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֍. ֭֟ꓵ ׾֟֓ ׾֢֓ ֍ ֻ֭ ֟ ֟ ; ָ Ӭ ״ӓ ֍ ֓ ց֍ ֭֟, ֻ֯ ֿ֟㬤ߓ ֵ ֬֝֯ߓ ָ߸֓ ־, ִ ӯֻ־ָ : ֓ Ӿ ֜ ֵ. ™ ֬ӓ פֵ ֻ . ֡ ™ ㌟ ״ ִ֬ Ӑ֟ ִ֕ ֵ. ֐ ֛ þ֟: ™ ֝ ؍ ַӭ ™ ևԙ . ָ ֐֓ ևԙ ãן ֝ ӟ ֻ֯ ꝵ֚ ֡, ㌟ߓ ֐Ծָ ։ ֍־ָ, ַ :ӓ ִ ֵ ֜֓ ֓ . ֵ֓ԭ ׻֯ϴ֝-

' : ־ ™ۿ׍۟֟ l

ד׍ֵ ㌟õ õ֤ :ִ֣־ ִ ll

: ־ õ ֭֬ l

ֵ ㌟õ õ֤ :ִ֣־ ִ l' ־֣. ll



''֯ϴ֝ ִ㌟ ꝵ֚ : ؍ ָ . ָ ד׍ ֻ֭ӟָ : ֙ ־ߓ ֐֟ ; ֓֯ϴ֝ : ؍ ֬ ָ߳ ߟ ; ָ ㌟ߓ ֐ þߍָ֭ӟָ : ؍ ֓ ־ ֵ.

֬ӓ ֵֿ֯ ֝ : ֓ ֭ אֻ֟ ; ָ ӭ ־֭֬ ։ ™ ֭־ ֤ ֐ ־ ֚ ֵֿ֯ ָ֓ אֻ֟ .

í֭ ™ ӟ ևԙ ִ֕ ־ָ י ֟. ָ ֬ӓ ָ׸ þ֓ Ӑֻ ֍. ֟֟ ֬ӓ ֟־ָ ֻ֓ ֟ ־ָ ָ ד֍ ָ ™ ֬ ִֻ֕ ֟. ָ ۟֍ ߍ . ӟӾָ ֓ ִ֟, ӟ֛ ӟ֛ ֭ ָ ֟. ֬ ֵפ ֍ ָ ֟. ִ ӓ ӟ֛ӟ ִ֟ ӟ־ָ ִ֟ . ֍֭ ׻ ֬ ֻ֯֕־ ֛ ֟֟. ֻ֟ӭ ֛ ֐ ֟֟. ֝ ۻ֟ . ֓ د֔ ֛ ֵָ߸㬤֚ ֝֓ã֭ ߾֕ӟ ֵ ã֭ ֱ ֚ߓ . ֭ ؍ ֭֭ ӭ ׯ֍׾ֻ껵 . ֬ӓ ָ߸ þ֓ ֻ ָ ӓ ֟ ӟ 㬤 ֟.



8 ã֭.

֬ӟָ֭ ָӟ߻ ־ ߾ 14 ãӭӟ ׾ֳ֐ֻ . ã֭ӭ ã֭ ֟֟. ߾֓ ؍ þֳ־ 5 ύָ ֟֟. , ׵֍, ֿ״֍, ׵֍, ֵֿ״֍ ׸״֍. ־ ԓ ֭ ֮ ֟, ׵֍ ֟֟. ־ Փ ֿ֭ ֟, ӭ ֿ״֍ ֟֟. ־ ԓ ֵ ִֿ֭ ֟, ִֵֿ ӓ׿־ֵ þֳ־֭ ֯ ֟ ׸״֍ ־ ֟֟. ߾ִ֬ ֟֟. ֓ ֻ֟ ־֭ ֟֟ ӓ ã֭ ã֭ ֟֟. אֻ֟֯ϴ֝ . ֟ӓ ӓ ׾֍֍ ֹ ã֭ אֻ֟ ִֻ ™߭ ã֭ ֕ ֬۟֍ ֭֟֓ ֍ֿ . ӭ ֟֓ ״֍ ֟ Ի.

אֻ֟껵 ֚ Դ֬ ־ԟ ϲֻ ߵ . ԓ ֟֓ ־ ֌ ׾֍ ָ߳ ߾ ַ ֐ԓ-֟ þֹ֓-֭ ֐Ծֹ ։ , ֝ ߾֯ ֓ ֛ ֙ ֐ֻ ۟ ׾֍֟ ֐֟֟. ִ ֕ߍ ãӭӓ ֭ ֵ֓ ָ֜ ß ã֭ . ӓ ߻ ϴ֝ ִ֕־.

1 ״֣֥™ :- ߵ ԓ ״֣֟ . ֓ ֭ ߾ ֻ֯ ֓ ׾ָ֓ ֍ ؍ ׾ָ֓ ֓ ִ֣ ֣֣ ׾ָ֓ ߟ . ״֣֥™ ߾ ֟֟. . ָ֕ ֝ ֤֣ Ӑֻ ֐֟ ߟ. ֓֯ϴ֝ ӭ ִ ֍ ֙ . ֐ӟ߻  ֓ ߟ߻ .

2 ֤ ִ֐™:- ״֣֟ ԓ ִָ™ ֻ ߾ ִ֌֯ , ֝ ״֣֟֓ ã ֻ ֟ ֻ֬ ã߻ ߾ ֤ ִ֥™ ֟. . ־ԟ־ֹ ֤ ֭µ ֻ ֐ֻ ֝ ִ߭߾ָ ֻ , ֭µ ָ־ָ߻ ֭µ ִ֕֟֟ ֓֯ϴ֝ ִ֌֓ ׿֏ָֹ ֻ ֻ , ָ ״֣֟֓ ִ߭߾ָ ֻ ָ֬֟ߓ ֐Ծָ߻ ߾ ã֭ ֟. 4 ã֭ӟ ֻ ӭ֓ ã֭ ֟ ׭ִֵ֭ ߾ ֓ ã֭ӟ ֟.

3 ִې֣֥™ :- ִ֬ ״֭ӟָ ӓ ״ ֤ ׭ִԝ , ֓֯ϴ֝ ֓־ ִ֌ ״֣֟ ӭ ״ ׸ִ ߾֓ ֟֟, ִې֣֥™ ֟֟.

4 ӵִ֟֐™ :- ߾֓ ™ ֕ ֬ ִߓ߭ ֟ ִ֐™ ֟֟. ߾ ִ֐™ ֟֟, ָ ӵִ ߟ ߟ ӭ ӵִ֟֐™ ֟֟



' פ ׾ָ ߾ ־ָ ׾ l

֧פ ו֝ ִև ׾ָ ll 29 ll-. ߾.



צӓ ׾ֵӯ ׾ָ ߟ ã־ָ ߾ӓ ֐ ߟ ߟ֒ ָ ו֭ ӭ אֻ֟껵 ֐Ծָ ã֯ԍ ֭֬ ֟, ߾ ӵִ ִ֐™ . ֯߻ ־ ã֭ ִ֐™ ߾ӭ֓ ֟.

5ӵ֟ӵ֟:- ߾ ϴ֝ӟ ӵִ ϴ֝ӟ ӵִ ֟֟ ӓ ã֭ ֟. ֕ ߾ӓ ֐ ֟ ֿ֣֌ ֻ֯ צ־ָ ׭ֵӡ֝ ֟֟, ӵ֟ӵ֟ . ãӓ ׸ אֻ֟ , ӓ ׸ , Ο ãӭ ӵ֟ӵ֟ ֟֟. ã֭֯߻ ־ ã֭ ӵִ ֭֬ אֻ֟ .

6 ϴ֢ ӵ֟:- ӵִ ߴ֬ ϴִ֤ ־֭֬֟ ֟ ϴ֢ӵ֟ ֟֟.

7 ϴ֢ӵ֟:- ϴ֤ ֟ ӵִ֓ 㬤 ߟ߭ ֻ֭ ֟ ֭ӟ ֐ ֟֟, ߭ ϴ֢ӵִ ֟֟.

֟־ ã֭֯ ߭ ָ ? ִֿ ԓ ִֿ (ֲ) ߾ ָ ֜, ִֿ ֟֟. ϟ ߓ ָ ָ ã֭ . 8-9 10 ã֭ӟ ߓ ߾ ֟֟ ֝ 11 ã֭ ִֿ ߾ֻӓ 12 ã֭ ֯֍ ߾ֻӓ ֟. ־ ã֭ ֍֭ ִ֭֐ ֓ ֟.

8 ԍ :- ֕ ׸ִ ֟֓ ׸ִ ֻ ߟ ֍ 㬤 ֟֟ ԍ ã֭ ֟֟ ã֭ӭߟ ִ֭֐ ߓ ׸ִ ϟ ֝ց֝ӟ ֟֟. ӟ Փ ִֿ ؍ ֵ ߓ . ָ ֚ ֵָ ֐ֻ ֟. ϟ ֝ӟ ߾֓ ־ ָָ ֟ þֹ֓ ֟֟.

9 ׭־ע֍:- (֤ӯֵָ)- ִ֭ ִֵ־֟ ߾ӓ ׸ִӟ ֝ ׭־ע֍ ֟֟. ԍ֯ϴ֝ ϟ ֝ӟ ׸ִ ֟֟. ָ ԍӟ ִֵӟ ׸ִ ֟ ם ִ֭ ִֵ־֟ ߾ӓ ׸ִ ִ֭ ֍֟. ָ ãִ֭֬ ֓ ִֵӟ ׸ִ ִֻ ִ֭ ִֵӟ ֻ껵 ־ ߾ӓ ׸ִ ָ ֟֟. ׸ִӭ ׭־ע֍ ֟֟ ֤ ӯֵָ֓ ''ã֍ֵ'' . ã֭ӟ߻ ֭ã ԓ ִֿ ֟ ؍ ֵ ָ ֟. ãֵ֭֯՟֓ ־ ߾Ӵ֬ ã֍ֵ ֟, ֏׾֚֝ ãֲָָ֭ ֤ӯֵָ ֤ , -



'ן םֵי כִֵ ־ִꌍ׸ִ l

׾ִֵֵָֻ֝ ם֧־֝ ll 57 ll



ӓ ϟ ִֵӟ ׸ִ ֟֟, ߾ӭ ׭־ע֍ ׸ִ֓ ߾ ֟֟. ӟ ׭ִԻ ֭֐߭ ֻ֯ Թ ֭ ֍֟.

10 恴ӯֵָ :- ֻ֯ ֻ ׸ִ֭ ֭ã ֻ֯ ֵ 恴 ֟ ӭ 恴ӯֵָ ã֭־ֻ ֟֟.

11 ֿӟ ֵ:- ߟָ֐ ã:- ִֿ ߭ ָ֜ ֭ã 恴 ֵӓ ִֿ ֟, ӭ ֿӟ ֵ ã֭ ֟. אֻ֟֯ϴ֝ ָ֝ ֭ã ׭ 8 ã֭֯ ߟ ׾ֳ֐ֻ ֟֟. ӓ֯ ִֿ ߾ֻ ߾ ߵ ύ ӯ֝ԟ: ֲ ֟֟ (ֿ״֟ ֟); ֝ ӓ ӯ ֿ ߟ ߟ. ֯ϴ֝ ֪ ӛӟ߻ ֱ ֻ֯ ֭ ӛ־߸ Ӎ ֛ ֍ ; ֯ϴ֝ ֿ߾ֻ ߾ӭ ӓ ׸ִ ӭ ֻ ֍֟. ã֭ӟ ֵ ֻ ӓ ִֻ ӭ ֿӟ ֵ -ߟָ֐ ֟֟, ָ ӯ ֭ ԭӭ ָ ׿ֻ֍ ֟֟ ӭ ã ֟֟.

12 ߝ֍ֵ- ߟָ֐ ã :- ߾ָ ָ֜ ׭ ֓ ֿ ߟ ߟ ӓ ӯ ֿ ֟ ӭ ߝ֍ֵ ߟָ֐-ã ֟֟.

֯ϴ֝ ֟־ ã֭֯ ָ֝ ߾ ֟ ߭ ֜ ָ ־ 8-9 10 ã֭ ֯ ֟֓. ֝ ַ֜Ӵ֬ ֍ ӟָ ֟ ֯ ַ ߾ֻӓ ֟׾ֿ۬ ֲֻ֟ ׾׿™ ύָ ֟. ִ ߟ ָ֜ ׭ 10 ӟ 11 ã֭ӟ ֟֟, ֝ ֻ : ֮ ߾ ׭ִֵ֭ ֻ ֛֟ (ֻ߻ ã֭ӟ ֟֟) ַ ߭ ָ֜ ߾ ֓ ־ԣ ֿ ߟ 껵ִ 10 ֟ 12 ӟ ֟֟ ֵӓ ӯ ֿ ֻ ִֻ ӓ :֭֟ ߓ ָ߻ ã֭ӟ֓ ֟֟. ־ ߾ ׸ִӓ .

813 ֵ֍ֻ:- ־ ߵ ԓ ֿ ֻ־ָ ָ ԓ ی ߝ ֻ ֟. 12 ã֭֓ ֙ ã ߝ֍ֵ ֭־ָ, ԭ־ָ, ԭ־ָ Ӹֵ ߭ ןֵ Փ ֿ ֵ֍ֻ 13 ã֭ ֯ ֟. ӓ ֭־ָ ԓ ֿ ִֻ ӭ ֻ֖֭֓ ۯ . ֟ ӭ ß ֡ ֚֝֝ ־ ֝֟֟ ӓ ֭ ֻ֖֭ ֟֟ ַ֝ӭ 'ֻ' ֟֓ ֡ ן֍ ӓ־ָ ֻ ׾ֵ֕ ֯ ִֻ ӭ 'ו֭', 'ָ֟', '߾֭㌟' , '׸' פ ֟. ߣԍ ã֓ ִ-Ͼ֟ԭ ֟. ֐֐ ׾ָ םִ֡ӭ ӓ ֓ ֤ ֟ ߟ߭ ֻ֯ ׸ ֵµ ֟֟. ֵ ӟִ ֕ ԯ , ־ ־ָ Ӥ ֭ã ֟֟ ֣ׯ ӓ ֭, ֭֓, ֵ 恴 ָ֯ () ֻ ֟ ӭ ֵ֍ֻ ֟֟.

14 -ֻ:- ָ אֻ֟ ϴ֝ ֻ ֭ã ӓ ֭, ֭֓, ֵ (֓) ־ ָ֯ Ӥ , ӭ ֍ֻ ֟֟. ֻ ֍ ׿ֻ֍ 4 ןֵ ֭֐ߟ ô ־ ָ߸ֵ֓ Ӭ֭ӟ -ֳ ֟.

֯ϴ֝ ָӟ߻ ־ ߾ ֯ֆֻ֯ ֬۟֍ ׾֍֓ ָ֭ 14 ã֭ӟ ֙ . ӯ 1 ָ ã֓ ָ, ןֵՓ, ֭µ ֟߻ ߾ӭ ֍֟. 5 ã֭ ָ֓ ֟ ӟ 7 12 ֵ՟֓ ã֭ ֭֟֬ӟ ֐ ֬ӭ֓ ֟ ϟ ã֭ӓ ֻ ӟִ ֕ 1 ԯ ֟.



9 ؍ ۬.



ی ؍ ֕ . ֟ ־ ԲӬ֭֯ ִֻ ã ֟֟. ֓ ָ Ӿ ۬ . ۬ ֕ ׯ. ֯ϴ֝ , ֯׾֝ ֐ ֐ԭ ֟ӟֻ ֝ ߿ ֻ־ָ 㬤 ֭֟ ֓֯ϴ֝ ۟֍ ӭ ֟ ָ , ֮ ַ 㬤 ֟֓ ֯ '۬' ؍ '' ֟֟. Դֻӟ ׿־ֵ ֟ 㬤 ی ؍ ۬ ֓ ã߻ Ӿ . ֝ ֟ ™ ד֟ ֟. 1 ی ԲӬ֭֯ 껵 ۟֍ ã Ӿ ; ִ֬ԟ,  ֭֟֟ ֯ϴ֝, ֟֓ ־ ؍ ֍ ֭֟֟ ֯ϴ֝ ֟֓ ӓ ׾ֿ֭ ی ֻ֭ . ִ֬Դ֟֯ϴ֝ ֟ þ֟ӡ ֟ ™ . ָ פֻ֯ ߾ ԲӬ֭֭ Ӭֻ ִֻ ֻ֯ ԓ ֟. ֝ Ӭ֭֓ ֵ ㌟ ֟֟.

㌟־ã ֓ ӟ֖֭, ӟ֤ԭ, ӟ, ӟ־ߵ פ þֳ׾֍ ׾֍֟ ֻ ֟֟. ֯ϴ֝ ֟ӟ ׭֑ 껵־ָ ꭵ֓ þֳ׾֍ ß ׾֍֟ ֟ ִ 㬤 ß ִ֍ָ ׬֍ ׯ־ פ֟, ֯ϴ֝ ֵ֟ӟ Դֻ ׭֑ 껵ִ ֟֓ þֳ׾֍ ß פ֟֟. ㌟ ֻ־ָ ߾ ָ ֟, ֐ߓ þֳ־֟: ָ ֟֟, ֯ϴ֝ ֻ֯ þֳ־ָ֭ ㌟ ߾ ָ ֟֟. ֓ ϳ֐ ã֭ . ֬׿ֻ ֟֟. ־ ߾ ㌟ ֻ־ָ Ԑִ֭ ֓ ã֭ ׾ִָ֭֕ ֟. ã֭֓ ֭ ָ ִԯ ִ֬ԟ . ֓ ָ , פ ִԟ ֟ ֯֍ ֻ֭ ֵ֭ ãӭֲֲ֟ ׾ָ֓ . ֟֯ϴ֝ ֟ þ֟ӡ ֟ ã֭֓ ӭ ؓ֟ ־. ָ ֤ԭӟ ֟ þ֟ӡ ֟ ֻ֭ ӯ ֯֍ ֭֟, ָ߸֍ָ֓ ֻ֭ . ӭ ãֲֲ֭֟ ׾ָ֓ ־ ֐ֻ. ֟֯ϴ֝ Ӭ֭ӟ ㌟ ߾ Ԑִ֭ ֟ ֓ ϳ֐ ։ ã֟ ֟, ֻ ߟ.

ӛ׻֍ ֟֓ áӟ ֻ . ㌟ ߾ӓ Ԑִ֭ ֭֟֟. ӓ ֟֯ϴ֝ ㌟ ߾ ӟ ֵֻ֯՟ ָ ָ ָ ֟ ֟, ӓ ã֭ . Ԑִ֭ ֭ ӭ ã֭֓ ߓ ׾ָ֓ ֻ ־ ֵ ? ӭ ֙ ־ , ָ ։ ֓ ã֭ ӭ Ӳ־ ? ־ ֵ ? Ͽ֓ ָ ӭ ֻ ־ ӭ ӭ ִֵ֓ Ԑִֿ֭߻ ֻ֭. ָ ִ֬ԟ ן ־ ã֟ ֵ֍ ִ ִ Ӿ֓ ֭ Ӎ ִ ™ . ִß ӟ ֯ . ֓֯ ߟ ֓ ָ ӯֵ՟֓ ㌟ ߾ ֟֟ ֯ ֟ ߟ ֓ ã֭ .

㌟־ã ָ߸ ׾ָ 㬤 ֟֓ ֟ ָ߸ӟ ӭ ㌟ߓ ֳ ֻ, ָ߸֓ ֍ָָ֓ ֓ ֍ָ ֟. ӟ ֭ӟָ ָ߸֓ ־ֻ ֿ ֛, ֯ϴ֝ ָ߸֍ָ ֟ ㌟־ã ֟, ִֻ פ ֍ . ㌟ ֻ֭ӟָ ֟ ֭, ָ, ά, , , :, ֵ ֤߭ ֟ ; ָ ־ ã ָ߸֓ ֟֟ ָ߸ ֟. ㌟־ã ֵ֟֓ ־ã ִӟָ ֵԟ ֟ 㬤 ֵ՟ ֻ : 㬤 ꝵ֓ ߓ ָ ִֻ ׭ָ֍֟ ֟ӟ ֐ ֟֟.



10 ִ֬ ß֍ ֵ ?

ִ ָ ™ ӭ֓ ϴ֝ ֭֟֟ ִ֬ԓ ֭֝ ß֍ ִ՟ ֟ ; ָ ִ֬ ָ ™ ֭֟ ; ӓ ϴ֝֟ þߍָߟ . ָ ָ ™ ֭֝ ӭ ϴ֝ ִ֕֝ ֕ ß֍ ֟ ׾ָ֓߻ á֖֭ . ֙ ָ ֭֟ ߟ ֯֯㝵, þ֐ԭָ, ָ֟ פ ֭ߟ ߟ, 'ß֍' ֲ֓ ֜ . ™߭ ׾ָ֓ ִ֬ ָ ֭֟, ֟ þ֟ӡ ֭֟. ֯-㝵, þ֐-ָ . ֭֟ ֲָָ ϟ ֟ӟ ָ֟ ꝵ֓ ی ֭֟. ׸ã֟ ִ֬ 'ß֍' ֟ ߟ, 'ß֍' ֓ 'ß֍' ֲ֓ ֜ . ™߭ ׾ָ֓ ִ֬ ָ ֭֟, ֟ þ֟ӡ ֭֟. ֯-㝵, þ֐-ָ . ֭֟ ֲָָ ϟ ֟ӟ ָ֟ ꝵ֓ ی ֭֟. ׯ׸ã֟ ִ֬ 'ß֍' ֟ . פ ִԾֻӲ ִ֬ ß֍ ֟֟ ӭ פִ ִֻ֭ ӭ ß֍ ֐ֻ ; ָ ׸ã֟ߟ ־ ִ ָïָӓ ™߭ ß֍ ֐ֻ ; ָ ׸ã֟ߟ ־ ִ ָïָӓ ™߭ ß֍ ߻. áߵ ֭ . áߵ ™߭ ִ֬ ָ ß֍ ִ ׾ֻ ֟.







ύ 4 .

.



ן ׾ֻֿ ָߵ ӟ ֓ ׾׿™ ã֭ . ֍ָ ֵ֓Փ ֻ֯ ߾֭֓ ֐ ֓ ֭ӟ ֟ߟ . ֍ָ ֵ֓խ ֻ֯ ߾֭֓ ֐ ֓ ֭֓ ֟ߟ . ִ֬՟ ύӛ ׾־֭ ֵ֓ ֻ ٍ, ֍ ׾ ֟־ . ӭ ִ֬Բָָ ָߵ ֓ ָ ӟ ֻ֯ ֝ߓ ֏׾ֻ . ԭ, ֵ, ֍, ־, ֙, , ׿ֻ, ӡ֟ӡ, ß,  . ׾ֵ־ָ ׾֯ ֲֻ . , ٴ֍ , ־ԇ ִ֭ ™ ֻ .

ָӟ߻ ׻ . ׾ֿ֟: ֍, Í ׾֛ߵ֭ ß ϴ֝ӟ . ִ֬ԭ ϣִ֯֓ ִԯϓָ֣ þߍֹ ֕ ß ϓ׻֟ ֕ ß ϓ׻֟ , ֻ֯ ׻ . ִԭ ׾־֭ . ؾ֙ߙ ֻ֯ '' A history of Indian Literature'' Vo l-ll ֬ š 27-28 ָ ׻֟. - ''ָߵ ӟ ן֓ ™߭ ֯ . ָ ֻ֯ ׬֍ӟ ׬֍ ־, ™ߓ ߓ . ֭ ֐״֍ ִ֓߭֟ ߍ ֍ӟ ׻ 껵. Ӳָӭ ֚ ֟֍֯ ָ פӲָӭ ӓ Í ֭ ֟ . ӟָ 10 12 ֟֍ӯֵ՟ ֌ֻ߭ ; ֳӿ ֻ֯ ׻ ߍ߻ ֬׭֍ ־ ֻ֯ ׻֟. ӭ ָ֣ ם ׁ֝ ִ ֛֭ ׾ֿ ִ鬤 ׻ .

֕ ֲֻ , ־ . ־߸ӓ ֤ ָָ Ӳ֬ . ӭ ӓ ֤ ցӟ , ָ Ӑ Փ ֭ ׾ֳ֐ֻ. Ӑ ᓵ ֭ӟ ַָӓ ׻֍ ֤ ־՟ ִֻ֕ . ϟց ֭ ַ֝ӟ 'ֻ֖֭' ָ֖֭ ָ ַӟ '֍ֻ' ֯ϴ֝ ֻ֖֭ ִß ָָ֓ ֐֟ ϟց ֝֟֟ ֟ ֓֯ϴ֝ ֍ֻ áӴ֬ אֻ֟ ϟ ׾ֵ ֖֭֭ ï™֝ ֝֟֟.

. ־߸ӓ ׭־ԝ֭Ӹ ߭ ֻ֖֭ ӭӟָ-ӓ ֍ֻ ֻ. ӯ ֙ ֍ֻ ֦ . ֓־ ֐֬ӟ 12 ԓ ֵӍ  ֛. ӭ ֻ֯ ӑֲָָ ׁ֝ ׾ָ . : ָ ָֻ ߟ. ֭ӟָ ֙߯ ֦ ߟ ס֟ ց . ַ ցӭ ֭֟ פ . ӓ ָ ֓־ ֬ ֐֬ ӟ , Íֻ߭ ֢֯ߴ ָ ׿ףָֻ֓ ֻ , ־֯֓ ӑ֓ ؤֲָ ֲӸ ׾ֳ֐ ӓ ֐ ֻ.





פӲָ

֍ֻ ֦-þִ߭ӟָ ߓ ֍ֻ ֻ ߟ. կ 4 ԓ ֭ ӓֲָָ 㯟 ֻ. ӓ֭ӟָ 11 ֵ֓ 11 Ӑ֓ 10 Փ ֟ ֻ. 5 ֵ֓ 11 Ӑ֓ ֟ ֻ ֭ ύָ ™ ֻ ӕ ֭ ֍ . ӟָ 4 ֵ֓ ϣִ ָ֓ Ӑ֓ ֟ ֻ. ֯ϴ֝ Ӑ֖֭ ™ ֻ. ֯ϴ֝ ֻ֍֭ ֭ ߸ ׭־ԝ֭ӟָ 683 ׭֑ , ־ Ӑ ׿ֻ֍ ֭ 㯟 ꝵ֓ Ӑ ֻ ֵ֓ ָӭ ֵ֙־ֹ ֵӭ אָָ ־ԟ־ָ ֲֻ ¯֤ ִ֍ ־Ԣִ ֬ӭ ֻ֯ ׿µ ֭׾ֻ ӓ֍ ֳ ׾ֻ. ӭ ֳ '֙ӛ֐ִ' ִ֍ ֐ӣӓ ֭ ֍ . ־ ֓־ ָ֬ Ӿ֓ ֵ֓ . ӭ 233 ֣ӟ 'ֵ-' 'ֵ-ֳ' Ӿ֓ ӣ ׻ ӣ ֵ֓-ָָ ֵԳӁ ֐ß Ӿ֓ ֵ֓ԭ ֲֻ ֻ. ӓ֯ ׿֍ ן֊ֳ Ӿ֓ ֵ֓ԭ ־ָ 'ע' ׻. ֍ִ֬ 6000 ϴ֝ . ֯ ֭ ӣ־ָ ֵ֓ԭ ߍ ֵָ֓ ֻ. ύӛ ׾־֭ . ӭ '֙ӛ֐ִ־ָ' ߸ֵ֓ ֻ. ύӛ ׾־֭ . ӭ '֙ӛ֐ִ־ָ' ֬ '־ֻ' Ӿ֓ ߍ ֍ 738 ֬ . ߍ 72000 ϴ֝ . ָ ֭ ӣ ֵ֯ ־ָ ӭ ߍ ׻. ֝ 20,000 ׻ þ֐Ծ ֻ. ӓ ꐵ ׿µ וֵ֭֓ ӭ 40,000 ֝֏ ׻ ֍ 759 ֬ ߍ . 60,000 ϴ֝ ߍ Ӿ 'ֵ֬־ֻ' . ߍӓ ֭ Í-֍ ״֟ .  ֐ ֍ִ֬ , ֬ ֬ Í . þӵ ߍ֍ָӭ ӣֵ֓ Ͽßߟ ֻ߻֯ϴ֝ ׻ .



''ֵ:֍ֳָ ד֟ Í״ֵ l

ם֯Ͼֵֻ֭ ꌟs ӣ׾ßָ :ll''



֙ӛ֐ִ֓ ֙ ӛ ־Ӭ . ֓ ֭ ־ֻ ֵ֓խ ֍ӟ ֓ 41,000 . ־ ӣ֟ -֬ӟ֓ ӟ 恴, ׾ßָ ֝ԭ .

ߑԍֵֻ֯՟ ߭ ӣ ײ֦ (ׁ֝ ԙ) ߻ ֳӛָӟ ׁ֟ ֻ . ߻ ָּ ֵֿ ӓӓ ָ ־֭ ֟ ߭ ӣ֓ ύֿ֭ פ ߍ ֐ֻ .

־ ֟֍ӟ ׁ֝ ״֓Ӧ ֬ӟ֓֍֟ ִ֍ ֵ֓ . ߭ ӣ֓ ׾־֭ ֟ . ӭ ӓ Ӎ֭ 괴ָ֙ ۲ָ-ָ֯֝ Ӿ֓ ӣ ׻. ӣ ֍ ׻ . ӟ ߾, ԓ ֯֝ (׾ֿ֭) ӓ Ӥ ֝ԭ . ӣ־ָ Í ߍ ֲֻ ֵ֯ þ.. ֻ֕ ӭ ֵ֯ ׻ ߍ ֙ߍ ֲֻ . ӣ֓ ָ ӛ ֯ ֬ ֻ .

.. ϣִ ֟֍ӟ Ӿ֓ ֭ ֭ ֵ֓ ֻ. ӭ ִֵָ, Ͼָ֭֓ ӓß֍ֵ ߭ ֍ ׻. 'ֵ' Ӿ֭ ֬ . ִֵָӟ ׭ָ׭ָ ™߭ ֟֟֟֓ ׾־֭ ֟־ָ ӣ . 9 ֟֍ӟ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧ׸ ӭ ӣ־ָ Í ߍ ֪ (ֿ) ׻ . ןӐִ . 17 ֟֍ӟ ׾־ָ ָ֭ߤ ӭ ֿӓ ߟ ӟ ֭ ֪֤֭ .

Ͼָ֭֓ ӓß֍ֵӟ ֖֭֟֓ ی֯ ׾־֭ . ֟֟ , ֵ֓ԭ  ֳӭ֓ ֭ , ֝ ӯ 8 ֳ ֲֻ .

ִ߻ ߻ 'ןֹ' ־֓ ֍ ֻ֭ ֟֟. ӓ ׿µ 'þִ' ֬ ֵ֓ . ӭ ־ԯϣִ ־ֵ֛ Í ӟ '֣֟' ִ֍ ӣ֓ ֭ . ӣ֓ 10 ֵ ӟ ߾פ ֟ ֟֓ Ӥ ׾־֭ . ׭ָ׭ָ ִ՟ ֲֵֻ, ߟ, ֝ . ã֭ , ã֭ ִ֬՟ ӣ . ؤӲָ Ӳָ ӯϤֵӭ ֭֟ פ ָָ߻ ֵ֓ԭ ־ָ ߍ ׻ . ӟ ߴ֟ Ӎ ӓ 'ָ֟֕־ٟ֍' ׾֪֭Ӥ ֵ֓ԓ '֣֟Կٟ֍' ֭ߵ . Í ӣ ӟ ׻ ֬ӟ־ָ ӣ .

ԭ ֵ áӟ þִ ִӟֳֵ֦֓ ֵ֬֓ ֬ . þִ ִӟֳ֦ ֵ֓խ 'ִ֯ߴ' Ӿ֓ ӣ ׻. ӟ õ־֤֓ ִ ׾־֭ ָ ִ ֟ӓ ׾ָ֓ ֻ֭ . ӣ־ָ Ӎ ӭ '™֟' ־ָ ׾֪֭פ ֵ֓խ '™á' Ӿ֓ ߍ ׻ . ™á ֍ ִ֕֝ ™áߓ ־ ֟. ֓ ׾֪֭Ӥ ֵ֓ԭ ָ֯֯߁ ϴָ֝֯߁ ׻ ׾ֵ ׾־֭ ־ ™߭ ֻߵ֍ .

Ӎ ӭ ֵ֓ '֭֍' ֻ֭ ָ ӟ ןֵֿی . ָ߻ ߍ׿־ֵ ӭ ۬׾׭ֵֿ, ֵ ׾׭ֵֿ, ցߵáֵ, ϴ֝Ӑ . ӣ ׻ . ־ ӳ߸ ׻ . ־ָ ֵ֓ ӟ־ߵ פ֕ ϳ֓Ӧ ִ֍ ׾־֭ ׵֍ӭ ׾ß ߍ-ӣ ׻ . ם֌֭Ӥ ֵ֓Փ ָ߁ִ Ӿ֓ ӣ ֵ֭֓ ֚ ֵ . ־ָ ֵ֓ ϳ֓Ӧӭ ϴ֍ִֻ֟՛ Ӿ֓ ӣ ׻ . ׁ֯ ־ָ ӟ-ߵԓֵԭ ϴִָֻ Ӿ֓ ߍ ֯ ӣ ֕ ֲֻ ߟ. ַ ӓ ӯ֜.

֝ӟ ׸ӿ ֝, ֯֝, ֩׸ . ӣ ֻ֭ߵ . ֝ӓ ן֪֯ ׾ֵ '™ ֻ֍' ӓ ׸ . ӟ 24 ߣԍ, 12 ֍֟, 9 9 ן־ . ӟ ֯ӓ 㝵 ׸ ֝ԭ , ֝ ֟֟. ׸ӿ ֝ӟ ӛ֓ ֝ԭ . ֩׸ӟ ִ֓Ӧ֓ ֝ԭ . ӣ֭ ֳִָ ִֵָ֝ ֟ . ӓ׵ֿ־ֵ ׸-ӣ֓ ָ ӟ ׾֯ ӛָ . ֍֍ߟ פ ֵ֓ԭ ׸֐ӣ ׻ . ֵ֓ ֙Ӥߓ 'ָӐ֓׸' ם֍ ־ . ־ ӟ ߸Ӥߓ Ӧϳ֓׸, ׸Ӧӓ ִԿִԳ, ֭ӕֵӓ ۾Ӭ֭ ֐֙ӓ ״׭־ԝ ֍ߟ߻ Í ֍־ .

ֳӿ ׸ ֝֐ӣ, Í֯ ß ϴ֝ӟ . ֓ ӛָ ָ . – ָ֓ ֵ՟ ӟ߻ ӟ ׯϵ 껵 ֍ӟ ׾־֭ӓ ց ֍™ ֻ ֟Դ֭ ӟߵ ӓ ֭֭ ִֻ ֿá ׾׳֮ ӓ ן ֍ ӭ ֓ ֵ֭ ־ֿ֍ ֻ . ¯ֵ֤֓ ֍׾ . ӓ ס™ ֯– ֻӍָ ֭ ӣ . ¯֤֭ ֍׾ þֵӳ ӓ ôָ . þֵӳ, ¯֤, ֍ִָ, . ߭ ֳӿ ִ鬤 ӟ ֟ š ꝵ֓ ֍ ֻ .

ӟ ׾ֻֿ . ֵ֓ ׸ӓ ֍ ֓߭ (.. 932) ӣ . ָ֭֬ ֍, 㝵áֵ ֍ . ֐ӣ ™ߓ ֵ֭ ִԓָ֓ ֱ ִԓָ֓ ֱ ֓֍Ӿָ ׾֟֟. ӟ ־ ׾֯ . ֤ߓ ֿßֻ֍ ӯ, ׸Ӧֵ֓Փ ߾Ӭָӯ ֓ ֓ӯ ™ ־ . ֪ӣ֟ ֤߳֓ ִ֪ؓ֟ם ֭ߵ . ֙ӟ ßִֻ֓ ׾֍ӟ֍, ףֻߍ֝, ӕ֭ ־֭ӕֵ . ֙ ֝ߵ . ß ֓ ָ֟ ־ֵ֛ӟ . ֍׾ ֭ӕֵӓ ׾ָ֯ ß, Ӧ֓ ִ֝פ . ß ™ . þִ ִӟֳֵ֦֓ԓ þֵӳßӟ ֤ԭ֓ ߓ ֬ӟ Ӑָֻߟ߭ ӛ . ֿ׭֍ ß־֭ . ן-ӣ֓ ֭־ . ֤߳֓ 'ִ֡֓۝ ־ ' ™ ן֯ ־֐ӣ . ֵ֓ ״֟֐֟ߓ '֟--Ӥ, ' ֩Ӥ ֵ֓ԓ ֩Ӥ ӓؾֿן֍ ָ֕ ־Փ ִֻ Ӥ ן֐ӣ .

׿־ֵ ן, ֵ, ֍, , , Ӎָ, ם֟, ֭֕ן . ׾ֵӾָ ֵ֓ԓ ӣ ֕ ֲֻ . ן ֵ ׾ֵ֍ ϴ֝ӟ ֬ ֻ . ֍ӟ 敵֤֯ ֤֭ߓ ֍ ֍֭֓ ֍ֵ֭ ֍ ֭ߵ . ־֛ӟ ֭ӕֵ ִִֻ ׾ֻ֭֍–, Ӎָӟ Ӎָ-ִؓ֟ם ם֟ӟ ־߸-םָ֟-Ӑ ֭֕ߟ ֤ӓ ן־֌ֳ . ôָߵ ӣ . ֻ Í ֍ ߻ ֐ӣ֓ ׾ִ־ֻ. Í ֍ ־ן׸ ָ ׾ֻֿ .

׾֛ߵ֭ ӟ ָ ִ ӭ ֯ ֻ . ֛֭ ׻ָ ן֯֓߭ ׾ ֓ . ؍ ֛֭ ֟, ׸֝ ֓ ֵ֓ ֍߭֓ ״ֻ . 13 ֟֍ֵ֯՟֓ ֛֭ ߻ ־ ӣ֍ָ ֓ . ӯָָ ֯Ӳ֬ ֲם ԝָ áߵ ӣ ֍߲֧ ֤ ָ֙ ? ֛֭ ֪ӣ֟ ֓߭ 'ִӛֵ ֝' ֍ ߸֟՛ ִӛֵ ֓ . פӯ, ׾ ֍֟ , ׳֭־ ӯ . ֓ . 'ԙ ׾֓׸' ֍ ָ. ֵָ֓խ ֍׾ֲֲ֟ ߻ ָ ֜ . '֛ ׾ . ֵ֕֯՟ ֲֻ ֻ껵 ־ ֓߭ ִ ߓ֓ Ꟶ. ׾ֿ֟: ֓߭ ߴ ֛ ן ֻ . ӯ, ӭ ָ ߴ֬߻ ֓ ֭֝ ꐵ Ի. ָ ߭ 14 ֟֍֓ ӟֵ֯՟ ־™ ӯ־֓ ֭ . ֛ ֵ֍ , Ӎָ, ֍, . ӣ ׬֍ ϴ֝ӟ ӭߓ ׻ . '

Ӑ֝ ꐵ ָ , ׁ֝ ֛֭ ߻ ־ פӲָ ׾־֭ӭߓ ׻ . פӲָ ӯֵ֤ӟ߻ ־ ϴ ϴ ֵ֓ ־ ԙ ׾ֳ֐ӟ֓ ָ ӭ ֍ ؍ Íִ֬ ӣָ֭ ֍ ־ ָ ֛֭ ӣ֍ָ .

ִ߻ ֟߯ ִ֬ Í߭ ϳ׾֟ ֻ . '' 'ֻ֤ߵָ' Ӿ֓ ӣ ֧ߵ ֵֵ֓խ ׻ . ϣӟ߻ ָ֟ ߻ ӟ ֻ ֜֟. ־-֯ ִ߻ ߻ ן׾ֵ֍ ֓߭ ־ָ ֵ֓ԓ ׾ֿ– ϳ־ . ' ִֻ' ֍ ֓ . ӓ ֓߭ ی ןִ׻֍ . ֻ֤ߵ֭ӟָ ӓ ןָ Ӎ ֐֟. ''ן֭ ֻ ֟ '' ֍ ӣ Ӑָ ߸֭ . ӟ 㬤 ׾ֵ֍ ֬ӟ אֻ֟ .ӓ֭ӟָ ֻ껵 ߍ֍ָӭ ֻ֯ ӣ֟ ָ߻ ӣ֓ ָ߻ ӣ֓  ָ ֻ . ֓ ύָ ֝֏ ӣ '֭ ם֌כ' ־ ӟ ׻ .

ִ߻ ꓵ ӓ ֍־ӯ ִؓ֟ם, ֻ֯כָ ֻ֯ן ֍ӓ . ֻ֯כָ ןִ֯ ִ ӣ ۟֍ ןֲֲ֟ ϴֳ֝ ֻ֭ ֟. ֓ ߭ ֏ӛ ֵ . ߻ 5 ֑־-ָֿ ־, ִם, ֭֍, ֐֍ָ ־ ߻֍ . ӓ ־ӓ ֍ ֵ֓ . ֍ӭ ִ߻ ֍ ׻ . '֮' ִ߻ ן֯ϓ׻֟ ֍ . ִ֬ ׿֍׾ֻ ֟. '׭֑ә' ӣ֟ פ֍ ׭֑ә, د֐ֻ ׭֑ә ִם ׭֑ә ֭ߵ ӣ . ӭ ם֟ ן-ӲӬ ӣ ׻ . ֯ϴ֝ ִ߻ ֭ ִ鬤 ֻ .

ָ֣ פӲָ ߭ ־ ׻ ӓ ' Ը ׾' ӣ֟ ״ ֍.

פӲָ ӟ ӣӓ ӏ ָߓ . 껵 300 ԟ ֐ӣ ֓ ׻ . ־֍ӓ þֵ֬ ־ֿ֍ Ծ . ־ָ֬ ӓ ו֭־֝ߓ ֭ ֓ ϵ֟ ן֯֓߭ ֯ . ִ ӟ ֪ӣ֓ ϴ֝ ׬֍ . ָ֬֟: 16 ֟֍֯ ֪ӣ ӟ ֓ ֵ֭ ֵ Ի. ן֍ ӣ֟ ֣֟, ִֵָ, ֙ӛ֐ִ, ֳֵ֯, ֍ . ֯ ӣ֓ ߍ . ֵ֐ӣ־ָ߻ ָ߁ִ, ִ֯ߴ, ϴִָֻ, ֵ֤ׯ֍ ֣֟Կ׾ٟ֍ ָ ֭ ӣӓ ߍ ֲֻ . ߍ-ӣӓ ֵ֭ ֳ ߟ ߟ ָ ָ֣, ָ™ ן֤ ׁ֝  ӟ֟߻ ֓ ֳ ֟. ֯ϴ֝ ִ ꓵ ϓָ ֵֵ֍ . ־ ם֍ ӣӓ ӓ ֤ ֻ . ֤֓ ֵ ϣִ֟: ֵ֯ ׾֭֫ӭ ָ . ֤ ֕ ֟ ־ֵ ״֟. ֻ ֤ߟ ֓ ֓. ֪ ֪ þ֟ӡ֯֝ ׻ ֟ ֬ӟ֓ ֝ԭ ־ֵ ״. ֪ ֟ . ӻ֕ߓ, 'ִ֐ ύֿ֍' ֪ ֟ . ֟ ִ֕ߓ 'ֻ' ֬ӟ֓ 滵 .֝ ֻ֕, ֝ ִָ֟֕ ֝ ֤֕, ֝ ֭֕֕, ֝ ֵָ֭֟֕, ֝ ֵ֓Ӥ, .  ׾־֭ӭ ֻ֯֯ ϓ׻֟ ֪ ֪ ؍ ύָ ֭ . ׾֭ӟ, ֚֯, á, ٴ֍ ֭֕,  ֪ ֟ ֝ ׸ ׻ .

ӓ ׾ֿ֟ , ӟ ӟ ֓ Ͼ ־ԡ ™꟯֟ . Í ֍ ӣ֍ָӯϴ֝ ӣ֍ָ֓ ֭µӭ ָߍ ׾ֵӯ ׾֭ ֟֟֟ ֭ ־ ֻ֯ ׾ ־. ز֤ ִ ֓ ־ԭ ֻ֯֯ ӣ ֭ . ֟ ־ ָ ֟ ߾ֵ ָ֭ߤ֕ӓ '֟֍' ֍ ֻ֭ . ӓ '֙ ִֵָ' ֟־ָ߻ ֯ ӣ .

Ӳָ ֙߻֯ ߻ ׸ Ӑ ׾֖֭ Ӎ׻֟ 㬤 ӻָ֭֟ ß־ß ֻ. ߵ׭־ԭ֓ 6 ֟֍֟ ֵ Í߻ ӓ ցֻ֟ ֤ ֳ ֻ. ֟ ׿ֻ֍ 껵 Ӑ 㾵ֵã֟ פ . '֣ ֭֓ ֟֟' ֭ӟָ ߸׭־ԝ֓ 10 ֟֍֟ ֻ־ ֐ָߟ (֛֙) ק֝ ցִ־֝ ӓ ֻ֟ ֍ ֳ ֻ . ֟ 11 Ӑ֓ Ӎ֭ ֻ. 12 Ӑ֓ ָ ֻ . ֵ֟֯՟ ôָ ֌ߓ ָ֬ Ӑ֓ ֚֚֯ ֻ . ָ ֟ ߸׭־ԝ Ӿ֟ 1980 (..453) ָ ֭ ӣֹ֟ ӣߟֹ֟ ֻ. ֬֓ ֐ִ֝֓ ã 揵֟ ӯ֤ ٤֝ ӓ֍ ֟. ӭ ӓ ׭ָ׭ָ ֵ ֐ ߟ, ֻ֯ 㬤ָ߭ Ӎߟ . ߓ ֝֯ϴ֝ ֝߭ӟָ Ӑִ֟ ָ ָ ֻ .

Ӳָ ӯ֤ӓ ֯ ֐ִ ׾ֳ֐֟ ׾ֳ֐ֻ . 1. ֆӐ- ָ֓Ӑ, ֯Ӑ, ã֭Ӑ, ִ־ֵֆӐ , ֐־֟ , ִ֟֬ԍ, ֍, ָ֯ף֍ , Ͽ־֍ ׾֯֍ 2. ָ Ӑ -֯ן֍ , ֕֯Ͽ , ߾׳֐ִ , ϖ־֝, ӳ澤߯ ϖ֯֟, Ӧϖۯ, ԯϖۯ, ׭ֲָֻ, ־֟, ¯֍, ¯֓׻֍ , 3. ֯ύ߭֍- ֣:-ָ, ֤ϟ֏֝ , ֌ ßָ, Ӥ־ָ֓ߍ Ӧ, ------



1 ִֵ֝ ֻ֯ ִָ֓ ֟֍ӟ ߻ ׻ .

'' ߤܬםցִִ֝ ߾߸֤ ߟ׬֍-־ֿ֟-(980) ֟ ֤־֤ٳց־ֿ֟ ָ֬ ֢֯ ׾֟ۓ ֵ֟.. ־ֻ֍ֵָ ֳ֌ֵ ӑ֐֟ ־׿™֤֍ֻ߭־֬ ֳִֻ֍ֵ ֤֭ ״ۓ־׿™֭ ׬֍֭ יsי֭ ֐ִֻ֯֍֭ þִ֟ Ӎֵ ß֍ֹ: : l ֟ ֟ ִָ֭֝֬֟ׯ ֣Ӎָ֭֭֭ ־ִׯ ֐ִ֭ ߤܬ֝ցִִ֝ ֟: ll''

:- . ܬ֝ ִִ֝ӭ . ׭. . 980 ֬ 12 ԓ ִ  ֬ 껵֭ӟָ ֐ ֓ ֻ־ָ ־ ߾ӓ ָ֚ áֳ֌߭ ׸ ӑ֓ ֐֭ ֍ ׿ֻ֍ 껵 ־ ֬ӭ ֳֻ ֐ָӴ֬ ־ ӓ ׿ֻ֍ 껵 ß ָ י י ֐ִӓ ֌ӓ ֻ֯ 㬤߯ϴ֝ ־ á ӭ Ӎ֭ ִ ܬ֝߁ִִ֝ ӭ ־ ֐ִӓ ֻ֭ ֟. (ִֵӤ֝ ִָ֓ ֟֍.)

ß־, ם׾֪, ֯ϟ֏֭ ߸ß־. 4 ׭ֿߣ, ׭ֿߣ, ־ָ, Í, ӓ֍. 5 - Ӥ ־ָ, 6 ָ - ֵָ֭֬, ־ֿ֍, ־׻֍ د֛׭ֵی. 45 ӣ ֐ִ ׾ֻ ֟֟. ӓ ֍ . ӟ ָ֓, Ο, ֟֟, ן, . ׾׾֬ ׾ֵӓ ֝ԭ . פӲָ ӯϤֵ֓ ӟ Ӑ Ӑֲ ӣӓ Ӿ ӟ ֻٝ껵 ׾ֵӓ ״. ָ ӟ Ӑפ ߟ. Ӳָ ӯϤֵӟ ֦ϖׯ֟ ; ԯϖۯ, Ӳ澤߯֯ϖۯ ӭ Ӑ ֻ֭ . ָ פӲָ ӟ . ֓֯ϴ֝ -׻֍ ֵָ֭֬ ־־ָ ׭ֿߣ ִ֍ ӣ֭ Ӑֲ .

Ӳָ ָָϴ֝ ݬ֝߭ӟָ וֳ֦֭ ֝ ִִ֝ Ӿ֓ ׾׿™ ֵ֓ ֻ. ӓ '׾ֿ־ֿ֍ µ' ߓ ӣ . ӟ ֍ ߟ߭. ֭֓ Ӥ ֓ . ֣֟־ָ µ . ׾־֭ þ֖ ֭֟֟. ־ָ ֓ӵ ֬ ֝ ӓ ֣֟Գµ ׾ß ߍ . ֐״֍ ־ָ ߍ ֲֻ . ־Ӑ־ע֍ָ . ֵ֤ ӭ 9 ֐ִ־ָ Í ߍ . ֥™߭ ֻ֬׸ Ӧӓ Ӿ ֭ߵ . ӭ ֐״֍ ־ָ ׾־֢֯ ߍ ׻ . ׾־ֿ֍ µ־ָ ֻ ӓ ߍ ָ Ӥ .

Ӳָ ӯϤֵӟ ׾ֵ֍ ָ . ӟ 'ԯύן', ӓӐ', '֓߭ ־߭ Ԑӣ' ֭ߵ . 13 ֟֍ӟ . ־߭ Ԑӣӓ ֭ þ֖ ߍ ָ֬ . ӟ ֓ ׾֯ ִ Ӎ׻֍ . ֵ ׾ֵ֍ ӟ ֬ פ֍ӓ ֵ־ָ֟ ֵ֭֓ ֪ӣ ֻ֭ ֟. ӓ '֭ן֟֍ ύ' ֯ ӣ . ӟ ֐״֍ ֭֟ ֍ԓ ߾ָ ֝֓ ϵ֟ . ӣ־ָ ֵ֤ ֯ ߍ . ӯϤֵӟ ׸֦ Ӿ֓ Ϗ֟ ׾־֭ ֻ. ֟֟ ӭ 1400 ύ ӣ ֻ . ӓ ֲֻ ӣ֟ '֭־֤ Ͼ' ӟ ֵ֯֟֍' á־ִ֟㓓ֵ Ӿ ֭ߵ . ֣֟־ָ ӭ ߍ ׻ . פ 'ϴֵֻֻ֢֭֝֟Ӎָ ֓ 'þ֖ ע' , 'õ־֤ ֍' ם ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӓ 'ϴִ֝ߴ' ۻ 'õ־֤ ӕָ' ֵֿáӟ߻ Ӥ ӣָ . 17 ֟֍ӟ ֵ֓ ֿ׾ֵ֕ ֻ ׵֍ ֻ. ӭ ׾֪֭Ӥߓ ™á߾ָ י֝ ׻ ֵ֤, ִֵ-ָא֝, ֍׸ . ӣ ׻ . ִ֬ԓ ֬ӟ־ָ ӭ ־ ™֭ ׾ָ֓ . ־ֵ֭֓ ߭ ӣ ׻ .

֝ӟ ׾ִֻ 'ֈ֓׸' (֩׸) ֍ ־ . ן ֓߭ . ӟ ִ֓Ӧӓ . ' ֍ ߻ ֝ . ֓߭ ֝ӟ ֳָ֓ . ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӓ 'ס™߿ֻ֍֯֓׸' ֭ߵ . ָ ӣ .

־ӟ ֓Ӧӓ 'ִֵ֍־' ֵ֤ӓ 'ֵӟ׾ֵ֕' ׭֓Ӧӓ 'ן֣֭ ׸' Ӑֻ ־ . ֪־ӟ ֻ֭֯ ߓ 'ןֻ֍ӕָ' ֏׵֍ ӣ . ֙ӟ ִ֓Ӧ 'ֻ׾ֻ', '֟ ׸Ӧ' '֑־ֳ', '׭ֳԵ־ֵ' . ֭ߵ . ӟ ㌵ ֕ ߸־ֻ֭ ߸ Ӿ֓ ־֭ ׯ֙֓ ֝ .

ցם֍ ӣӟ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӓ '־֭֭' ֝ߵ ָ . ־ִֵ֛ ӓ ӛָ . ֭ߓ 'ִֵֻֻ' ׸֦ӓ 'ִָև֍' ֤׻֯ӓ 'ָ־֌' ן֯֬ . ִֵֻֻ ֍ ӟ߻ 滵 . ֍ ꓵ ֍ ָ ֵ . ֯ϴ֝ ֵ֓ ֬ ӓ '״ןֳ־֯ϯӓ֍' ָߵ ӟ߻ ϣִߓ ֍-ӣ ֻ֭ ֟.

֍ӟ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӓ '֬־֍' ָ ֬ . ֓ ֚ ֵӟ ֍ ֍ ֯ ָ Ӑֻ ֍ ӣ ֍ӟ ֕ ֲֻ . ӟ ֓Ӧӓ '׳ִ֭֬ؓ֟ם', '֣Ӑ', 'ִִֻ֭', '׭֑ә–', '׳ָ֭֬ ֕' 'և ֧־' -ӣ .

ϲӬӟ Ӧϳ 'ϳ־֍׸', Ӑӓ 'ϲӬִؓ֟ם', ָֿ֕ӓ 'ϲӬ֍ ו֭֯ϳ '׾׾֬ ߣԍ' ֯ ӣ . ָ ׾ֵӾָ ύָ ֲֻ . ֳӿ  ִ֬ ֻ֭֯ ד֟ ׾µ֤֍ ֬ ß ָ .

Ӳָ ӯϤֵӓ ֵ ׬֍ ϴ֝ӟ ָ֣ . ִ ָ֣  ׻ . ֓ ׸ֵ ' Ը ׾ֆ' ӣ֟ ׾ßָ פ .

׾֤ ӟ ֲֻ . ִԭ ׾־֭ þ, ԭ ֍ ӭ ׍ ӣ֓ ӯ֤ . ӓ ֓ ß־֭ 'Sacred Books of East' Ӿ ӣִֻ ύ׿֟ ֻ껵 ӓ ß־֭ ֭֓ߵ . ִԭ ׾־ .֭֯ ӓ '׭ִ֗' Ӑֻ . þ. ߸Ӧ ֑֓Ӧ Ӭ ӭָ ׸ ׿֍֐ ָӟ ֻ껵 ־Ԭִ-Ӵ֭ӟ ֝ , ' ן֟֍' ֐ ӕ ֤ ֻ . , , , , ӯֵָ֟ ӭ ֲ֟ ֭ߵ . ־־ָ߻ ϳ㟾 ï֤ .

ָ:-  ύ׿֟ ֐ֻ ־߭ ֟ ӓ ӯ֤ . ֓߭ ӓ ֭֟֍ ן֍ ׾־֭ ֓ ϣ ֻ . ֓ ־ ִ֣ , . ֻ׍ ㏟ָ, , ֻֻ, ׭ ו֭׾ֵ֕ . ׾־֭ӭ . ™߭ ߕߓ ' ן' ㏟ָ ' ֭֟ ֌ ß־֭ 'ִӟֳ֦' ӣ ֭ߵ . '֙ӛ֐ִ' 'ֵ֯' 'ִӟֳ֦' ӣ ֭ߵ . '֙ӈ֐ִ' 'ֵ֯' 'ֵ Ӧӓ' ß־֭ ֭֟֍ ן׍ ™֚ ֵ֭ ֵꐵ . ו֖ӭ ӓ ֵ֭ ־. ӿ֍֚ ӟ ׾֯ ֵ֭ ִ .



֬ ֵ֓.



֐־֭ ־߸֭ӟָ ֬ ֵ֓ ӣ֍ָ ֻ ӭ ֻ֯ ָ֤֓ ۾ָӭ ִ֬ӭ֓ ֍ ־, ָ ֻ֯ ָ ֝߭ ָߵ ֵ֛ ӭ ִ鬤 ֭׾ֻ . ӯ ֬ ֵ֓ԓ ӣ֍ָӓ ׸ֵ Ӂ֭ פ .

ִ ָ֝֬:- (.. 557) ֐־֭ ־߸ӓ Ϭ֭ (׿µ) , ӓ Ӿ 'Ӧן' ֟߭ ָ֟ ɝ ׭֑. Ӧ ؓ֟ ֻ. ֓ ָ Ӧߕ־ ی֯ϵ㌟߭ ӭ ӭ ִָֿӟ ֻ֝. ӓ ӓ ֭ӟ߻ ־ ׾֍ָ ӿֵ Ӧ߭ ߁ ֻ ֐־ӟ֓ Ϭ֭ ָ֝֬ ֻ֭. ֐֟ӟӓ ֤ ִ֕ ӭ ֤Ӑ ֓ ֭ . ֭ ll 30 ֟: . ־߸ӓ ׭־ԝ ֻ ֓־ ִ þִ߭ ֻ֖֭֓ ׯ ֻ ֭ӟָ 12 խ ӭ ׭־ԝï֤ ֯ ֻ.

֦:- (... 325) ןִ ֍ֻ . ӓ־ ֐֬ӟ 12 ֵӍ ֛, ֬ӓ ӑֲָָ ӭ ׁ֝ ׾ָ . ֬ ִ֙ Ӧ㯟 ֻ֯ ־ָ ֳָ֕ ־ ӓֲָָ ׁ֝ . ן֍ ӟ֟߻ ־ֲ֝ ך֝ ֻ֯ ӟִֵ ־ ֻ ֦ Ӳֻ ; ֍ ӑֻ ׾ָ פ. ֚ Ӧ㯟 ӓ ָָ . ߻ Ӧאָ ־ԟ־ָ ֦ þִߓ ֐ ֻ. ӱ '֦ ӱ' Ӿ֭ ֬ ӓ ָ֤֯ . ӓ . ӓ ӑֳ֓ ߕָ֝ ֭ӟָ ֟Ӳָ פӲָӓ ׭ָ׭ָ ֵ֓ԯָָ ֻ. ϴ פӲָ ֵ֓ԓ ׸ֵ ӟ .

ֵָ֓ :- (׾., ָ ֟֍)- Ӑ ֟ ™ ӟ߻ אָָ ־ԟ֓ ӱ ֭ ߟ ֟. ֻ֯ ֿ֟ ֖֭֓ Ի ؓ֟ ӭ ֐ָߓ Ӵ֭ ֡ פ ӓ֕־ ֻ. ӓ 㬤ߓ ָ߁ ӭ ӭ ֬ӟ֓ ׿ց֝ פ.

¯֤ ֲ׻:- ֵ֓ ָӕ־ ֻ .. ֜ ll 11 ֵ֭ ֟ӓ ֵָ֓ԭ ӭ ׭ָ פ. ӟָ ׿µ Ӎָ ֻ ӭ ֟ . ¯֤ Ӎָ ֭־ ӭ ו֭֯׻֟ӭ ߁ פ. ֤ ӓ ֭ ӭ ׿֍׾ֻ ֲ׻ ־ ֚׾ֻ. ֲֻ߭ ¯֤ӓ ֵµ ׿ֻ֍ ߻ ӣָ֭ . ֯ϴ֝ ¯֤ ֲֻ '֙ӛ֐ִ' ִ֍ ֬ӟ ӣ ׻. ם ֙ӛ֐ִ ׻ׯֲ֬ š ll 5 ӓ á֯ . ןף ӟ ֯ӓִ Ӿ֭ ֬ ֻ.

ָ֬:- (׾.. ָ ֟֍)- ֵ֓ ָ֬֝֟: ֓ ֻ. '֭֯Ͼ֤' ִ֍ 5 ߻ ־ ß ׬֍ָӟ֐ԟ 'ֵ֯' ֐ָӟ ָ֟ . ֓ ׾ֿ֭ ֵ ֵ֯ Ӿ֓ ֯ ֬ӟ-ӣ ֍ ֣ ӭ ֻ.

ֵ֓:- (׾..ָ ֟֍)-ֵ֓ ִ֬ԟ߻ ӟ ϳ־ ֵ֓ ֻ. ӓ ӲӬ ֬ , ׾֤ ӟ ߴӬָ þִߓ ָ֕־ ։ ӓ פ֭֬ ֓ ֐ ӭ ֯ ֻ. ӓ Ӿ ֩Ӥ . ߻ ִֻ ֵ֓ Ӿ֭ ֻ ֟ ֓ Դ֬ ӟָ ֵ֓ ֻ. ӓ 'Ͼָ֭֓', ӓß֍ֵ' 'ִֵָ' Ӿ֓ ӣ ׯ֯֬ 'ֵ֙' Ӿ֭ ֻ ֟. ׿־ֵ ӭ 'ֳ' ֭ . ֚ ֳ ֲֻ . ֳ֯ӓ ֙ ֣ ӭ ֯֝ ֍ֻ ֦ ׿µ ֻ֓ אֻ֟ . ־ֲ֝ ߻ ׿ֻֻӟ ӓ ָߓ ٟ ևԻ .

þִ:- (׾.. ןָ ֟֍) ֵ֓ ӓ ׿µ . ӭ ֬ӟ Í ӟ ׭ֲ֬ ֣֟ ִ֍ ӣ֓ ֭ . ӭ '鬤ׯֵ֓֓' ֟֟. ־ֲ֝ ߻ ׿ֻֻ . 108 ֬ ֵ֓ԓ ׾֡ ӿӟ ־ ֤֣ԓ ֟ . þִ ֻ. š ֟. ӭ ו֤֭֯ϝߟ ־ áӓ ֹ֭ ׭ֲ֬ . ֝ߴ֡ӓ ֝ӟ ן ־֭֬ . ־ د֔ ִֻ 鬤ӓ ӏӓ ׯ د֔ ֭ ӭ ֵӟ ֻ֝, ֯ ӭ 鬤ׯֵ֓֓ ֝ӟ ֐ֻ. ָ֬֟: פӲָ ִ ߾ָ֚ ӓ ӏӓ د֔ ־ ֟֟.

Ӵֳֵ֦֟֓:- (׾.. ןָ ־֣ ֟֍) ִ֕ӟ߻ ϳ־ ֵ֓՟ þִ ִӟֳֵ֦֓Փ ã֭ ӟ š . ӭ ֿ֭֓ ϝ ־ ߣԍ ֻ֭ . Ӎ ӭ ™֟, ׾֪֭Ӥӭ áߟ, וֵ֭֓խ פ֝ӟ, ו ׸ӿ֯֝ӟ, ֤߸֕ ׾׭ֵֿ ׾־ָ ԭ֣ ׸ӟ, ߸Ӥ߭ Ӧϳ ׸ӟ, ßִֻӭ ׾֍ӟ֍ ֙ӟ ַ ӣ֍ָӭ ֻ֯֯ ӣָ֯ ӓ ן ֤ԍ ôָ ӭ ִÍָ . ߾֭ӟ ӭ ô֍ ֻ . ֚ ӭ ӓ ؍ ֿ ߻ ֕֍ߵ ׿־ֵֻӟ ַ֓ ִ ֟ ߻ ٯ֟ ց֝ ֻ֯ ™ ָӭ ִֻ֕, þֵӳ ß֓ ֭ ֿ֭֓ ֐ ϟց ֙ פ. ӓ 'ִ֯ߴ' , 'þֵӳ', '㌟֭֭', 'ו֭ßן ֟֍' '֍' ӣ ֲֻ ߾۬ . ӣ ֲֻ . Ϗָ ٍ ֻ ֤ . ӭ ӟ ױ ׾֯ցߵӭ á֣ԭ ؕ֍.

֬:- (׾. . ӓ־ ֟֍) ֵ֓ þִ ϴ֝ ֬ӭ ӯϤֵӟ ֭֟ ״ֻ . פӲָ ӯϤֵ֟߻ וֵ֭֓խ ָ ֤֭ ӓ ôָ . ӓ ی . ֳ֤֓ 挟ָ֓ ֻ֓ אֻ֟ . ןֲ֤߹ ߓ ִ ׾֍ֹ áֵ㌟ ָ ִֻ֕ . ֲӸ ӯϤֵӟ ӭ 'פ֍' ׾ֿ֝ ־ֻ ֟. ӓ '֭ן֟֍' ӣ ן֯֬ ֭ ֍ ֣ ׻ . ָ ֵ־ָ֟ پֿן֍ ӣ Íִ֬ ׻ . ־ ӣ ӳ߸ ֟֓֓ ׸ . ֬ ן֖ . ֻ׍ ㏟ָ ӭ ֻ֯ ӟ֓ ֭ן ֬֍Ӎӟ (9-11) ֵ֭ ӿ֭ ֬ , ־ ן ֓ ֬ӓ ֬ Ӿӓ ׾־֭ ֻ .

֭Ӥ:- (.. ӓ־ ֟֍) ־ֲ֝ ߻ ׿ֻֻ֭. 40 (64) ֬ ׻ , ӓ Ӿ '֭Ӥ' . ֝ 㬤ߓ ߾Ο ӭ 'ו֭ά' ֟.. ӭ ӓ ָӓ , ־ֹ ӓ Ӿ '敵֤֯' . Ӂ֟: '' Ӿ . ֵ֓ ו֭ӭ פ֝ӟ ֤߸֕ ԭ֣֓׸ӟ ׁ֯ Ӿ֭ ӓ ôָ . ֍׾ ֭ӕֵӭ ֵֻ֯ ִִֻ 敵֤֯ӓ ֍ 'ۿִ ֵ֡' ֯ Ӳ׬ֻ . ӓ ' ֍' ӓ Í ֍ . ӓ Ӗ ׁ֯ . '㐬ֲ' . ֤ӭ ֚ ֍ӟ ԓ .. ׿־ֵ ӓ '־ԣ۬' , 'ִ׬֟ӡ' , '™' 'ֳی' (Í) ָ ֲֻ ӣ . ӭ ֻ֯ ֍־ָ . Ӑ־ӿߵ ֕ پ֭ߟ ӓ ׿µ . ӓ ֻ .. 482 512 ֵ՟ ֻ֭ ֟. ֡֍׸:- (.. ־ ֟֍) ӭ ֡þִ ֟֟. ӭ ӓ ֤֓ ӛ ֚ סֻց֝֍ԭ Ӿ֓ á֓ ׻ ֝ ֲֻ ֟֓ ֻ֭ ׁ֭֟ ֻ֯ ֟Ӑӟ ֡þִߓ ֟֓ ֻ֭ ӭ ׸ ־ԯց֓ ֭ ׻ . ӓ ֻ߻ ן֯֬ .



֣֭֮֯֟ ֡ ֡ ֵ ׍ l

֣֭֭֮֯֟ ֡ ֡ ׍ ll



פ֕ ӟ־ߵխ ׻ , ӓ סց֝֓ ӛ ֚ ֩־֟ . ߴӬָ þִߓ ִָֿӟ ։ ӓ ָ֝֬ӓ ֤֭ ֵָ ֡֍ָ פ . ־ֲ֝ ߻ ׿ֻֻ 54 ֬ .

Ӎ:- (.. 620 680) ӭ ֵ Ӑֻ þֹ פ. ύӛ כ ָ á֣ ™ ׾ָ֓ . ֵ ӭ פ, ־ָ ӣ֍ָӭ ֻ֯ ָ֤ ֻ. Ӳָָ ӓ ӑ ֻ. þִ ִӟֳ֦ӓ ꐵ ָ׬֍ָ ִֻ֕ ֟֟. ӭ ӓ ִ֯ߴָ '™֟' Ӿ֓ µ ׻. ӓ ߾֭ ׸ֵ ӓ 'ֵ֍Ӧ' ß־֭ . ӓ ӳ߸ . ӓ '™֟', ϴ֝Ӑ, 'ֵ׾׭ֵֿ', '֬ߵáֵ' '֣֟Ը֕־ٟ֍' ӣ ύ׿֟ ֻ . ۬׾׭ֵֿ ύ׿֟ ֻ .

׾֪֭פ :- (.. 9 ֟֍) ׾֪֭פ ֟׻֭ ןִ֣ ׾־֭ . ӭ Ӎӓ ™֟߾ָ ™á Ӿ֓ ֭ ӣ ׻. ִ֕ ꝵ֓ Ӑֻ Ӑֻ ׾־֭ӭ ™áߓ ־ . ־ ԭ-áӟ Ӑֻ ָ֟ . ӭ '™á' , ָ֯֯߁, 'ϴָ֝֯߁' , ָ֡֯߁, ֣֟Կ֍ٟ֍' '㌟֭֙ߍ' ӣ ׻ .

ם֌֭פ :- (.. 9 ֟֍) ӭ Ӎӓ ӣ֓ ֵ֭ 'ָ߁ִ' Ӿ֓ ֲ֬ ӣ ׻. ӟ ϴ֝ ϴֳ֝֓ ׁ֯ ï™ ֝ ָ ֝ԭ .

֭־ߵ :- (. . 790 825 ) ֬ӟ ӣ '֙ӛ֐ִ' ֵ֯' ӓ ִԖ . ӣ־ָ ӭ 62000 ϴ֝ ֍ Í ״֟ ־ֻ Ӿ֓ ߍ ׻ ֵ֯־ָ 20,000 ϴ֝ ߍ ׻ þ֐Ծ ֻ. ߍ ֬ӟ־ָ߻ ֓֓ ׸ . ־ֻ֓ ß־֭ ֍ӓ ׬֯ן. ٍ ֍֟ Ͼ֤߹ ָ ֻ֓ אֻ֟ .

ו֭ :- ( . . 800 880) ָӓ ׿µ . ֻ֯ þ֐Ծ ֻ֭ӟָ ӭ ֻ֯ 'ֵ֬־ֻ ߍ . ӭ þ֟: '׾־' ׻ . ־ֹ פ ӭ ֵֻ֟ӟ֓ ߁ ֻ. ׾ , ӭ ֻ֯ ֹ־ã֓ ׻֤֓ ֻ֤ ӟֳԟ Գ Ӿ֓ ־ ֻ . ֤ӟ ו֟֍ ӟ߻ ϟ֓ ֙ ָ ָ ָӯ ؍ ֻ֯ ֍ӟ ִ׾™ ӭ ֻ֯ ־ָ֭ . ֯֝ ӓ ӣ . ӟ ™ ֻ֍ ӓ ׸ ׻ ֭ ָ . ָ ֬ þ֐Ծ ֻ־ָ ӓ ׿µ ֳֵ֦֓ ӭ ӣ . ֕ ־ ӓ ׿µ ֕ ӭ  ֭ .

ϳ֓Ӧ (.. 11 ֟֍)- ֿ׭֍ ׾־֭ ֟. ־ ԭӟ߻ ־ Ӑֻ ׻֍ ӣ֓ ӭ , ™ ӭ ׻껵 'ֵ֍Ӧ' 'ϴ֍ִֻ֟՛' Ӿ֓ ֿ׭֍ ӣ֓ ֻ־ֹ ï™ . ӟ߻ ӣ֟ ֵ֓ ם֌֭Ӥߓ ָ߁ִ ӣ־ָ µ . ־ֲ֝ ߻ ׿ֻֻ . 40 (64) ֬ ӭ ֍ֵ֭ ֍־ָ ׾ß ӣ ׻ . ֓ ֐ ֲֻ . ӓ Ӿ ֭֩Ӥ ۭ֍ .

פ֕:- ( . .11 ֟֍) פ֕ ٍ ֍ߓ ׾ . ӭ ֙֍ִ֝, õ־֤-׾֪֯ן ֐ֻ֤־֤ ֬ Ꟶ. ֐ָ ֻ㌵ӟ߻ ׿ֻֻ . 39 ֬ ׻ , ֳ Ӎ, ן֤֯ӟ ִԍٟ, ֝֟ ïן ֵֿáӟ ֤֯ . ӭ Ӎ ӓ ֵ׾׭ֵֿ־ָ 20,000 ϴ֝ µ ׾־֯ . ֍ 947 (.. 1025) ֬ ӭ ԭ֣ ׸ ׻ . ӟ ָ . ָ ָ ӣ ß ӭ ׻ . ӓ Ӿ 'ן֐ָ' .

֬ ֵ֓ԓ ׸ֵ ֻ . ֟ Ӳָ ֵ֓ԓ ׸ֵ פ ֟ . ӯ ӯϤֵӟ ֭֟ ֻ껵 þִ ֬ ӓ ׸ֵ ָ ֻ .

׭ֵیָ ֦:- ֦ Ӿ֓ ֵ֓ ֻ . ָ ֦ ׾֍֓ 6 ֟֍ӟ ֻ. ֟߭ ɝ ֬ ן ָ״ ӓ Ӭ . ӭ ֐ִ־ָ ׭ֵԌ ֭ ָ ӣ ׻.

ֻ־֤:- ן ٍ . ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӭ ֻ֯ ֍ӟ ׻ ־ ٍ ֻ־֤߭ӟָ ֻ ; ӭ ׻ ֵ֓֍ ן ֯ ֓ Ӿ ָ֤ ֵ֓֍' . ӣ ֲֻ . ָ ִִӭ ־ָ ߍ ״. ֵ֓ ӓ . ־ֹ ׾֍֓ 8 ֟֍֓ ֻ ־.

וֳ֦֭ם:- ( . . 6 7 ֟֍) וֳ֦֭ם ִִ֝ ӟ ִ֣ ִִ֍ֻ ׾־֭ . '׾ֿ־ֿ֍' Ӿ֓ ӓ ֯ µ ӣ . ־ֹ֓ 'µ֍ָ' Ӿ֭ ӓ ۬ ֻ.

ӣ֟ ӭ ֬ӓ ׾ָ֓ӓ ӛ . '׾ֿ֝־֟' . ָ ӣ ӭ ׻ . ™ ֏֟ ֻ֓ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӭ ׻ .

׸֦:- (.. 700-750) ֟Ӳָ ӯϤֵӟ߻ ӟִ֭ ׾־֭ . ӭ Í ֍ӟ ӣ ׻ . ӯ ֭־֤ Ͼ, ֵ֭֕֯֟֍,׻֟׾ßָ, ֛ԭִ㓓ֵ ִָև֍ ן ֬ . ֻ֯ ύ ӣ֟ ӭ ֻ֟߭ ֬ӓ ָ ֻ֭ .

ֵ֤:- ( . . 11 ֟֍) Ϫ㴭 ׿µ. ӭ ֬ӓ ֭ן֟֍Ծָ ӟ ׾־֯ ߍ ׻ ߍ ֿ׭֍ ӣ֓ ָӿ ֓ ָ . פӲָ ָָ Ӎ , ׾֪֭פ ϳ֓Ӧ ӭ ã֭ , ֲӸ ָָ ֻ־֤, ׸֦ ֵ֤ ׸ ӓ ã֭ . ׾־֭, ֿ׭֍ ֟߻ ִ֭߯ ֭ ָ .

֓Ӧ:- (13 ֟֍) ׾־֭ ӛߟ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧ֓ ã֭ ן . Ը ָ ֬֕ ֵ ӓ Ӑֻ ֌ . ӓ Ӿ־ָ ӭ ֻ֯ '֬־֍' ׻ ֓ ֵ '֍ ֍' . ן֯֬ . ֵ֓ԓ ֭ Ӿ֟ 1145 ֬ ֻ. 9 ԓ ֟ӭ֓ ӭ ߁ ֻ Ӿ֟ 1162 ֬ ӭ ֵ֓ԯ֤ ״ֻ. Ӿ֟ 1229 ֬ ӓ þ֐Ծ ֻ. ֵ, ֍, ־, . ־ ׾ֵӾָ ӭ ӣ ׻ . ֵ֓ ָ׬֍ָ ֕ ָֻ ӓ ׿µ .

ֿ׾ֵ֕ :- ( . . 18 ֟֍)- ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӭӟָ Ӳָ ָָ ֿ׾ֵָ֕ ָ ־Կáָ֯֟ ׾־֭ ֻ . ӭ ֿߟ ֵ֭ ־ֵ֭֓ ֟ ׾־֭ ־, ָ ߟ ׍ ӣ֓ ӭ ֭ . ӓ ֟֍, ֭ز֤, ֵָõ, ֵ֯Ϥ߯ . ӣ ֵ֭ ָ . ӓ ׾ָָ֓ ן ׾־֢֯ ִ֟ .









ύ 5 .

֓߭ ֍ ֟֟.

(֓߭ ן֍ ִ)



-֭֟ϴ֝ ٯ֝ ֻ֓ ֳߓ ã֭ Գ߭ ֻ ־ . ֳ֤ӭ ֭֟ꓵ ց֚ ӓ ָ֢ ֻ áֵӓ ™ אֻ֟. Ӑ֓ 13 ־՟ ֓ ׾ßָ ֝ԭ . ָ ֟ ™ ֻ . ־ֹ פ , ֟ ָ ׾ß . ӟ ߾ן־֯ ߾֭ꬤֵָ֯՟֓ ־ ϵ֟ ִ׾™ . ,



ָ ֍, ִ ָָ l

߾֍ ן֍, ߾-ָ ll



ִ֬ԓ ㏵ ց ߾֭׾֍֍ . ߾֭׾֍֚ ַ֝ ϵ֟ӓ ׾֍֓ Ӿ֓ ִ֬ ָ ֻ֭, ָ ד֟ ָ . '֟ ؿ־ Ӥ' ֕ ֟ , ֝֍ָ , Ӥ . ߍ߻ ׸ ֍ ָָ ֐ ֛. ָ ִ֬Կ Ӳ֬ ד֡֍, ٟ֍ ã֯֟֍ ־ Բָָ ֝֍ָ ֟֓ ԭ ֛׾֟֟, ӓ ׸ֵ Ӂ֭ .



ד֡֍



ָ ֕ӟ߻ ց֝֯߯ 12 Ӿָ 'ִאָ ֛ . 'ߴָ' ӱ . ӱ ߾ָ ӟ Ӥ ד֡ . ן֍ ™߭ ֓߭ ִ֬Կ Ӳ׬֟ . ָ Ӹ֝֓ ־ ӓ ãן ָ ֲָ ֻ . ֕ӟ ֭֕֬ 9 ־ָ ӱ-פ . ֮֟־ֻ Ӿ֭ ֬ . ӓ ֍ '֬־' . ֓ ֬ӓ ׭־ . ֓ ׳ָ֟ 'ԯֻ־ ֕ӓ ߓ ד֡ . ִ Íן ֓ ֭ ֍ ֬ ֍ָ ֕ ִ (֭ 600-625) ӭ ֭׾ֻ . ןӤ ־՟ ֓߭ ד֡ . Ӵ֬ ߓ Ӎ , ֚ؕ ߻ ־™ ד֡Ӳָָ ֮֟־ֻ ߻ ד֡ӓ ֭ ֵ֓ Ի. ָ ד֡ӓ ָߵ ד֡֍ꓵ ןӟ ֓ ã֭ . ӓ ֿ֭ ֚ؕ֓ س֟߾ָ߻ דֿ֡ ָֿ ״ߕ . ֬ س֟ Ӿָ߻ ָ֓ ד֡ Ӑֻ ã֟ ׿ֻ֍ . ד֡ӓ ׾ֿ֟ , ߤ ָ ãָ ӭ ӟ Ӥ ֍ ֟֍ ֜ , ֝ ו־ӟ ֙֟. ִָֿ֓ Ӥ ֭ דָ֟ ־ ӱ ֻӭ ׳֟ ֻ . Ӳ־ָ ֟ԍߓ ד֡ . ָߴ֬ ־ָ ֳ֬֐  ֜ ֝ӟ ֿց ֻ֍ߛ ߟ ֻ ֏׾ֻ . ־ ֕ ߭ ֭µ֍ߓ ד֡ ֍ԍ Ӥ . ӱ ֭֩־ָ ִ֭ ֻ껵 ֌ ӓߓ ӓ ߣԍӓ . ß׾֍ ֻ־֍ֻ߭ ד֡ ָߵ ׾־֭ӓ ֓ ׾ֵ .

֭ӟָ ִ֬Կ Ӳ׬֟ ד֡֍ 10-11 ֟֍֯ 25 ֟֍ֵ֯՟ ״֟. ׾־֭ӓ ֟ , ֬֍ֻ߭ (߭) ד֡֍ ֿ ӯ֛֟. ֳӛִָ. ָ ӟ ָ֬֟: 1000 ֵ՟ ִ֬ԓ ϳ־ ָ־ԟ ֐ӟ ָ֓ ָ . ם ָ ™ , ϴ֝ӟ ӭ ٴ֍ ӣ ֛֡߾ָ ׻ דס֟ . . 1157 ֬ דס֟ ׭ֿߣ֓ ϟ ֕ ֲֻ . ֟ ן֯֓߭ ϟ . 15 ֟֍֓ ֟֍ ד֡֍ ־ֵ ״֟ ֐ӣӟ֓ ӯ֛֟.

ֵ֟֯՟ ֓߭ ֲֻ . ֓ ֐ ֛֡־ָ ׻ ֜. ָߵ ד֡֍ ׾֍ ֛֡־ָ ָ֓ ֻ . ו֭׾ֵ֕֕ ׻֟ 'ד֡֍ ן ֵ֭֓ ™߭ ֛֡֓ ד֡ ß֍ ӟ ־֭ ֍ԍ ß . '

֦ ־Դ חֱִֵ֟ 'Tirupatti Kunram. ' Ӿ֓ . . . ִ֓Ӧ ӭ ׻ ־ָ֭ ӣ ύ׿֟ ֻ . ӟ߻ ד֡Ӿֹ ׁ֝ ָӟ߻ ד֡֍ꓵ ֬ߓ þֹ Ӑֻ ցӟ . ֯ ׬֍ ד֡ . ֳ֤ ־߸ӓ ߾֭ ֙Ӿָ ύֿ ֍֟. ־ֹ ־ ֏, 韵֍, . Ӑֻ ״.

֛֡ ׁ֟ ־֟ ֍ ӟ ֵ ֟ . ־ָ ד֡֍ Ӥ ִ ־ֵ ״֟. ד֡֍ꓵ ֲ֟ ד֡֍ ֭־ָ ׾־֭ . , , ׻֟ , 'ד֡ӟ ύָ ׭ִԻ֟, ñٟ ן־ . ד֡ӓ ָָ ֚ؕ, , ֑ ֮֟־ֻ֓ س֟-ד֡ӓ . ִ֍ֻ߭ Íߓ ֵ֭֭ ד֡֯  ֭־۬ . ׾ֿ֟: ֏ ִ֭֯֝ ֵӟ ַ ׭ָ׭ָ ß . ֲ Ӑֻ ߟ߭ ցӟ ֟. ' (ָߵ ד֡֍ . 33.)



ٟ֍



ִ֬ ׭־ע֯Ϭ֭ ִ . ֟߯ ֵ֕֯՟ ӓ ٟ-֭ ָ֬֟: ύָ ԭ .. . ֟ ֭ ֕֍ ֯ןִ ֲֻ , ӟ ֭ӟָ ԭ ֭׾ֻ껵 ™߭ ָ ӟָ . ןִ ցם֍ Ӑ ־ ־ 2000 ԯֵ՟ ֓ þֹӟ ִֵ . ֭֩ ؍ ֛֭ã ָ֓ ׭֑ 껵֭ӟָ ӟ ׾ֿ– ֜ . ֟ߣՍӓ ׾ָ, ӟ ֮ ֟֟. ִ֬ ֭µ֓ ֭ӟ߻ ׾֍ָӭ וֲ֟ ָ ֟ . ᓵ ֵֹ֓֓ ו֭֯ןִ ֲ֛ ֻ ։ ֍. ֛֭־ָ߻ ᓵ ־ָ ֮֟ ֟ ֵ֯՟ ֻ ֟֟. ִ֭֐ ֍ָ פ֟. ֻ껵 ןִ ִ֭ ֭֩־ָ׾ִָ֭֕ ֟֟. ӟ ӛ߾ָָ ֻ ֟֟. ߣԍӓ ןִӓ þֹӟ ֻ֓ یֳ ִֻ ӓ ֭־ָ ׭ָ׭ָ˸ ד֡ ֜ ֟֟. ־ֹ ֟ ߣԍӓ ןִ ֻ ։ ֍. פӲָ Ӳָ ֬߻ ӓ ָӓ ֓ ß֍ӟ ӑֳ ύӟ .

֬֍ֻ߭ ִٟ־ָ ϣϴ֝ ־ָ (ӓ ׾׿™ ֍ָ) ꌵ־ָ  ֟߾ָ ߾֟ ד֭ ֜ ։ ֐ֻ. ָ ӓ ֭ þֹӟ ֛ .

׻֍ ־՟ ֓߭ ִٟ ֙֓ ߯ ך ״ֻ . ׭ۿ֟֝ ԍֻ߭ , ֙ חִִֵ֬ ֻ . ֓ ׻ֿ ִ֍ָ ꓵ ִֵ . , ֣, ֏֭, ϵ֐ . ך֝֓ חִִֵ֬ ִ ־ֵ ״֟. ֯ 㯟֍ֻ߭ . . ֵ֬ ׻֟. ֣ 24 ߣԍ ֬Դ֭ ־߸ ӓ ٟ ״ֻ , ָ㯟֓ ֵָ ֻ , ß׾֍ ֣ ٟ֍ꓵ ™߭  ִ ֻ . . ֵ֍֤ ֻ֯ 'ָߵִٟ֍' ӣ֟ ׻֟ ֣ Ӑ֍ֻ߭ ㏵֟: ӯϤֵ֓ .

ӛאָ אָ . . 188 30 ֵԟ֓ Ӑ֍ֻ߭ ٟ ׿ֻ֍߻ ֟ ύ ֟. 껵 ־־ 100 ӱ ӟ ٟ׿ֻ . ׁ֝ ָ֓ ֐ִֻ ִ֍ ã֭ 껵 ִٟ ֲֻ ֻ껵 . ӓ . . . 300-200 ֯ אֻ֟ ֟. ٟ þֹ כ֭ Ӵ֬ ן ֻ֭ ֟֟. ־ֲ֝ ߻ ֬ ִٟ ָӟ߻ ß ֻ֝ ֟. ֻ֯ ִ ԭ ӟ߭ ϟ ֌ߓ ֭ ֻ֯֍ ֍™ . ִٟ֍ ֐ ִ ֐ .



ã֯֟֍

ԍӓ ֬ ןִӓ ׭־ã֭ ׳֟ ֝ӟ ֟ ӭ ֍ ֻ . ָ־ԓ ָ ֭֍ַӟ ִפӓ ۾ߵ ָ ֕ . ֕֓ ֭ וֻӟ ߻ ִפ ֬֍ֻ߭ ־־֓ ց ֟. ָ֣֓ פӟ߻ ã֯֟֍ ֍ , ָ ֟֓ ־ ֙.

ؾ֬ ӟ֟߻ ָ ֕ӟ '֕' ã 9 11 ֟֍ֵ֯՟ ןӤ ֵֻ ֻ֭ ם ֝֓ כ כ ֯ןִ ֐֐ ־ֵ ״֟. Ӥ֏ӛ֟ ֻ֝껵 ִ Ӑֻ Ӑ ֲ֤ ߻ ׭ֻ֯ Ӑֵֻӟ ־ֵ ״. Ӥ֏ӛ -֟֟֓ ָ . ֭ ׿ֻ֍ָӭ ֣ꓔ ֍ ׭ִԝ . ӓ ֭ ֕ ֐֛ ߻ ֡ ֓ ֍. ߓ ßӳ . ֓ ӓ 80 ֻ֯ ׿֏ֵָ֯՟ ־ָ Ӥ ց ֜ ֕־֙ . ־ָ ׻껵 ־ֹ ӓ 896 . . . ßӳ ߣԍ פֿ֣ Ӳ׬֟ ֆ. ־ָ ӓ ٟ 껵 . ֻ ֛־ָ ֓߭ ֭ߵ ִ . ֛֓ ֓߭ ֭ߵ ִ . ֛֓ ָ ֕ . ֟֕ ߭ , '׾ֿ֟: ã֯֟֍ꓵ ӟ ӭ ֍ ԟ ֯ , ד֟֓ ӓ ָָ ֍ ! '

ã֯֟֍ ־՟ ֓߭ ֿ ׸֓ ׁ֝ ֐Ӎ߻ אָ ӛאָ ־ԟӟ߻ ֐֛ אָָ ־ԟӟ߻ ӱ ״֟. אָ ӛאָߓ ӱӲֲ֟ ״. ֭ӓ ֝ , ӓ ׾ד֡֟ ֓߭֟ ך֝ ַ֜ ֍ָ ύָ ִ ӓ ׾ֿ . אָߓ ֣ߐӱ ָӓ ׿ִֻֻ ן֯֬ ֻ . ã֯֟֍ꓵ ™߭ ֝ߐӱ ֝ ӱ ֭ߵ . ִ֬ ã֯֟֍֬ . ԭ֣ӓ ߾֭ ӟ ן֍ֻ֭ . ꓵ ™߭ ֣ ֵ֐֯֙, ß ֭ߵ . ֯֟֍ ߍ߻ . ã֭ ֝ ֓ ã֭ ןӤ ִפ . ӟ߻ 10 11 ֟֍ӟ߻ ֕ ߻ פ֯ϴ֝ ןӤ . ״. ֭ӓ ֝ , '֭֕֯ӟ ִ ӓ פ֓ ã ֻ . ָ ָߵ ꓵ ֍ӭ ( ֭ӭ) ָ ֵ㌟ ߻.

ӓ ã֯֟֍ ָ֣֓ ֜׾ֻ . ־ԭ ֭ , ־ ֍ ã֯֟ ו־ӟ ֟ ָ ûߴ ֟ ֻ ֟. ״. ױ֭ ӭ ã֯֟־ָ ӣ ׻ ӟ ׻֟, ָ־ ֟֍֓ ɝ ִ פ , ָ֣߻ Ӎ ֻ껵 ߓ . ֝֍ ߻ ִפӟ߻ Ӳ־ָ߻ -ִԖ ֵֿԴ㐬 ֟. ׁ֝ ִԓ ã֯֟ӓ  ֕ ֲֻ . ӯ ߻ Ӧֳ ֐ֳ֣֮ ϴ . ָ֬֟: ӓ ִ ֻ㌵ӓ ִ֤ ֏ ؍ ™ӓ ֵ֏ֻ ֻ ־. ָ ִ֤ ֓ ύָ ֐ӱ . ֟־ ֟֍ӟ߻ ִֻ֕ ֟.

ׁ֝ ִפ ٟ  ϴ֝ӟ . ־ֲ֝ () ּþִ ֬ ִٟ . ã֯֟֍ꓵ ™߭ . ָ ִפ . כ֭ ߓ . ָ ӓ ׁ֝ ָߵ Ͼכ֭ ߿ ״ ؍ ָ ָߵ ֬߿ . ײ֦ ߻ פӟ Ӎ ִ֓ ׬֍ ֵ ־ָ߻ ցߍִ ֝ߵ . ָӿ, ָ־ԓ ד֟֓ ֤ ֐ , ֓߭ ֍ ֿ ӯָ֛ ߟ. ֕ ӓ ß ך֝ ֍ Ӥ ִ ֜֟. ִ ֬ ד֡֍ָ ׾ֿӍ ־ ֻ֯ 'Ӭ֍ָ ߭ ָ' ( . 95-96) ָ ֟֟ , 'ָߵ ֭ ֵ֤֟, ָ Ӹ֍ ֻ֓ פ . '

þ. . . ֵþֻ ӭ ִ֬Ӳ׬֟ ßֲ֟ ߓ ™ אֻ֟ . פ־ָ ָӓ ֲ֟ ֟֟, ''֟ Ͽ ã֟ ,  ӭ ָ ״ֻ ? xxx ־ָ ӭ ֭֭֟ (פ) ָֹ ֻֻ ־֟, ֗ ָ ! ''

ָߵ ӓ ַ ӯϤ׵֍ ׾ֳ֭֕ ֲֲ֟ ״. ָ ӓ ֟ ֭ߵ . ӭ ֣ ߻ ֓߭ ߻ ϴ֝ ֻ֯ ֟ ׭ۿ֟ . '֣ ߻ ӿ֭־ֹ ֻ ֛ ״ֻ , ָߵ ӯ֯Ϥ׵֍ . , ɝ ִԭ ֻ֯֯ ֓ ӓ ֵ . ꓵ ӟ ӭ ϟߍ ֝ ן ֓ Ͼӟ ֻ . ־ ٴ֍ ֟֍ ֟ӓ ֭ ,  ֭֭֟ ־խ֓ ָ ߟ߭ ֐ ! ֟֓ߓ ™ ״. ׾֭ ô֣ ӭ ֻ֯ 'פ ß ћ љیߕ ѱ ' ӟ .

֯ϴ֝ ֓߭ פ , ׿ֻֻ, ӱ ִϯ֡ . ֭ ֕ -֓߭ ß֟: פ ֟. ֯ ָ ־ ֓ Ͼӟ ™ ֻ ™ . ״. ֭ ӓ ֝ 'ָ Ӳ֓ ֙ӓ ӟ ָߓ ֻ ֻ פ֟. ύָ ֙ ߻ ִ֬ ֜ ֵ: ־֣ ֟֍ӟ߻ . ָ ֑ ߻ ֭ ӱ ֜. 6 7 ֿ֟֍ӟ߻ . ύָ ֙ ӿ֭ ֝֏  ӯ֛߻. ָ ύָ ֙ӓ ֟ Ӥ Ӳ ִֻ֭ӭ ֻ֯ ִӟ ֵӟ ֻ֝. ״. ֭ ֻ֯ Histroy of Indian and Eastern Architecture. P.209. ָ ׻֟ , ִ, פ, , ָ ֲָ֤ ߻ ׾ֻֿ ׿֤ פӓ֓ : ֵָ . ָ֣ ߻ ֬ ֣֭ פ ߟ ? . . 1025 ֬ ֤ ֭֗߭ פ֓ אָָ ־ԟ־ָ ֻ껵 . ֣߭ӓ ִפֿ ״ . ״. ֭֓ ֝ , ' ִֻ֭ӭ פ־ָ ֍֝ 'ָ פ' Ӿ֭ ֻ ֟ . ָ ֕ ׿־. ָ פ ׿־֓ ָ ׿־ػ֐ ֿ ןš ־ֵ . ָ ûִ ן ֍֓ ֝ , , ֟, ֵ . ã֟ ٟ ׿־ػ֐ ׾ ؍ ꝵ ָ ߣԍӓ ־, ֝ ־ ָ֣ ־ ִԓ Ӿ ׭ֿ֝ ־. ִֻ֭֭7ӟָ פ֓ ߝ쾤ָ ֕ ߴ֤, ֬֕ ָֻӭ ׾ֻ. ־ . ־ֹ ֭ ӭ ׭ ֜ , ֣֭֓ פ ִפ .

ϴ֝ '֟֟ ֲ֓ ן ֯֍ . ן ֐ ֵָ ӟ Ӭ֭ӓ ־ֿ֍ ֟, ־ '֟֟' ִ֬ ٳ֟ . ֓߭ פ, 'ٟ ӱ ßӳ ֯ϴ֝ ֓߭ ׿ֻֻ á ӓ ִ־ ֟֟ӟ ֍.

־ֲ֝ ()  ׿ֻֻ . ֟֟ ׾ֳ֐֓ ֻ֟߭ ׬֍ָ և ӭ ־ֲ֝֓ 144 ׿ֻֻӓ Ӑ ύ׿֟ . ӓ ß־֭ ӭ ӓ ן֍ ֍ ׾־֭ӓ ց ֻ . Ӧ㯟 ם ֦ ӓ ָï׸ (֯֟߻) ӲӬ֓ ׾־֭ , ӭ ׭ ֜ , ִ֙ Ӧ㯟ִխ ֦ ו֤֭߁ ֻ . ֯ϴ֝ ׿ֻֻ . 1 ֬ ӓ ôָ . Ӑ֓ ָ ־ע ־ֲ֤ ָ . ֵָ֓ ӭ ύ׿֟ . ӟ ӭ 500 ׿ֻֻ Ӑ ß־֭ ӓ ן֍ ֟ ׾־֭ . ָ Ӑ ֛֭ ֭ ׻֯ ִֻ ӓ ־ע ֭֐ָ ׻֯ . ֻֻ֕ . ׾ִֵٟ֕ ӓ֍ . ִ֣ ӭ ӯפ ύ׿֟ . ֓֯ϴ֝ , ֐֛ . ך֝ ׿ֻֻ, ִϯ֡, ӣ֯Ͽß, ¯֍, ּ־ֻ, Ծֻ, ֕־ӿ־ֻ ӣ . ֭ ׾֯ ן֍ ִ ֲֻ פ .

þ . . . . ֵþֻ ӭ ֻ֯ ӟ ׻ , 'ִ֬߻ 2500 ԓ Ӿ֟ ֭֝ ־ ֡ӟ ־՟ Ӑֻ (֓߭) . ־ֹ ִ֕֟ , ֓߭ ן֍ ׸֙ߓ Ԑ֭֝ ִ֓ ӟ ֻ . ָ ך֝ 㯟 ™ ֻ, ӟ֓ ӓ ֭֝ꓵ ָ֬־ָ ם֍ ן֍ 㬤 ־߸ӓ ֯ ֵ֛ ־ ֙ӓ ֻ ִ ׭ۿ֟ ֍. ӓ Ӑֻ ߟ߭ ־ ֙ӿ ִ ֻ. ׍ ן֍ ֙ӓ ӓ ן֍ ּ־ֻ ״. ( ӿ֭ ӛ 1-. 211).