӓ ֿ֮ ־֯ߓ ֳִӛ ִֵֿ ֻӻ . ־ ֌ וָ֮ӓ ޵֚ ־ ָ ԟ ӓ ׮־ פ֓ ׮״֢֮ ߯־ֻߓ ָ֕ ֟.

ִ֬Եӓ ֕֓ ã֟ ƻ ֟ ָ߻ ™߾ָ ֓ ׾ ָ , ־߸ ׮־ ߯־ֻ ֻ֮ ֟. ָӟ ־ ֬Τ ֬ ָ֑֕޵ֲָָ . ־߸ӓ δ֟ ӲӬ ֻ֟ ֻ ӓ־ָ γ־ ӟ ӳ־֮ߵ ֟ . 'וִ׮ֵ' ִִ ֹ 㮤 ֟ 㬤֓ ׯε ׿µ ֮Ӥ Ӯ . ־߸ӓ ׮־֓ ִָ֓ ֟ ־ ֵµִ֮ ֮Ӥ ֟ '։֓Ӥ ? ־֮ 㬤ӓֵ Ԯ֚ ֙ þֹ . ' ־ֹ ï™ , ֻ֯־ . ־߸ӓ γ־ ׮:ӿֵ .

׿־ֵ ߯־ֻߓ ֮֓ ֬ן ־ֹ ο־ָ ֻ ֿ ֛. ߯־ֻߓ פֿ ֮߯ ֓ ָ ӟָ ָ ״ . ־ . ־߸ӓ ׮־ ֻ; ֓־ ֓ ܵ ׿µ ִ ָ֬ Ӯ ֮֓ (ֻ֖֮֓) ֯ ֻ. ִ ִִ֬ . ㌟ ֮ Ӯ ִ֬՟ š ֻ֮ '׌ֻ' Ӿ 'ֻ֮' ֲ־ָ áӟ ӓ ֜. ֬ן ߓ ֮֓ Σ ־ ӟ ߓ ֮֓ þֹ ָ ֻ ֻ ӟ ׾ֿ ֵֿ . ʤ™߯ά֮ ־ָ֬ ֮־ ִִ֕֬ ֵ: ־ֵ ״. ֮߯֓ ֟ߓ ֟ ָ ֻ ֟֟. ִ֓ ֛֛߻ ֟ ֤ ֳꓵ (ִָֿ֓) ôן֯ߟ֣ ֤ ޵ ֮µ, ֿ ־ԓ ִ֟ ֟. ӓ ֚֚ ד֡ ־ ֻ ֟֟. ֯δ ߯־ֻߓ ֿӟ ִ ־ӟֵ֓ ׮־ ߓ ־ ֙ .

߯־ֻߓ פֿ ֟:ֻ ־ פӟ ־߸ ׮־ֵ֓ ޵ô׮״֢ ־ Ӯ (֛) ֜ ӓ ֟. ָ ׾֬߱ פֿߓ ֟. ָָ פֿ ֮ ֵָ ֓ ־ֹ ï™ ӟ ,



ֻ Ӿ ֲӬ֮.



ָ ֮ߵ ֮֟ ֻ ־ԕ׮ ִ֕ ֲ֮֮ ־ Ӿ ֻ ־ . ָ֬֟: ־ָ ָӓ ֟ӟ ܵ Ӭ֟֟. ֻ֓ ֲ֮֮ ֟֟. ܵ Ӭ ֟. Ӭ֟Ӯ ֟֟. ' ߮ Ӭ֟. ֗ ־. ֻ Ӯ ׳։ ָ ֵ. '

ָָ ָ ָӟ Σ . פֿ ־ Ӥ擵 ָ־ָ ֕ ֮µ֓ ד֡ ֜ ֟֟. '' ֟֟. Σִ Ӯ ֻ Ӯ Ӭ֟֟ ֓ ָ ֮ ֟. ֮ ׾־֮ Ӯ ֲֲ֟ Ɵ ׾ָ֓ , ָߟ߮ ֻ. ָӟ ™ߓ ֟ Ɵ ״ . ֕֓ ִ֮־ָ֟֓ ӲӬӟ ָӟ ֜־ֹ ־Բֲ֟ ׾ֿ ֮ . ӟ ֡ ֲ֟ӟ ӯ֛. ֟: ֻ߻֯δ .

޵ ֵ֮ ָӟ ִ߬ Ӿ֓ ֕ ֕ ߟ . ֓ ָ ӡ , -ֻ, ï֟, ִ λ֤, ׮ ֵ֮֓ ֿ֟ ӓ ӑֲָָ ֵ֮ ֻ. ӡӮ ƙ ֟ ֕ ӓ Ԯ . ־ ־ ֮ã ֻ . ָ ֟Ӯ ՟ ָָ߲ ӡӓ á֣ ֻ. ӡ Ƹ ֮ ֻ־ָ Ӯ ָ޵ ׮ֻ֑. ԟ ӓ ֹ֖ á֣ ֻ ך ֮ã ֻ ֜. ֵֻֿ֯ ֤ ָ ӓ־ָ ָ ޵֚ ӡӮ ֻ־ָ ֟֓ ӓ ֟ ָ־ָ ߻. ֻ֕ ™ ִֻ֕ Ӯ ӡӮ ֻ֯ ֕֟ פ. ָ ӡ ß֮֯渓 ֕ ֩ . ֻ߮ ꚶ ֻ֮ ֩ ֕֓ ֡ ֓ þ֬߮ . ֩ ֮֕ ֮ ָ֮ ޵֓ . ݵ ָ֮ ֻ߮ ֻ֟.

ֻӟָ֮ ӯֵֵ֮ԓ ӑ ׾ָ ߟ ߟ ß֮֯ ֻ. Ӯ ֟ ޵֓ ׮Ե ֻ. ֻ Ӯ ™ ִֻ֕ Σִ֟: ָ ֲָ. ָӟ ֻ֯ ִ֮֓ ֤ ޵֓ ㌟ Ӯ ֻ. ֕ ֩ ԓ ָ֮֓ ôָ ֓֯ ֓ ֕ ֟ פ֚ ֻ֯ ֻ. ״ֻ־ָ ֻ߮ ӑ֓ ָ ֕ ꚶ ׳ӟ ֹ ӟ ִ ֖ ޵֓ ־ Ե֮ .

߾ָ ֻ. ״ףֻ ָߟ߻ ׮״֢֖֮ (֖) ִ֕ ֻ. ־ ֓ ӟ ' ! ' ꤯Τ ָ ׮ֻ֑, ־ ֻ껵 㻻֮ ֓ ָ ׾ָ֓. Ӿ Ӯ ־ ׾ָ Ӯ ׾ߵ ׬ ֯ ֻ ߾ָ߻ ֟ Ӯ 㻻Ӯ ֻ֟. 㻻 ֲ֛ ׾ָ ߕ־ Ӯ ־ ֻ֟. ׾ָ׮ ß߮֯渓 ֩֕֓ Ӭ㟾 . Ӯ ֩ ֕֕־ ։ ׾ָ֓ '֩֕ ֵ ָ׳ֻ ! ӿӟ ֣ ֻ . ָ ֕֓ ֯þ Ӿָ ֣ ֻ ָ ָ ? ߓ ָ ֜ ֻ ָ ׾֗׾ָ ָ '? ֩ ֮֕ ֻ ֤֮֕ 껵֓־ ӟ ׮־꤮ ֲ֟ ޵ ֯ ִ֣ ޵֓ Ӯ ֻ֟. ׾ָ Ӯ ִֹ֮ ָ ֻߓ ֖ӟ ξ Ӯ ֣Ԯ ߮ ־ֻ ִ߮ ֻ֟ ֻ߮ ֮֓ ׾ָ Ӯ ׾ε ߓ γ־֮ ֻ֯ ָ߸ . Ӯ ֻ֯ ֵ ־ԟ־ָ ָ ֮µָ֢ ־ԟ־ָ ןָ ֵ ޵ ִֻ ֿӟ֓ Ӳ ֻ. ו ן : : ָ ֕ ֻ. ֟ ־ ֻ ߕ־ ֣Ԯ ֻ , ָ֕ ֯ ֻ֯ ׾ߵ . ֻ֯ ֯֓ γ־֮ ߮ ִ ֻ . ֻ ֕ ֻ.

ֻߓ ָ֮֓ ־ԡ : : ָ ֻ֕ Ӯ ן֖ , ߾ָ߻ Ի Ӯ ָ ֓ ֮ ֻ־ָ ־ Ӯ ֵ֓ ƻ ֮ ֵ . ָ Ӯ פ֓ ־ . ׮ 700 ֜֓ ָ ־ . ߓ ָ֟ ӓ ןן ֮־ Ӯ ָ ֻ֯ ן֖ ־Ԯ ָïָ ӓ ޵֓ ֮֮ Ӭֻ. ֓ ô ֓ ֲӬ֮֓ ֵ֕֯՟ ֻ֟ ֻ . ׳ӟ߾ָ ד֡ӓ ֮ ֟ '' ֟֟. ֲ ִ ֲ֓ ֳӿ . ֓߮ ֬Ӯ ִ ֟ ֟. ֯δ ֻ Ӿ Ӭ֮֓ ֓ ֮ ִ֬ ֻ . פֿ ׾ָ ֿ֟ ӓ ֟ ֮ӟָ ֯ֆ֯ӟ Ӭ ׳ӟ߾ָ ִӓ ד֡ ֜ ָ֤֮ פ ֟ ӟָ ־ԕ ֮ ֟. ָ߲ Ӯ ֮ פ ֟.



3 ߣ.

ָ֬֟: ך ֡ ޵ ֟֟ ך ߣ ׾ֻ ֟. ߣ ֲ֓ ֙. ֕ î֮ ޵֓ . ָӟ ָ ߣî֮ ã֮ ӟ ֻ֮ . ֤ӓ ޵֮ ֯֓ ֿ ™ ӤӮ ֻ֮ ӟ ֻ֮ . ֿ ™ ӤӮ ֻ֮ Ӯ ֻ֮ , ֟ ޵֓ ֬ Ӥ ӟ ִֻ ך áֵ ֟ 껵 ã֮ ߣã֮ ִֻ֕ ֟֟. ָӟ ֻ ӟ . ֟֯δ ߣ ֲ֓ . ֕ ָ ִ ָ ޵֓ ׾ָ ֯ӓ ֮֯ ׮־ֵ֯՟֓ ã֮ ™߮ ך ߣӓ ֮פ ֓ ֻ ֟߻ Ӿ 敵 ֌, ׮ Ӯ ך ׮־ ֯ ֻ ך ֕ ߣ ֻ֮ ֟.

ߣԓ ܵ ӟ . ־ ֌ ָ ִ֬ԓ ֮֟ߴ ֓߮ ߣ ֕ ׾ô ֻ ך־ָ ן Ӿ ֟ӓ ַ ֟. .-ܵ֟ ֦֣߮֓ Ӥ߸ӟ߻ . Ԯ֣֓ ן ֦׾ֻֿ ӾӮ ־ Ӥ ֻ ֟. ־ָ Ӥ֓ Ӿ ֟ ־ ֓ þֹ ֤ פ ֟. ֚ߓ ֟: ן ָ ׾ֻ ֟. פ ֟ .

ִ֬ԓ פӲָ Ӳָ ӯΤֵӟ ߣã֮ . ֯ ߣ Ӯ 敵 . ָ , פӲָӮ Ӿ ӲָӮ ֮ . Ӿ ӯΤֵ ֓ ã֮ 敵 ֮֟ ָ ָ ӯΤֵ ַ ã֮ , ӯ֯, ־֯, ָָ, ֡ӕֵ, ִ׿ָ פ ߣ Ӯ 敵 ָ ֕֯ӣ, ߟ, ָ֡, ָ, Ӝָ, ָֻ, ָ֬ ֮֜ פ ߣ פӲָ ӯΤֵӮ ֮ . ָ , ָ פ ߣ Ӳָ ӯΤֵ ֮֟. ך ֬ ֬ ߣ֓ ִ֮ ׸ֵ ӟ־ָ߮ פ ֟ .



ײָ Τ



ִ ׿ָ :- ƕָ וֻӟ ӓ ן ֬ ӟ 敵 . ӟ פӲָ Ӳָ ָܵ֓ ߟ߮ ֮ ֟ ֟֟. ֳ֤, 敵, ״֣֮ ־߸ ӓ ׿־ֵ ߓ 20 ߣӮ ־ԟ־ֹ֓ ׮־֯֯ ֻ. 23 ߣ Ԯ֣ ӓ Ӿ־ֹ Ӿ ־ԟ Ԯ֣ ƻ Ӿ֮ ֬ . 껾ָ߻ Ù֮֓ Ӿ ԯ Ԯ֣ ֻ . ־ԟֵ֓ ׿ָ־ָ ֻ껵 Ӥ߸֓ Ԯ ޵֚ ƕָ פӲָ Ӳָ á ֟֟. ־ԟ־ָ߻ ӯ Ӥ߸ӓ ӓ Ԯ ޵ߟ 18 ӓ ֛ ֚ ֟֟.

֜:- ֜ ֻӟ ֵֹ ֟ . ֓ ֜ 2 ֆ ־ָ ןִ ӛߟ ֻ . Ӥ߸ӓ ݮ־ֿ ӯ֛֟. Ӥ߸ Οߴ ӛߟ . ֟֟ , ֛־ָ 10 ߣ ߟֻ֣֮ Ӯ ֯ ֻ֖֮֓ ֯ ֻ. כ֮ ֓ 1901, Ε ֮ ׻ƻ , ֓߮ ֛ ׮׿֟֯ ֬ ߣ ֻ ƕ, ָ Ԥߓ ־߮ ן  ןԓ ӛ ׿־ֵ ֛־ָ ד֮ ӯ֛֟ ־ ߣ֓ߓ .

־:- . ־߸ӓ Σִ ָ֬ ִþִ ӓ ׮־ . ֵ, ֙ ևԮ־ָ ֻ껵 ֲ֤ Ù֮־ֹ ߛ ־ָ .

־֯:- ־־ֹ 13 ־ָ ןִ ߣ . ־߸ӓ ׮־ . ֓ ôָ ֻ־֓ ֳ֬ ׾ֻֿ פ ִֻפ ֟֟. ִֻפ֟ ־߸þִ, ִþִ ִþִߓ ֤ ã֮֯ 껵 . ֮ ֪ ־ֿ . ־߸ӓ ׮־פֿ ך ָ ֡ ָ.

֕ Ӿ ӓ֛֯:- ־֯߾ֹ 11 ֕ . ֬ ֓ ֮֕֬ . 20 ߣ ׮Ο֣֮ ӓ ֮ ֻ. ֕ߓ ָ ֕ ӓ ־ԟ . ӓ ֳ֬ ֕ ֻ . ־ֹ ןֻ ӓ֛֯ ֟֟. . ־߸ӓ ƻ ֤ Ƹ֓ ׾ֻ֯֓ ־ԟ־ָ ֻ . ӓ ֛־ָ ִפ ־ԓ Ӥ ޵ 15-16 ӓ ֛.

֯:- ֕ 10 ־ָ . . ־߸ӓ ֮ã֮ ִֻ ֮ߵ ִֻ֕ ֟.

Ӥָָ :- ֻ֯ 30 ־ָ ֛ . ֓ 12 ߣ þִ ӓ ã֮ ֻ֮ ֟. ֻ֯ ָ ָ֣֮ ־ָ ӯ֯ .

֙:- ײָ ӟ֓ ֮֕֬ . Ƹӟ ָ֕ Ù֮֕־ ֿ֮ ߾ָ ָ֤֯ 㤿Ԯ š߮ ㌟߻ֳ ֻ. ӓ ߾֮ ӟ Ӥ ֯Τ .



ָ Τ.



ָ֮:- ָ֓ ֤ߑ֙ ƻӟ ֵ ַ־ָ ׾ֻֿ ִӤ߸ Ӳָ Ӥ߸ . ֟־ ߣ . Ԯ֣ ӓ ֮ã֮ ӓ ֻ֮ ֟. ӓ ן ֬ õ־֤ ׾ֵֻ֪ . ӟ ִ֬ ׾ֵ ן þֹ֓ ֻ ׿ פ ֟. ƻ֟ ӯΤֵ֓ Ӥ߸ . ã֮ 23 ߣԸ . Ԯ֣ þִ ӓ ֳ֮״ ִֻ ֮ߵ . ָ ָ֮ ߣӓ ֮ã֮ Ƹӟ Ӥ߸ .

Ư :- ָ֮ ֹ 6 ־ֹ ָ֣ Ӿ֓ Ӿ .  ֟֟֓ ™߮ ן ֬ . ך Ư Ӿ֓ ָ ֻ ־ ߣ ֣֮ ӓ ֮ã֮ . ך ִפ ִԿ . פֲָ ӓ Ӥ߸  Ӥ߸֓ ֤ ־ Ӳָ Ӥ߸ 껾 Ù֮֕־ Ӭֻ .

Ӧ:- ָ֣־ֹ 9 Ӧ֙ Ӿ֓ Ӿ . Ӧߓ ݮ־ֿ ִֻ֕ ֟. ך׋ 8 ߣ Ӧγ ־֮ ӓ ֮ ֻ . Ӛ ӯΤֵ֓ Ӥ߸ ׮ָ׮ָ .

ε:- ס־ ִ֓ ־ . ֓ ӟ ״֮ߟ ֵ־֙ (֛֓ ֛) . ֟֟ , ֳ֤Ӯ ך ֯ . ֟ ֓߮ .

:- ֲ֤, ֮֯ ӓ ֳ֬ ָߵ 껾ָ ָָ Ӿ֓ Ù֮ . 20-25 ־ָ Ӿ . ֓ ־ γ Ӿ֓ ־ԟ . ָ ֜޵֚ 116 ֵַ Ӭֻ껵 . ֟֟ , ֛־ָ 6 ߣ ֩γ ־ӟӮ ֯ Ӯ ֻ ֮֓ ֯ ֻ . פ Ӥ߸֓ ִ긓 ןִ .

ֲ :- ֯ ָ ־ָ ֵ֜ Ӿ֓ Ӿ . ֓֕־ Ӳ Ӿ ֓߮ Ӳ ָ ֟ ֟. ך . ֩γӓ ֮ ֻ .

ꬵ:- ֯ Ù 껾ָ ֛ 39 ־ָ Ù֮ . 3 Ӥ Ӿ . ֓ ֓߮ Ӿ Ӭ ֻ֟ ֟. ¯֤ӟ ߣӓ ֮ã֮ ߻ Ӥ߸ӟ ¯֤ӟ ־ӟӓ ן ׾ִָ֮֕ .

ꙴә:- ֲ֤ ӛ ß־ָ 2 ִָֻ֯ . 10 Ӿָ ꙴә . ֓ ֓߮ Ӿ ־ß ֻ֟ ֟. 20 ߣ ӳ־֣֮ ӓ ֳ֮״ .

ӯ߻ :- ߣ ֲ֤ וֻӟ Ù 껾ָ ֵ֮ӕ Ù֮ 8 . 13 ߣ ׾ִֻ֣֮ ӓ 4 ֻ. Ʈӟ ֡ ֹ ־ .

:- .ָ. ָ ֜ ևԮ־ָ ־ֻ Ù֮ . 8 ־ָ ִָ֮ Ӿ , ֓֕־ . ־ָ ֯õ ߟ ֟Ӯ . Ԯ֣Ӿָ ֚֮ Ӯ ֻ֖֮֓ ֯ ֻ. ֻ ™ߴ߯ ֵ֤߯՟ ֡ ָ.