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 ֿߵ ׮־꤮

. ߾ָ֕ ӣִֻꓵ ָ֚ ׾ֳ֟ ֵ֕֯՟ ֿ ֿ֮ ֛ ֕ ӟ ֓ ־ ֿ֮ ( ִ( ֛ .

ָ ߻ õ֤֫ ׾ֵֻ֪֓ δ Ӹָߵ ԓ ޵ִ֮ ׾֮֫ . ֓Ӧ Ӯ ֤ ӣ 1948 ֬ Σִ ֬ . ֵ֕֯՟ ӣӓ ן֮ ־韵 ׮ֻ֑. ָ֚ߟ ָ֟ ֬ ־ ӣֱִֻ ֛֮ߟ ֬ ־ֵֵ֓ .

þ...ו־ֲֲָ֮֕֓ þָ ӑ֮ ֕ ֵ՟ ӣ ֿߟ . ִ ן, ֵ֛,

֖֮֟ פӓ ֳӮ ׮ִ ֻ .

ָ߯ ֯ ߓ ־ ™֟ ִ ַ ־ ׳ֹ߻ ֮־ַ ƕ ֳ ֤ Σӓ ߾ ָ ־֟ ߓ.

׾֤֣ ֚֯ßӓ ׸ ӓ ֤ ִԓ ֢ ֻ޵֓ ֵ֟ ֟֟ ֻ Ӯ ־ֿ ™ ֳֻ ד֟֓ . ָ ֢֖֮֓ ֓֓ Ӯ ֟ ָ ֿ ֤ߓ ï™ ߻ ֟֟.

׮ָ׮ָ ֓ ָߓֿ ß ֜δӟ ꓵ ־ ֌ ,

ָ ׿֓ ӳ Ӯ ֟ ֟. .

ִԳֿ ӓ ָ ֟ , ß , ֓ ӲӬߓ ӯ ߟ ״ . ֮֟ ßӓ ׮֟ӟ ֿ ֙ ߓ.

׾֤֣, ӲӬ ו֖ ֻ껵 ־ ָ ֓Ӯ Ի ָ ӣ ֻ֓ ֓ ו־ָ֮֓ ӣִֻꓵ ָ֚ ׾ֳ֓ ӓֻӮ ӣ֓ ָ֚ߟ ӟָ ֿߟ ޵֓ ׮Ե ֻ.

Σִ ӛߟ֕ߓ ֚ ָ֮ ״׾޵֟ ֻ. Ӯ ָ פ, ֦ ֮־֤ ֡ . Ӥ ӣ ֿ .פ. ӑ, ֣ ֵ ӣ֓ ָ֚ ֤ ޵ ָ֮ ״ֻ ֧ ӑ ָꓵ ӑ֓ ָ .

֮ӟָ Ɵ֓ ֲֲָ֤ߓ ִ ָ ֛޵֚ ݵ ֌ߓ ޵֟ ֻ.

ָӕ . . ִ֓ δ ֵ . ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ , ..... Ɵֵ֓ ƵӮ ֲֲָ֤ ֟ ֵ . ֲ֦ ã ӓ . ӣִֻ š š ӯ֤ ׾֫ .. . . ֬ ƵӮ ԤԮ . ӓ ӟԯ ֳָ ׮֟ .

ִ Ӿ ӲӬ֮ ֵ֕֯՟ ֿ֟ ԟ ֣ߟ ׾֮֫Ӯ ֤֯ ׾ֳ֟Ӯ ך ׻ ֻ , ߓ ׻ƻ ꚵ ֓ ™ .

֟ Ӿ ֟ ׻ƻ , ן׸, ׾ָ֯ߟ . Ӯ ָ . ߓ ß ֬ ֚֯ß ׿߻ ֟֟. ׬֓ ֻ ִ֕ ׬ ֜ ֟֟. ִ ָïָ ׮ִ ֟.

־ ִծ ֓ ֻ֯֯ þ֟ӡ ß־֮ ׿š֮ ã ִ׾š ޵׾֤Ӯ Ӥ׾޵֓ ׿š ָߵ ߟ Ƶ֓ ן . Ƶִ ֕ ֯ Ӯ ӯ ׸߮ ׮֙ ִ֕ ֯ԓ ֟ ֯ ׬ ־ֿ ֻ .

Ƶ֤™߮ þָ ӑ֓ δ ֓Ӯ, Ӯ, ן֖֟Ӯ, ֚֯ß Ӯ ֵ㌟ ߻ ֿ .



ָӕ ׾֮ߟ,

־ 㬤 Դ ֓Ӧ

ֲӬ֮ ֤õ, ߾ָ֕ ӣִֻ ָ֚ ׾ֳ

.5/8/63. ן Ӹ ӑ ֯.



֓ ֲ



ß׾ Ɵ ִ֬Փ Ɵ ׾֯ . ָӟ () ß ֻ֓ ֟ ־ִ֮ ִՓ ׸ֵ ß֓ ߾ ֟ . ֓ ־ ־ծ֓ . (׾ֿ֟:) ֓ ߴ֮ ֻ֓Ӥ Ӯ ß ׻ַֻ ƕָ . ׸ ޵֓ þ֟:֓ . ָ (ִ֬ԟ ַ ִֵ֛֓) ߾ ֻ ӓ֟ . ִ ™ ־ֻ ֓ӓ ֕ ß .

Ο ִՓ ֟֟. ׾ָ֓֟ ָ ָ֓֟. Σִ (Ԯ( ֟֟; ָ ַ (ִ( ֟֟. ֿ׮ þֹ֓ ַ þֹӓ Ɵ ־ֿ . ֓ ßӟ ִ֬Փ ֢֖֮ ָ֓ ӓ Ɵ ָ פ : ֲָָ Ɵ, ן, ӣֳ, ־, ߣ . ִ֕ ޵ֵݵ ָ ֲߓ Ɵ פ , ִ ß ֻ֮֓ ֓ ִ֬ӲӬߓ ־ ӓ ָ֬ ֮ ֚ ן ֙޵֓ ֹ . ßӟ ִ֬Կ ӲӬ ֻ껵 ׾ֵӓ ֓ ־ԓ ׾ֵ ־ Ӯ ־֛߻ ֌ ; ָ (׳ֹ֮ד ; ֓ ׮ָ׮ָ ־֛ӓ Ӯ ӓ ӓ ־ָ֛߮ ִ֬ԓ Ɵ ֯ ָ֯ ε֟ ֟ .

ָߵ ׾֮֫ӓ ־ ָ֬: ִ֕ , ָ֟ӻ Γ׻֟ Ο ִՓ ׮֤֯ . ִ֓ ֮δ ָ ֟ ޵ӟ ִ֬ ׾ָ֓ ָӯָ ֮֬ ß ־ . ß֓ ֙ ִ֬Կ ָ ִՓ ֮ ߟ ֟Ӯ ׾ָָ֓ߓ ֻ֮ ִ . ֢ו֖Ӯ ִ֓ ׾֮ӟ ׾ָ֓-ָӯָָ ־ ™߮ ׾ָ֓ ֢ӓ þֹ ִ֕ ־.

. ӯԮӤ ӓ ׾֫ ֵ֮-߻֟ Ƶ Ӵ ӓ־ָ ֗ ֜ ֬ . Ӯ ֵ ßӓ ֌֮ ׻־ ֗ . ִԲӬ . ֻ֓Ӥ ӓ ־ ֙ ָ Τ֓ ӡ֤߯֓ ָ ӳ ֟Ӯ Ӯ ֗ ֣Ԯ ֮ . Ƶֲ֦ ӓ ӟ ֳָ .

ß ׻޵ӟ ӣӓ ֡, ֯, . ֟Դ֮ ֡ӓ ִ ׾ֿ ֤ ֻ ־ ӓ ִ ֳָ ӟ. ӟֻ ӟ . ݻ֮֯ ӓ (ִ֬( ֵ ß֓ ִ ָߓ ֤ ֻ. ß֓ ׮׸ ֓ ß֓ δ ֵָ . ߵ ִ֣֕ Ƶӓ (Ɵ ן( Ƶ ß֓ (ӯΤֵ-ӣ( ׻ߟ֮ ׾ֿ ֵ ֻ. ( Ɵ ( 㮵 ֟ ֟㟾ֲֲ֟ þ. ֲ 㸕ֳ֮ ߻ Ƶӓ ֿߟ ֻ . ֻ ָ ־֛. Ƶ ß֟߻ ( ׾ ֓ ־ã ( ֓֓ ָ־ָ ׻ƻ . Ƶ ֦ ־ ӓ ״ ֳָ .

֙ ֓Ӯ ׾Ӯ֟ , Ƶ ß ӲӬ ֮ ־ֵ֓ ֻ ־ֿ ־. ַ ־ԟߟ ֓ ֌֟ ֵ ։ .


֯ӓִ ֓Ӧ á

׾ָ׮־ Ӿ֟ 2474


ַ ־ע֓ ß־֮



־ ( ִ֬ ( ß ׻ ִ֯ , ־ ֻ þ֯֟ ֮ ־Ɵ , Ƶ ß֓ ֮ Ի ֑ Ʈ֟֓ Ƶ ß֓ ָ ־ ֿߟ ־ .

֟Դ֮ ֡Ӯ, Ӯ ןš ׾֮֫Ӯ ֓ 錟Ӛ֮ ß . ֓Ӯß ֻ֓ ֮ Ο Ӿ ָ Ƶ ßӓ οӿ ֓ ׾ָ .

ֿ Ӥ ׾ ׾ֵָֻ֪ܵ ֬ ׿ ã (Ԯ á( ׾ֵ֓ ..() ַ ׾֤֣֚ ß ׮ֵ㌟ . ֛ . ׾ֵֻ֪ Ӯ ִԓ ֚ ֻ֯ ֚ δӟ Ƶ ß ã֮ פ . Ƶ δ ֟ Ƶ ß ֻ ã֮ ֬ ״ֻ .

֓ Ɵ- ߴ֮ ֻ֓Ӧ Ӯ 750 . ָ ֓ ֮ . ׾֮֫ ֓Ӯ ֯ֆֻ֯ ֵ㌟ ֮ 껵 ֺ Ƶ ַ ־ӟ ָ ֜ Ƶ ־ߟ ( ֟֟( (ֵ֓( ֻ֟ . ֙ ׸ ֲӓ ׸׿š ꛻ . ƻ ׻޵ӟ ׮ ןָ Ƶӓ ׾ֿ ֵ ֻ .

ֵֿӮ Ƶָ֯ ֗ ֜׾ֻ ־Փ פ ֳָ ֮֟.



֮ - 2006 ׾֮ߟ -


ןַ ־ߓ ß־֮.



(ִ֬( Ƶ ß֓ ןָ ־ ֓Ӯ ֤ ߟ ӟ. 껵 ԯ Ƶ ß֓ Ο ӯֻ Ꟶ. ֓ӓ ß׾ӓ פ ָ ֻ . ßӓ ֿ֮ ӓ ß֓ ֜ ֛֟ߓ ֻ . Ƶ־ֹ ֓Ӯ ß ־֛ ƕ ִ֕ . . ֕ã֮ ӑ֮ ֮ ֚׾ֻ , (ִִ֬֡֬-߸ִ , ָ סֵ Ӯ ӟ Ի ׻ƻ ־( ßӓ Ӿ ( ִ֬ ( ִ֡֬-ָ֓ ־Ի ֮֮֟ ִ֟֬( ־. ֹ ־ӟ ( ־߸( ־߮ ֻ֟ . ßӓ Ӿ ֤ š ֙ , ָ ӟ ָ֓ ֙.

Ƶ ־ӟ ַ֓ ָ 껵 . ן ׾ֳ : ־ã֟ ׻ƻ ӟ (ֻ֓׸ ֕ӟ߻ ִ֬ ( (׾ֵָ֮֕ ֕֟ӻ ִ֬( ־߮ ֮֟ . ԓ ־ӟ߻ (׾׾֬( ֤ ֕ (ִ֕ þֹ( ־ߟ ֻ֟ . (ã֮ ӯΤֵ( (ןԯ׾ָ ֯ӣ ӯΤֵ( Ӯ : ׻ƻ . ָ ָ߻ ӯΤֵӓ ֌ ֿ ָ ֮ ֻ Ꟶ. ָ߻ ־ ָӴ ־ ԓ ־߯ ׬ ֵ㌟ .



.. 11 ׾׮֟

1.

֌֮.



ִ֬ԓ ֵ , ִ ־ . . ֿ֓Ӧ Ӯ ß ִ֬ ӣ֓ ֿ֮ ׻޵֚ ƙ ־ ֻ ֙. ָӟ ӣ ֓ 껵־ָ ֡ ֯֯ ֻ. ӣ , ֓ ֿ֮ ׻ƟӮ ֻ þ֟: ֮֟ ־֮ . ӣ ָ֮ ֮ ִ֬ ֬ӲӬߓ ܵ ܵ ־ԓ ֲӓ ִ־ . ӣִ֬ ֯ֆֻ֯ ֟ӓ ִ֣Ԯֲָָ ך ִָ֟֬߻ ׾ ־ ־ ׸ֵ . ֮֯ þ֟: ֟ӓ ֻ֮ ַ ֻӓ ִ ־ߓ ֟. ß ӣִ֬ õ֤֫ ֬ӟӲӬ ӣֻ֓ ׳ֵָ֮֯ ֮ ޵ִ֬ ߴ֟ ֵ֓ Ӯ ֣ ָ ֲ֧ ֮ ׮֤Կ , ָӟ Ӯ ׿šӯΤֵ֓ ӑ֮ . ִ ָߵ ֲ֟ӟ ־ ־ ׾ָ ӟ , ӳ߸ ׾ֵӓ ןִֵ֤֯ ֦ ε ׮Ӫ ֬ӟ֓ ޛ ֬ӟ֓ ן֤֯־ָ דֻ ׾֟ ։ . ӣ ֲ֟ӟ ־֤ .

ָߵ ߓ Ӿ֬Ԯִ֬ ֳӮ ֻ֯ ֮ߵ ֙ ֻֻ , Ӯ áӯ ñן ״ֻ . ß, ן, Ɵ פ ־վָ ׾ָָ֓ߓ ־ָ ֯ ֛ . ׾֮֫, ־Ӯ ֮֯ ֻ֯ á׮֬ߓ Ӹ ִ֓ ן֓ ָ . ֋ ׾ָ֓-ֻߓ ָ ׸ֵ ׿֟ ־ֵ ƕ. ֲ , ִ֬ Ӯ þֳ׾ ׾ֿ ־֛ . פӲָ Ӳָ ִ֟֟ӟָӟ ־ծ ד , ֮֮֯פӓ Οפӓ ׮ִֵ׮ִֵ׾ֵ Ɵߓ ־Ԯ ָߓ ־ֿ . ָӟ ִ Ԯӓ ֮ ֟, Ӯ ֲ֟ӟ Ɵ Ԯӓ ֮ ֟, Ӯ ֲ֟ӟ Ɵ ־ֿ ֟, ָ֟, ׾, פ Ɵ֓ οӲֲ֟ ֵ֓ծ ֵ ֻ֟ . ׾ֿ ׾ß ֚֮ ָ ꚵ ӣ֓ ֻꜮ ־ӓ . ָӟ ָ׳ ֚֮ ֮ ӣ ӟ ֵ ֓ .

֤Ԯ ( ֟( ֟ ֮֟. ֲ ־֤֓ ׾ֹ ֻ ָ ß ׾ָ֓ξֿ ׾֟ . ֓ ָ֤ ӟ ֟: ï֤ . ָ ß ܵ ߴ áӓ ξ֟Ӯ 㬤 ָ֓ ֢ þָ ־ֿ ָֻ ֙. Ӯ δ ִֻ֮ ֤Ԯ֓ ֮ ß-׾ָ֓-áӴ֬ . ָӟ ֬ӟ, ֕Ԯ, ָֿ֯, , פ ֤ӟ ׾ ָ ֲ , ꛵ֱָ ֮ ָߵ ß Ԯ  Ԯ ӓ ִ֮ ׸ ӯע . ־Փ á . ֵ ִ֟߻ ֻ֯ ԕ֯ ֬ן ׾ָָ֓ߓ ӯע ֯ Σִ֟: ׮֤Ӵ֬ ֙ ֻ ֳֻ꤯ָ ד֟ ־ ָ ߓ ß ־֮ ׾ָ ִӓ ָ ִ֓ ֻ .

ӟ־֤ ־ ֳֵ֯߮ ֤Ԯ֓ ܵ ֬ӟ . Ο ß֡֓ ֟ (( ־ þֹ ֿáӴ֬ ֻ֟ Ӯ ִ֬ þָ ޵ӟ ֯ע . ׾֮֫ 㬤 ֟ӯ ִծ ֮֟֟. ־ָ֬ ߓ ֮µ֓ ӟ ֲ ָ ߮ , ֤֣ԓ ֵ ֓ ( ( ( ן ( ָïָ ׾ֹ ִԓ ֢ ֟ Ի. ָӟ ֲ Ԯ ߮ ֙ ָ ßã֟ ֡ ߓ . ֗ ִ֟֬ ֻ־ָ . ֻ֓ ß֟ ֕ ֓ ß֟ ֻ ־Ɵ. ß ß֮ Թ֮ . ׾־֟ ֙ ֚ ֻ ַ֚ ֟Դֻ֮߮ ןַ֚ ׾µֻ߮ . ޛ ß ׮ ! ָӟ ־ִ֬ ַ ׾ִ֬ ӯ ֤֣ - ׮ , ׮ . ֵ֓ԕӮ ßþֹֻ þָ . ִ ֵ Ӯ ֟ ֟ þֹ ׾ֻ ׮־ԓ֮ߵ ƙ . ׌ֿ: ֳ֯ ֵ ֓ ׾ֿ֯δ ־ֿ ׬ ߴ֬ ָ޵֓ ε ִ֕֟. ֣ׯ ֮־֤֓ ֤֟ ֡ þָ . ד׫ִ֬ ֵ ֟ ֟-þֹ ׮־ֵԓ֮ߵ ֻ֮ .

! ־ οӓ ֻ ޵֓ ָ ߟ. ֣ׯ ֿ , ָ ֤þֹ ӣ֓ ֤ ߻. ӣָ֮ ִ ָïָӮ -֓ ־ ֟֟. ֟ , (ß֮ ߛִ֮ׯ ׾ֿꕕִפ ( ָ ˯ε ֛. Ӵ֬ 㬤 ָ ֌֯ε ֻ ֟߻. ָӟ ֕ פ . ֓ ֛ ֛ . ֕ ִֻ ֿ׮ ֮ӲӬ ֲ֟ӟ ׾ָ֓׾ֳ ָïָ׾ֵ ָ ״֡֟֓ ֟ ִֵ ־ֵ֓ .

֯ֆֻ֯ ™߻ ֹ ִ ֙ ӯΤֵӴ֬ . ָӟ ִֻ ֲ ƴߓ ™ִ ־ ָ , ׯֻ, , ֵ֓, 㬤 ֬Դ֮ ־߸ Ο ָߵ ֤ߵ . ־Փ ߾֮֯ ִ ֛ ״ , ִ֓ ׸ֻ ָ ֻ ޵֚ ָ֣ԓ-׮֓ Ծָ ޵֚ ִԣ .



1

2005 ӯԮӤ



ӓ ӡ.



ִ ׸ӟ, ִ ֬, ִ և׸

ִ ֵ֕, ִ ־



՟Ӯ ִָ, ֬Ӯ ִָ, ֵ֓ծ

ִָ, ֵ֬Ӯ ִָ, ӟ߻

־ ֬Ӯ ִָ.



ӡ ֟.

ӓ ִָ, ־ ־֯

ֻ ־, ֜ ƾև ֻ



ӓ ִָ ӡ ־ ֯֓ ֿ

ָ ־ ִֻ֬

פ--ֻ .







ִ֬

1) ן.

1) -ָӳ



, ִ֬ ִԓ ִ֕ ֻ . ָӟ ִ֕ ֟ ߿ ֻ . ִ֬ ִ þ֟ӡ ָ ֓߮ , ֟ ־߮ ӿ֮ӓ

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. ִ֕ ޵ӓ , þ. ƴԮ Ӯ . Ӯ ֻ֯ ӓ ß־֮ӟ ֲ֧ ָ֓ ׾ßָ ׾ָ֓ . ׻Ɵ֟ ( Ƶ ֿ֟ ֟ ־ԕ ƴ֟ , ־߸ Ӿ ֬Դ֮, Ӿ֮ ֬ (֟֯( 㬤ִֻ߮ ֟. Ӯ (ԟ( Ӿ (( ִֻ֕ և, ׮ԣӓ ß֟ ֟֯֡ӓ ꤸ , ™ 㬤 ӣ֟ ״ַ ־־ֹ ׬ .  ִԓ ֢ߓ ׮ԣ ӯΤֵ (γ־ֻֿ) ӯΤֵ ִֻ֕ ֟ ־. ׯ֙ӟ ׮ԣ, 㬤 ӓ ׿µӿ ׾ָ ߟ ֻ 㬤֓ ֵ ֻ֓ ׻ƻ . ־ֹ ָ߻ ֮ ֯ . ֙ ׮ԣ ӯΤֵ ־߮ ӯΤֵ ֟֯ ӯΤ֓ ã֯ , Ӿ ֤ ֌ ӣӟ ֜ . ־ֺ ֯ ֮ , 㬤ӓ ֮ ޵֓ ꤸ ן֯֓߮ ֯ ׮ԣӓ ß֟ .

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ָ֬ ֬ ֻ . (ִ֬Փ ) ֙ ߣ . ־߸ Ӯ ֟ ִ֬ԓ ã֯ ִֻ֕ ֟ . ӓ ꤸ 250 . Ԯ֣ ן ֻ֓ ֟ ־Դ֮ ֻ .

֯δ ִ֬ԓ ָӳֻ ׮׿֟֯ ... 800 ֻ֮ . ָӟ . Ԯ֣Ӯ ִ֬ԓ ã֯ ָ֮ ׾֮֫ , ֓֯δ ӓ ꤸ ִ֬ԓ ß֟ ָ֮ ׾֮֫ ֓. . ֲ֟ӟ þ. ִԮ .ƴԮ ֬ ָߵ ֢֖֮ .. ֮֬ ӓ ֮ߵ . . ׻Ɵ֟ (ֻ

1.ֵָ֮֬ ӓ ֌֮ӟ . ֯ә ׻Ɵ֟- ( ™ߓ ) (֯ ôָ ƻ ƕ , ִ֬ . ׾ָ ֓߮ . ־߸ӓ ֤ߵ ԕ Ԯ֣ ׮׿֟֯ ß׾ þֹ֟߻ ֌ . ִ ִ֬Փ ֢֟ . ־߸ӓ ꤸ ׮׿֟ ֻ .(

(ײֲױ ( ß֓ ֟־֮ӟ . ߮ ׻Ɵ֟ (Ԯ֣ ן , ӟ . ӓ ( ֮֟) δ ӓ ֵµ 100 Փ ־߸ӓ ꤸ 250 ׮־ . ӓ ֵֻ ...800 . ־߸ӓ ևԾ֛߻ Ԯ֣ӓ ִ ߟ .(

2) There is nothing to prove that Parashva was the foundeer of Jainism. Jain tradition is unanimouna in making Rishabha the first Tirthankar (as its

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ӓ ־ , . Ԯ֣ ִ֬ԓ ã֯ , -ָӯָ Σִ ߣָ . ֳ֣֮Ӯ ֮֟ ִ֬ԓ ã֯ ֮֟. ֟ӟ ן ֟ ޵֓ ֌֟ .( ..֮֬ ׾ֿ ׻Ɵ֟ , (ָ֯ӯָ ֟ӯ 껵 ֳ֤֯ ֻ֯ ִԓ ע ֻ֓ ֟ ™ ֟ӯԓ . .. ƻ ֟ӟ Σִ ߣָ . ֳ֤ӓ , ™ߓ ־ ״֟. ִ֬ ֬Դ֮ Ԯ֣ ӓ Γ׻֟ , ӟ ߓ . ֕Ԥӟ ֤, ו֣֮֟ ׸™ ߮ ߣӓ ִ껻 . ֳ֤ ו֣֮֟ ׸™ ߮ ߣָ֓ ִ껻 . ֳ֤ ִ֬ԓ ã֯ ™ ־֟ ӟ ™ ״.(

ָ߻ ֟Ӿֺ ™ ׮׾Ծ֤ ֬ , . Ԯ֣ ִ֬ԓ ã֯ ־Ɵ ָ ִ֬ ӓ֟ ꤸ

founder). There may be something historical in the tradition which makes him the first Tirthankar.

Indian Antiquary Vol. 1X P: 163.

1. There is evidence to show that so far back as the first century B.C. there ware people who were worshipping Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankaara. There is no doubt that Jainism prevailed even before Vaardhamanaa or Parashvanath. The Yajurveda mentions the names of theree Tirthankaras-Rishabha, Ajitnath, and Arishtanemi. The Bhagavata Puran endorses the view that Rishabha was the founder of Jainism.- Indian Philosophy. Vol.I.P.287.



Γ׻֟ ֟. ֓֯δ ִ֮֟δ . ֳ֤ ƻ ߣָ ָ Ɵ ֲֻ ן ־Ӿֹ ™ ֬ . ߓ ™ ׬ ï™ .



- ָӯָ



ִ֟֯δ 鿵 ӟ ֻ֓ ֟֟ ױ ֟. ֻ֓ ξ פ ӟ . ֣ׯ ֻ֓֓ 6 . 1 ןֹ (ִ-ִ) 2 ֹ (ִ) 3 -:ֹ(ִ-ִ) 4 :-ֹ (ִ-ִ) 5 :ֹ (ִ) 6 ן֤:ֹ (ִ-ִ) ֯δ ֻ ֻ껵 ֛ߓ ֓ Ο ֻ ָ ֹ ֻ ֟ ֓֯δ ֻ֓ δδ֮ ָ ױ ֟֟. ֕ ׾ (ֻ֓) : ֟; ָ ַ : ֜. : ֻ֓ ױ ֟Ӯ ֻ ( ׯ ( ־ ֮ןֻ ֟֟ : ֻ֓ ױ ֟Ӯ ֻ־׬ ( ׯ ( ָ ׾ ֻ ֟֟. ֻ֓ӓ ׬ ׬ . Ο ׯ Ӿ ׯ ֻ֓ :ֳֹӟ (ִ-ִ Ӿ֓ ֻӛ֟) 24 ߣָӓ ֮ . ֯ ( ו֮ ( ã ֯ ִ֬ԓ ֤ ֟, Ӯ ( ߣ ( Ӗ . ֬ ֻ֓֓ ֮ןִֵ ( ׯ ( ֻ ֵ֟֯՟ ֓ 㸾֟ߓ ָ ֻӛ ֬ ӓ־ ֻӛ ֻ . ־֣ ׾ֳ ӯֻ ִֻ ֟ ֻޛӟ ( ׯߓ ןָ ֻӛ ԯֵ՟ ) ߣָ ָ . ֟߻ (ֻ֓ӟ ֻ껵 ) 24 ߣָӯ . ֳ֤ ƻ . ׾ָ ־ꙓ ߣ . ן4 ֻ׾ֳ ߮ 8// Ʈ ƻ Ӿ . ֳ֤ӓ ׮־ ֻ  ֻ׾ֳӟ ֜֓ ֻ ׿ֻ ƻ, . ƾ߸ ׮־ . ߓ ֻ֬ ָ ֻ֟ (ִֻ֕) ֟. ֯δ ָ֯ӯ ֹ ӟ ִ֬ԓ Σִ ξ֟ . ֳ֤ ֟. ֓߮ӟֻ ֓߮ ֿßӓ ֲ֟ӟ ֟ ӟ . ֳ֤ӓ ߾֮-׸ ӟ ׾ßָ֮ Ի .



ָ Ɵ

ָ Ɵӟ ߴ֦־֟ӓ Ӿ ֮ߵ . ֓ ӓ־ Ӭӟ ֵ 2/6 ֬ ֳ֤ӓ Ӥ Ԯ Ɵӟ߻ Ԯֿ δӟ (ָӓ) ״ . ӟ ׻ƻ , ( ֮µܵ ֜ , δ֮ þֵӳ ֮ ֹ֟ Ӯ ֮ . ֯ Ӯ ׯε־Ο Ӿ֓ ֻ. ׯε־Οֻ ߬ ֻ. ߬֓ ֳߓ ֮ ֻ. ֳߓ ֹ߿ ׾־ ֻ. ֳ ֹ ֳ֤ ֻ֮ ֻ. ( ֳ֤Ӯ ( Ӧ֮ פ껵 (ֵן( Ӿ֓ ֟߯ ӳָ ֻ ( ָ ( ֓ ֕׳ ָ Ӯ þ֟: Ӯ (פ) ֻ. ־ ָ߸׿־ֵ ָ ֟ ׸ ӓ֕־ ־Ɵ פӲָ ( ݮ ) þֹӟ ׾ָ ߟ . ֮ ֟ . ׳־׾ֻ, ָ, , ֛ ֻ ָ ִֻ , ָ ן ӓ . ָ߸ ֕ ֻ ֤֣Փ ָ ִ֕ ӳ־, ֳִ֟־֓ ߓ ׾ָ ߟ ֟. ִָ֤ ן Ӥ ֻ ӓ ָ߸ ָ ֻ߮ ֻ , ӓ ε ָ֯ ӟ ֟. ֯δ ֻ֯ן . ֳ֤ ׮ָӟָ ָ֮Ӥ֓ ־ , , , . ԙ . ӟ ׾ָ ֻ֓ ־ԟ֓ ־֮ӟ ֮ ֯δ ݮ פӲָ ֵֿ֯ ֻ. ֻӟ Ӳӓ ֮ ֻ ӓ ָ߸ ӟ֓ ô ֻ(

֯δ ֳ֤ӓ Ԯ ־ָ֟ ׻Ɵ֟ - ( ֳ֤ӓ ׸ , , . ӓ ֕ Ԯ ӓ ֤֮ ׻ֵӟ Ӿ ִ ֕, þִ֬ ӛ ֟֓ (ִ֬ԓ)Γָ ߻. 㓔 ֮־ ֵ ׾ִƟ 㬤 ָ֓ ָ֓ ֖ ָ Ο ָ ߻. î֮ ִ֮֓ ָ ߟ. δ,

1.((õ ֮׸ִ޵ ӛ֮ ֕ Ԯִ׿ ־ִ֬ µִ ׾֟־ ׾ִƟ: þ֬ԯִִֵֵ֣֯ ֣֯ޛִӕ ׮ִֵ֮֕ ֮: ִξ֟׵µ //9// ־ ֤֮֯ ִִֵƟ: þ׾׬׮ֵֿ-׸׾߮ ֮-֯־Ο׮ ו֕ꓔ Ƶ֮ îִֿ֮֮֓껻ӓ֤֮׮ ׻ִ֮֬ԲƟ׬ֵ δ-ִ-֖-ֻ׾֤: ֵ ׾µ׮ // 10 // þִƾ ֵ֮ ׮ֵָָֻ֮֕֡֯ ß: ִõ֮ þִֵ ןµ׮ / ִ־ָ֟ ֻ֯׿֣: // ( . 5, . 6 //

ִ, ֖ ֻ ™ӓ ׮Ӥ ֜߻ ׾ֹ ָ֓ ָӟ ֛߻. ֳ־ָ֟ ֵ㌟ ֮µӮ ִ ׿׾޵֚ ֻ.(

ߴ֤˳־֟ӟ߻ ָ߻ Ɵӟֻ ״ ׾ִָ ׻ƻ ָ ӟ ™ ׮׿֟ ֟ , ֳ֤Ӯߓ ִ֬ԓ ֤ . ָ ߣӮ֓ ֻ֖֮ ֯ ֻ־ָ (ו֮( (՟( Ӿ ֛ ãӟ֓ ִԯ֤ ߟ ִֻ, ãֺ֓ ӓ ֤ (ִ֬( Ӿ (ԟִ֬( ־ ֛ӟ. ֌֟ , ӟ ִ֬ԓ ׬ Γָ ־֟Ӯ ָ߻ ׻֟ ֮ ־. ָ Ӯ ֳ֤Ӯ ֻ֯ Ӯ פ ֤ ߴ֟ ־֟ӟ פ . δӟ ִ֬Ԯ֓ . ֓ ָӿ -------

1) Ӯ ! ֮µ ӟ ָ߸ַӮ ָ߸ ֵ֤ . ޵֚ פ ֯ . ֮ ӟ ֓ ׯ .

2) ֗־ָ , ִ֌ Ӿָ, , ״֡, ֡פӾָ ִ֟ ߟ Ӿָ ָ ֹ (ִ֯㸟ߓ-ֵ֣֣) ׌ ֟, ִ֤ οӟ ֬ .

3) צӓ 鯟֚ ־ ε֟ ֻ ֻ (֮֕) ֟ . ָ ָ߸㬤 ֟֌ָ .

4) ֵ՟ ֬ ֻ֢֟֟ ߟ , ֵԟ ֮ߓ . (ִ֕־) ֵ֯՟ ߾ ִ εӛӟ֓ ߮ Ɵ, ֵ՟ ָ߸ ֮ ӓ ָ ֟ ־ ԓ Ӭ ֟.

5) Ӿָ , ־ָ ֻ֮ ׾֮֫ δ֤ ֮ , צ׵ ֯ά֮ ׮־ã֮ , ֵ ߾ ָ - ӟ֯ ־ ֟֟.

6) ӓ áӲӬߓ ֳִ־֮ ߓ Ǥӟ߻ ӣ (Ӛ) . ִ ߾ ָ, , , Ӳ, ֮ . ӲӬ ֮ .

7) Ǥ֓ ӣ ֻ껵 ֮֓ Ӭ֮ Ӿ ל , ߾֓ ָ֯ ֟ ֙ ㌟ ָֻ (֤֯) ֯ .

8) Ӿ ָ ָ ֟߻ ׾ָ ֮Ӭָָ֓ ֿ ָ ֗ ֌ , ( ׾ֵ) ֤:ӓ ָ ֢ ִ֕޵֓ ָ֯֫ ־ ָ ε֯ ׮־ Ӿ ߾ ㌟ .

9) ׾ֳֵ ޵֓ ߾ ֌ߓ Ӭ (δ ) ߾ֻ ָӟ .

10)߾ ׮״ָ ָߓ ִ֮ ֻ ™׾ָƟ ֻ֯ ָ ӟ .

11) ™ ֮ ꛮ Ԯ ֟, ֻ ׾֮֫ Ԯ ։ ߟ.

12) Ӯ ! ־ ã־ָ ִ () ߾ִ֡Ӯ ֗֯δ ֳִ־֮ ӓ ݵ .



ָ߻ ־ ָ ֤ ִ֬ ֹ֓ . ׾ֿ֟: ӟ߻ 4 δ֓ ֤ ָ ׾ֿ ӟ ޵ָ . ӟ εӛ ԲӬ֓ ָ ֻ֮ . ִ֬Ԯָ, ֮, ֮֓, ֵ ξע ׿־ֵ ԲӬ֯ . פ ִԟ ™ ֻ֮ . ָ߸פӾָ ִ֟ , ֢֖֮֯ ֯ . ִ֡ ָֻ֯ ִ֕, ִ־֮ꓵ ָ , . ־ ֲ ָָ ִ֬ԓ . ־ֹ ߴ֤ ־ָ֮֟ . ֳ֤֯֓ ִ֬ԓ 㸾֟ ֻ, ™ ׮׿֟ ׮֟ . ָ Ӥӟ 㬤 ִ֬ԓ ֢ӲӬ ֓ ָ Ԯ ֜. . ־߸ ָ Ԯ֣ ӓ֯ ִ֬ԓ ע ׾ָ ӣ ׯ ֜ . ֲֻ Ɵ . ׾ָ֮ӟָ ֻ . ֣ׯ ӟ ִ֬ԓ ֓ ֮֟ . ־߸ Ӿ Ԯ֣ ӓ ִ껻 ֜ . ־ֹ ִ֬ ã֯ ӯ , ™ ׮׿֟ . ֟ Ӥִ ֮֟ ֮ .

׿־ֵ ִ ™ פ , Ӥִԓ ָ֟ӟ ָ ִָ֬Ե 敵 Ӯ ָ֟ ӓ ӟֳԾ . ...6 ֟ӟ߻ . ֬Դ֮ ִֻ߮ 㬤Ӯ ָ֟-׻ ã֮ . . ־߸ӓ (֬Դ֮) Ӿ ִֻ߮ ӟ ִ׾š . ֓ ָ ֤ ֛ . , ִ֬ ã֯ ־Ɵ. Ӥִԟ ִ֬ ã֯ ֮֟ ״ֻ껵 . ֳ֤Ӯ Σִ ֓ 8 ָ֟ ֻ֮ . 㬤֯δ . ־߸ ָ ִ֬ ã֯ ֟, ָ ӓ Ӿ ָ֟ ִ־ֻӟ ֟. Ӯ ָ֟ӟ ִ׾™ ޵֮ . ֳ֤Ӯ 8 ָ֟ ֮޵֮ ™ߓ ִ֣Ԯ , ӤִԮ ן֯֓߮ ֯ ֘ ֳ֤Ӯ֓ ִ֬ ã֯ ֻ֮ . ӓ֮ӟָ ֻ껵 . ו֣֮֟ ׸™ ߣָӓ ֕Ԥӟ ״, ӓ ָ ӓ .



ן ִ



֯δ ָ Ɵ־ֹ . ֳ֤֓ ִ֬ԓ ֪ξ֟ , ™ ï™ . ֓߮ ׿ֻֻ־ֺ ™ ׮׿֟֯ ֬ , . ֳ֤ ִ֬ԓ Σִ ߣָ . ־߸ӓ ֤ӓ ԓ ߟ . ֣ꓵ ־߻ ֻ Ӿ֓ ߓ ִӟ . Ƹ ׿ֻֻ ӯ֛ ־ ־ 2000 Փ ֓߮ . ־ָ ӛ-ףֵ֮ (Indo Sithian) ֕ ׮, ׾ ֓ Ӿ֟ . ӟ . ֳ֤ӓ ֧ ֮ פ֓ . . ׾ә . ô֣ ӓ , ( ֣ ״ֻ ן

13)The discoveries have to a very large extent supplied corroboration to the written Jain tradition and they offer tangible incontrovertible Proof of the antiquity of the jain religion and of its early existance very much in its present form. The series of twentyforu pontiffs (Tirthankaras), each with his



ִ, ִ֟֓ ִ֣Ԯ־ָ ָ֓ ֿ ִ֬ԓ ֲ֓߮֟֟ ָ֌ ־ ã֟ . ֓֯δ ִ֬ ֓߮ ֓ ӟ ׾֪֮ ™ ï™ . .. ָ߳ ֻ֯֯ ׾ֿ ד֮ ߣָӓ ָ֮֟ ׾ .(

׿ֻֻ֯ ֓߮ Ɵ֯ ׿ֻֻ ӛָ, ָ (׸) Ƣ ӱ ӯ֛ . ִ֙ ָ֮ ׻׾ֻ . 2100 ԯԓ ֓߮ ׿ֻֻ־ֺ ™ ï™ , ֬׬֯ן µ״֡֓ ׬ָ ֕ Ӥ ֮ ׻ ו־ָ ֯Ӹָ֟ ֻ֟ ֻ ֻӯע ִֻ֕ ָ߳. ֳ֤ӓ ן, (ֵד֮( . Ӥ֮֕ӟָ 300 Ԯ µ״֡֯ ߓ ןָ֮ ״׾ֻ. ָ֮ ֬־ָ ֜և ֻ ו ֬׬֯ן µ״֮֡ ָֻ ןִ . ָ ִ֬ԓ ָӳ . ־߸ Ӿ . Ԯ֣֯ ֻ ֟, ָ ֓ ֻ֮ӟָ Ӿ ӓ־ ןִ, ӓߓ ֟. ָӟ ֓߮ ׿ֻֻ֟ Σִ ߣӓ ןִ ï™ ִ ן ״, . ֳ֤Ӯ ƻ ߣָ ֻ֮ ֟ ӟ ׮׿֟ ֣ , ֮ .

Distinctive embnlem, was evidently firmly believed in at the beginning of the Christian era. - The Jain stup-------Mathura Intro.P.6.

֟ ο ˳־֟ ֻ ?

ָ ֻ֟֯δ ִ֮֟δ פ ߣָ . ֳ֤ ׯ ֻ֓ ןַ ӟ ֻ (ׯ) ֻ֓ ֟ ӓ־ ֻ . Ӯ , , . Ӥִ֮֟ Ӿ δƤ֮ ™ߓ ָӳ þֵӳ ֮ ֹ֟ ֮ ֻ֟, Ӿ . ֳ֤ ӓ֮ӟָ ӓ־ ׯ֜ӟ ֻ ִ֯ ƻ ֵ֟֓ ֙ ֻ ֵ֟֯՟ 28 ֵ֟ ֻ . ־ֹ ӓ ֓߮֟ ֮ . ־ֺ ִ֬ԓ ָӳֻ ָ ֓߮ . ָ ԟ Ӿ ֵՓ ִ֮ ֻ, ־ ߛ ָӟ ß֟ӟ , ß׾ ߓ ֓ ָ֯ӯָӟ ӟָ () ӑ ִֵ ֻ ӟ ߛ ӑ .



2 ֳ֤



ִ֮֟ δ ֻ֓֓ Ԍ 6 ӯ, ߻ ַ ӟ ֟ ִ ָ ֕ Ӿ ִ֕ ֟ . Ӳ֟ ן ֟ ֮ () ֟. ֕֕ ֻ껵 ֛Ӯ ־ ƙ ֟; ־֯֓ Ӯ

14)ָ ָ֮ ..ָ. ꤵ ֻ֯ The shert study in Science of Comparative Religion ßӟ ׻ߟ֟. ( á֓ ֟ ꤸ ִ֬ԓ ָӟ ָ ֻ . ֵ ֬ ָӟ ֻ, ֻ ֟ .(

ӓ ߾֮ ־ֿ ֤֣ ״֟. ־ָ ӟ™ ֟֟. ָ޵֓ ꤸ ֮ (ָ) ֟֟. ֻ ֻ֯֯ ֚ ֓ ֟ ֻ־ָ ן֯֟ߓ ӟ Ɵ֟. ןַ ֻ֓ ָ֓ ֟ߟ ԯֵ՟ ߓ ׸֣֟ ִֵ Ɵ (ֳߓ ֻ( ֟֟. ָ ӓ ߾֮ ֯ά֮ ֟. Ӯ ֻ֯ ߾֮ ׮־֚ ־ ֟ . ָӟ ֮ӟָ ׸֟Ԯ ָӳ . ֯ ߾֮־ֿ ß ״ ֟ ָïָӟ ӛ ֟֟. Ӿ 14 ֮ӓ ֢ . ӟ߻ ӓ־ ֮ ӓ ֵԤ . ָƧ߾ָ ӛ֟ә ֟֟, Ӿ ־ ֮ ߴָ ד֮ פ. ֟ӯֵ՟ ֿ ִ ־ӟ Ӯ Ɵ ־Ɵ ֓ ־ֿ ֮ ־Ɵ; ֟ 7 ֮ Ӯ ꛵־ָ ֜ ׿׾ֻ. Σִ ֮ ӓ ևԾ֛߻ ֺ ֟ ֟. ֟ Ӥ ֻ. Ӿ ߻ ֮Ӯ ֲӓ ֻ֮֯ ־ Ӯ ׿׾ֻ. ן ޵֓ ֻ ßӟ ֤, ֻ ֟, ӛ־, ֓ ӓևԟ ֛ ֻ, 12 ֮ , ־ ӓ ֵ֮ ֟߸ ޵ӓ ׿ פ.

Σִ ߟ ֟, ִ ֵֵֻ, ׿ ־ֿ ־Ɵ. ָӟ ֯ ־ֿ ֤֣Փ ָ֟ ֻ, ޵֓ ξ ֻ ִ ӛ־ã, ֵ֤֮֓ ָ ׮ִ ֻ. Σִ ӓ ֮ӓ ֟ ( !( ӓ ָ֬Ӯ . ֮֜ ֻ ( ! !( ָ ֛ ֻ. ָӟ ֜־ֹ ִ ֙ 5 ӓ ָӓ ( ׬ !( ׬֌ָ ־ ֻ. ָ֯ 14 ֮Ӯ ֮µӓ - ֯ע ߟ ߟ ִו ־ã ֵ ֻ֟.

־ ֮ Ӿ ֳ߸֕ ֟. ӓ ַ֮ ӓ ָ Ӳ . ֯־ Ӯ ׾ֻ. ־ֺ֓ Ӯ (ֳ( Ӿ ֛. ӓ ֮ߓ Ӿ ֺ . ӓ ֳ֤ ֻ֮. ִ֬ԓ ֪ξ֟ . ӓ־ߓ Ӿ, Ƹ . 㾵־ã ãׯֻ . á ־ָ ӓ ׿ Ӯߓ פ ִ ִԓ ã֮֯ . ִ Ӯ (פδ( ƙ .

־ (ֳֳ־֮) ֳ՟ ־ ֟Ӯ Փ ™ Ӯ Ƹ޵ֳ ֟֟. ־ָ ֵ֟֯՟ ־Փ ֕׾ ֻ, ־ ™ ֻ

1-(ִּ֤֯ ׵ֵ֟ ־־ָ /

ִ ׾ ִ ׾״ֵ פ //802//(

--ס../

2-( Ƹ޵־™׸™ֳ ֳãׯ ֟ß׵ /

Ƹ޵ֳ 㓓ԾԵ ֟: //206//

ߟ 㻵 ׵ γ /

Ε: γ ֟ßôפ׸ן ߟ //210//(

--.8,׸../

־߮ ־ַ ֮ï֟ߓ ֵ ־ ߟ ־Ɵ. ִ . ֳ֤ӓ Εִ ִõ ׮ִ ֻ . ־ֻ껵 ֓ ֜־ Ӯߓ ׿׾ֻ. ־ֹ ӓ ӿֻ ( ӿ ( Ӿ ֛ ӿ֓ ִֻ֕ . Ӯ Ε , , , ֕, ׿ֻ 6 ָӮ ֕׾ ޵ ׿׻. ־ֹ Ӯ ( Ε֯ן( Ӳ׬ֻ ֟. ִו ־ã ֻ־ Ӯ ߮ ӓ (ԓ) ã֮֯ . ӓ ӓ ִ ׾ֻ , (סֵ( ׾ֻ , ָ֯, ֻ֮ ִ־ָ ӓ ׮ֵ׌ ֻ, (( ־ע ޵ֵݵ ִֻ֕ Ӯ (( Ӿ פ.

. ֳ֤Ӯ ֟ Ꟶ. ߓ Ӿ Ӥ ָ Ӥ. ӓ֯ Ӯ 100 ֻ. ꚵ ӓ Ӿ ָ. ָ ֕ ָ ԓ Σִ ξ֟ ֕ ֻ.

פֿ . ֳ֤ ֮֕־ָ ֹ ֻ . ֳ֕ ָ ߻ӕ֮ Ӿ֓ ïָ 韵 ߟ . 韵 ֻ ֟Ӯ֓ ֋ ӻ֮֕ 韵 ֻ. ô֟ ֙ . ֳ֤ӓ ֮־ָ ׸ִ ׾ָ ֻ. Ӿ ֲ֛ ־ ־ָ ָָ֕ ־ Ӯ פ ֻ. Ʈ֚ ֯ ָӳ ֵ . Ӯ ֕Ӯ 㬤 ֻ. ָӟ Ӯ , ֮ ™ Ʈ

1-(Ε֯ןֵ: Σִ ו֕׾: ֿ µפ Ε:(

--þֵ.ß.

ֻ ߟ ™ ֻ. ƮӮ ־ӟ֓ ִ֬ߓ ӯֻ, ָ֚ Ӯ ׾ָ . ӓ ߸, ӳ߸, פֲָ ޵ ־ Ε ֮ ֻ. Ӯ á ָ ֻ. Ƣ, ӓ ƕָ ֟ ֟. ָӟ Ӯ ׳ (ָ ) ޵֓ ׾֬ ߟ ־Ɵ. δ ׾ָ ߟ ߟ Ʈ ꙻ. ֓ ׾ָ ֻ ֟, פ . ֳ֤ ß֮֯ ։ ӓֻ. ߻ ֕ ( ( ָ ֮ (֮־߸) . Ӯ ־ӟӓ ֌ָ . ֤ ־ӟӮ ־Ʈ (ן) ֮־ָ ׾ֻ, ӓ ֻ֤֮ . ֻ־ָ ִָ ֻ, ( ־֮ ! , ׮֤ . ֯ ֓ þָ ־( ־ӟӮ ӕӟ ֿ֮ . ־ ֟ ֻ ֮Ӥ Ԯ֟ߟ . ָ 3 ֻ. ־ֹ֓ ן֣ (ֵ ߵ( Ӿ ֛. ָ ־֮ ޵ӟ ֮֟֬֟ ߮ ֻ. ־֮ ׸ֻ֟ Ƹ֓ ֮ӟ ֮ã ֻ . ־ Ӯ ֖֮֓ ׯ ֻ. ֯δ (ו֤֮֯( ֯ ־ӟ ׿µӓ ֲִֵָָ ִԯ֤ ׾ָ ֻ. ӓ ֮ܵ ֳ ִָֿ ƙ ֟. ӟ ־ԟ ׾ֿ֟ , ִָֿӟ ֿӮ㬤 ֤ ޵ þ֟ӡ ã֮ . ֑ ָ ? ֵ֮ ֿ 㬤 ӟ ֤ . ־ӟӓ ֤ (פ֮֬) ־Ԯ ִ֕֟ . ִ֯ 긯ֵ՟ ߴ֡Ӯ ӓ Ɵӓ ֤ . ֳ֤ ֯־ԟ־ֺ ㌟ ֻ. ִ֬ԓ ƻ ߣָ . Ӥ ӟ ӓ Ԯ ״ ֟ ӓ ִ֬ԓ ָӳ ֻ.



ִ֬ԓ ξ֟.



. ֳ֤֮ӟָ ִ֬ԟ ִԯξԟ 23 ߣ . ӯ ָ ו֣֮֟, ׳֮Ӥ֣֮, ӓ־ ן֣֮ ־ ӟ֣֮ ӓ ֮ ꬵָ֮ߟ ֻ. ןַ ӳ־֣֮ӓ ֮ ־ß ָӟ ֻ. ־ ֩γ ֮ ֲ ָӟ ֻ. ֟־ Ԯ֣ 23 Ԯ֣ ӓ ֮ ָ (ֿ-ָ֮) ֬ ֻ. ֚ Ӧγӓ ֮ Ӧӟ ֻ. ־־ ¯֤ӟӓ ֮ Ӥ Ƹӟ ֻ. ־ ߟֻ֣֮ӓ ֮ ֧֯ӟ ֻ. 11 ֣֮ӓ ֮ Ư (ָ֣) ֻ. ָ־ 敵 þִӓ ִ֮ ӯ֯ߟ ֻ ־ ׾ִֻ֣֮ӓ ֮ ׯֻ ָӟ ֻ. 15 ִԮ֣ӓ ֮ ֯ӟ ֻ. 16 ן֣֮, 17 ֣, 18 Ʈ֣ ӓ ֮ ß֮֯㸻 ֻ. 19 ׻֣֮ 21 ״֣֮ ӓ ֮ ״ףֻ֯ӟ 20 ׮Οӓ ֮ ֕ ֻ.

ӯ ִԮ֣, Ʈ֣ ֣ ӓ ֮ ӿӟ, ׮ Οӓ ׸ӿӟ ָ ־Փ ֮ ӿӟ ֻ. ־ծߓ . ֳִ֤֯ ָֿ֯ ֻ֖֮֓ ׯ ӓ֯δ ׾ָ ִԯ֤ ֙ ׮־֤֯֓ ׯ ֻ. ӯ . 㕵 ֣ӓ ׮־ ӯ֯ӟ ֻ. . ״֣֮֓ ָָ . ־߸ӓ ׮־ ־֯ ־ ߣָӓ ׮־ ִ ׿ָ ֻ. ֙ ߮ ߣָӓ Ԯ פ .



־֮ ״֣֮.



. ֣߮ 22 ߣָ . ӓ ֳ֟։ . ߯㸓 ֕ Ӭ߮ 10 . ־ԟ ꚵ ֓ Ӿ ִ׾ֵ֕ ӓ Ӿ ӟ. ִ˦׾ֵ֕֓ ָ ״֣֮ӓ ֮ ֻ ӓ Ӿ Ӿӓ ֓ ֮ ֻ. ָӑ֓ ֵ֮ ־ ֤ ߯ ָ ָߟ ֻ. ֛ ֕֓ ִ֟ Ɠֲָָ ״֣֮ӓ ׾־ . ꚵ ֵָ߮ ָ֟ ֛ ־ ֻ. ״֣֮ ֕֯Ӳָָ ӟ ֕֕ӓ ֟ . ֕ ӓ ™ . Ӿ Ӯ ƻ , ӛ֛ӟ ָ ֿ ӛ . ׮֑޵ ε֟ ߟ . ޵ ־Ɵ. ״֣֮Ӯ ָֻ ֲ֛ Ӳ׾޵ ׾ָ֓. ( ֿ ֯δ ӛ ?( (ָ֟ߟ ֻ껵 ޵ӓ ן֣֚ ֿ ֬ ־ֵ֓ ֚ Ӯ ӛ֛ӟ ӛ .( . ״֣֮ӓ ֻ Ǥ ֌ ֻ. ֻ (ָ ֗ ׾־֓ ׮״֢֮ ֌ ֿӓ ߾֮ ֟ ָ ׬֌ָ ׾־! ֟ ׾־ ָ .( ֲꛟ ӟ ֻ ָ פ ָӮ ֮ ׮ֻ֑. ִֻ껵 ַ֛ ӛӮ ֙ Ӿ Ӿ ֻ ֻ֕. ֛ ӟ:ߟ Ӿ ֟ ָ Ӿ ִ֕֟ דԟ֓ ֛. ߟָ ־֮ ״֣֮ Ӯ ָ ޵ . ֣ ! ־ ֻ껵 ָָ ־ԟ־ָ ֜ áִξ֮ӟ . ֳ֤֯δ ־ ׸ פӲָ ֮֟֬ӟ ߮ ֻ ֻ֖֮֓ ׯ ָָ ߓ ׮־ .

־֮ Ԯ֣.

23 ߣָ . ӓ ֮ ָ֬֟: 3000 ԯ ָ ָӟ ֻ. ֕֯ ֟. 㸾֟߯֓ ӓ ξע ݵִ ׬ . ևԾ֛߻Ӯ ߟָ ׾־֓ ο ӓ֯ ֜. ָӟ Ӯ ƴߓ ޵־ָ . ֤֮ߓ ֚֮ ױ . ־ ֯þ ֙ ꙾ ֟ ֯ ߟ ֻ . þִ ֓֕־ ֻ ( ׮ָ ߾ ׸ ?( ָ֕֓ ™ ֯þ ׾™ ֻ. ֻ ( ߾?( Ӿ Ӯ ֯þ֕־ ֛ ֓ . Ӿ ӟ ֻ ֮ߓ ׮ֻ֑. ָ֮ ãӟ ִֻ ӓ ֮֟ -ӡ þִ : ׮֑ . ֙ ӓ ֮ ן ꤮ ֻ ׾֟֓ ׮֟֟ ӓ

15)ֳָӟ 㬤 ׻ƻ ,-----

֯޵ 鿵֟ ׸ /

֟ ׸ӡ γֿ׿ֳ: //

֦֟ ו֮ ״ֵפ׾Դֻֻ֓ /

ִִ֤ ׌ִõ ִָ //

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

֮ ׬ ֻ. ֕ ןֻӕ׻ Ӯ ֻ. ֮Ӵ֬ ֮ã ֻ ֟, ӓ ԕ֮ߓ ֺ ֟ ; þִ߮ Ɵӓ ԓ ֓ ־ ֻ ӓ־ָ ߙ, ֛, Ծ ֻ. ָӟ ׾֑֮ Ӯ ֻ֯ ꛻ . ד֛ ֮ ָ ޵ ֟ . ֿӟ߻ ӑ֮ ֵ֮ ָ . ֑֮ ֕Ԯ ߕ ֛ ֻ ֌֓ ֕ծ ־Փ Ǥ ߟ߮ ֺ , 飾߾ָ ־ԡ ֻ ָ ԓ , ֮ ֹ ֟ӟ ָӦ ֩־֟ ֻ֮ ֻ֯ ָԾָ ֻ ֟ ך ֻ. ֩־֟߮ ֵֻ֯ ־ָ ־ӟ֮ ֻ ָ ָӦ֮ áָ֬ ֓ ָ ־ӟ־ָ ֻ֯ ָ. ָ ֦֯ ӓ . ֟ߓ . Ԯ֣Ӯ ֻ֖֮֓ ׯ ֻ. ־ӟ֯ ֮ߓ ֮ ™ ֯֟ ִֵ֮֓ . ־ ־ 70 ԯֵ՟ ךך ׾ָ ִԯ֤ 껵֮ӟָ ֻ֯ ֵ֓ 100 ִ׿ָ־ֺ ׮־֤֯ ֯ ֻ. ӓ֓ ־ӓ ִ׿ָ ־ԟ ֕ (ָ֣֮ ƻ( Ӿ֮ ֻ ֟. ӓ ן 껵 ֟֟, ־ָ ֙ ôן ӓ ꌵ־ָ ֵ㌟ ֯ ֮׾ֻ ֟. ָ ӟ ӓ ָߓ ֬ ָ ֕ Ԯ֣ӓ֓ ֌ ִֻ֕ ֟.



־֮ ־߸.



ӟߴ ߣָ . ָ ...600 ӟ ײָ ֟ӟ߻ ֯ ֕ ֣֬ԓ ָ ӓ ֮ ֻ. ӓ ֟ סֻֿ֤ ֻ ָߓ ֕ ӓ . (Ӳָ ֮֟δ ֓ .) ־߸ӓ ֮ //13 ֻ. פֿ ӯ ָ־ԟ ךך ־߸ ֵӟ ꚵ δ־ָ ӟ ֮ ָ֕ ֟. ־֯δ ָָ (-߸( . ֻ֯ ֮֯ ֻ״֡ ֟ ֮ ֯ ָ ׮ֻ֑ ӓ Ӊ ֻ. ָ ӓ ߟ߮ ֻ. Ӯ Ɵ ֻ. ָӟ ־߸Ӯ ֡ ֓ ־ ־ ָ׾ֻ. ֮֟: ׾ֿ ֮ . ָ Ӯ ޵ ֻ ӓ ӓ ֮ӟ á׾ֵ Ꟶ ֯֯ ֻ. ֻ־ָ ӓ ׾־֓ ο ã֟ ֻ. ָӟ ־߸ӓ ד֢ ָ ֻ . ־ ֖פӓ ֓ ꚵ δӟ ֖ӟ ֿӓ ׻֤֮ ֻֻӻ . ײָ֓ ֿ ִԓ Ӿ־ָ ָ ֻ֯ ֟ . (פ ־ן( þֹ֓ þ֣ Ӯ ֻ֯ . ָ ־߸ӓ ֵ֮֯՟ ֿ ־֕ ӓֻ ֕֯ ־߸ӓ Ǥ ӓ ֚ ֛ ֻ. ִԓ Ӿ־ָ ֻֻ껵 ֟ ֓ ׾ָ ִ ߾ ֟ ޵֓ ־ֿ ־߸ ־߸ . ֻ֯ ֵ֓ 30 Ӯ ָ ꛻ ֮֓ ֟. . ֳ֤֯δ פ ֮ã ֻ. ӓ ֮פӓ Ԯ ַ ֓߮ ֣ ״֟ ӓ ־֣ ߻ δ .

־֣ - ӓ פ , Ӯ þԴ֬ פ ӓ ֻ, ־߸ ו֮Ԧӓ ߾ 72 Փ ֵµ Ӛ Ӭ ¯ָ ִ ׾ִ֮ӟ ֜ 㬤 š ֯ ָ֓ ֕ ֣֬ ӓ ָ ֣-

16)(㸴Ƥꓓ פֳִ /

㰱ִָ֤ ׾ִ֤ ӟ //

Ƣ׸ ׾ ָ֬։ /

֜Ư֌ ߋ ִֵ֤ //

ޛ㸯㸾׸ָ֬֌עֵ /

ן׻֋ ߋ ִ֤֋ //

ד ־ִ פ ևֵ֯֌/

֋ ߋ ֱ֤ߋ //

֢ƴ֟ ׾։ և /

־ ֢ פ ִָ //

׳ֲƵֲ㬤 ֲ֋ /

ִߋ ֌ӟ 㸴Ƥ ֌ִ֯㕕 //

ִև ֢֟ ָ־ ӓִ /

ָ פ ןָ㬤 ־߸ //

֤ߟ߸ ӳߵִ ֻ־ּ /

֤־ӟ ָ ֵ֤֋ //

ևƕƯ֌ ִߋ ־ֵךֹ /

ӟ և ֻ ֲִ //

ӿ֟, סֻֿ֤ߓ ֳԟ ֻ־ָ ־ ߮ ֚ פӮ .//13 ֡ ָ ֻ ֡ ֟Ӯ ֻ֮ ֻ.

28 7 ߮ 12 פֵ֯՟ פӮ ־ ִ Ӯ ׳׮ֲ׬ ֮ ֻ פӮ וֻ ֟֟ ־߸ ־֮Ӯ ־ ן ֪ //10 ݮ פӲָ ֻ. ã֟ӟ 12 5Ʈ 15 פֵ֯՟ פ֖֮֯ ã ã֬ ֯õ ֵ֡-㬤 . ־߸Ӯ ״ Ӿ֓ ֤ߓ ַ־ָ ־ ׿ֻӛ־ָ ֵ֮֟֯ ߟ ֟Ӯ, ָ׮ ־ ֵ ֤δ ֟ ־ . //10 ֯߾ָ ָ . ָ ןֵ Փ ֿ ֻ֖֮֓ ׯ ֻ.

ֻ֖֮ ֻ־ָ . ־߸Ӯ 66 פֵ֯՟ ֯ ׾ָ . ָ ֵ՟ Ӯ ָ֬ (־ӟ֓ ֤ ӟ ֮ ָ ) ״ֻ ߟ. ׾ָ ߟ ֟Ӯ ֬ ֓ ֮֕֬ ֕ ך ֻ ָ ׾ֻ֯֓ ־ԟӾָ Ӳֻ. ־ ֕ߟ ֕ ָָ֮ ֕ ߟ .

ך ֜ .//15 ( Դ ) Ӧן Ӿ֓ ִ ߵ ꤾӛ ָ֟ ֓߻ ׾֮֫

17)( ꤴ ׾֯ ֈ-ӛ׾ /

ִ Ӥפן ߻־ ִִ // (

--־ֻ 1 . . 65 /

ִִ ߾-߾פ ׾ֵ Ӥ ޵֚ ־߸ӓ ־ ֻ. ӓ ֓ Ӯ . ־߸ӓ ָ֕־ ֻ ӓ ܵ ָ֬ ֻ֮.

֮ӟָ ֟: . ־߸Ӯ ƻ ֤ פ. ֓ ֓߮ ֣֬ ߻ δ .

ӓֿ֯ (ӓ ־ԟӮ ׳֟ ִֻ ֕

1.( ӓ֯ ׾ֈ ־ִ֤ /

ִ֤և ֤־־פ //

־߸֟ Ɔ ׾ֵֻõ / (

--־.1...61 /

18)ֲӸ Ɵӟ ׻ƻ , Σִ . ־߸ӓ ִָֿӟ ֟֓ ã֟ Ꟶ. ֮µ ־Ɵ. ִ ִԟߣԓ ξ֟Ԯ (Σִ ֤) . ־߸Ӯ ֻ֖֮֓ ׯ פ֓ 4 Ƹӟ ֻ. Ӯ ƻ , ִ֬ ָӟ (־֯ ) ״ֵֻ Ӵ֓ ֖ӲӬ ָߓ ״ ֓ ֻ ֚ ӟָ ꚴ ׾֮֫ ִס֟ . Ӯ Ӭߓ ֙. ֖֚ ֻ껵 ִӓ ݵ ִ֕ ֙ ִԟߣ֓ ָ֬ßӳ ֮ ߻ ֮ Ӯ Ӭߓ ׾ָ ޵ ֟ ֡ӟ 12 ֮ ֻ . ִָ֮֬ߓ ־ӓ ӟ Ɠֻ. ֓ ִָֿ֓ ֮ ֻ . ֯δ . // 11 ָ ִ־ָֿ ֻ . . ־߸Ӯ Ƹֵ՟ ָ֬׿־ֵ֓ ִԯ֤ פ. ™ ִ֕֟ӓ Ӧן ֻ֯ ׿µ ׸ָƟ ִָֿӟ ֻ; ִ֮֬ ӓ ׿µ ֻ֮ ӟָ ߸γӮ (ӓֿ֯( Ӿ (ӓ֛֯( ֟֟.) ֮ ָ ָ֕Ӯ ׳֟ ֤֮־ פ (׾֯( ־ԟ־ָ . ־߸Ӯ ־֮֕Ӯ ֤ פ.

(ԓ ƻ֓ Ʈӟ ֕ ֜ Ʈ֓ ֪ ӟ ן֤֯ꓵ פֿ ֟:

׳ו֟ ֡֓ ִԟߣԓ ע ֻ.(

(֯δ ו֮š ־߸Ӯ ָ ־ , , ֵ . ׾ָ Ӯ ִԯ֤ פ.(

. ־߸Ӯ 30 ԯֵ՟ ֤ӟָ ׾ָ ִԯ֤ פ. ֟ ֟ ך ӓ ִָֿ (֤ ֳ) ָ ӟ á ֿ 㬤 ֤ ߟ. ־ ָ ֻ֯ ֮õ ״ֳ֡־֮ ӟ֯ ֤ ־ ߟ ֟.

֯δ ־֮ ֻ, ӓֻ, ׻, ֻ, Ӳ, ׻; Ӭ, ָ֬ . ך ׾ָ ֙ ־ָ֮ (־֯-ײָ) ך ֻ.

ָ֬ ֤־ָ ӓ ׮ֵ׌ . ַ ִ־ָֿ֮ӟָ ֕ Ӯ ã֮ ןָ ִָֿ ֻ ֻ Ӯ ֻ׾ֻ.( (־ . ־߸, š 48-73)

1. ( ִ֜ ֜ ֌״ ־ /

ƾ֤㾾פ ן֟㯯֢ ׳ו // (

---־. 1...63

19)(ֵ ߸ ־߸ וִ /

ֳֵ֤֤ߤ ִן֟ ָ //( -- ..1...73

20) ߴ֟ 敵֤֯ ׾ָד֟ ׮־-׌ִ֬ ֻ߻ δ ֻ .----

֟ ӓ Ʈ פֵ֯՟ , , ֟, ָ ָ ָ Ӳָָ ָ Ӳָָ ׾ָ . ׾ָӮ ־֯ ֮ . // 14 פֿ þן ֡ ֟Ӯ ֡ߓ ߓ ָ ןֵ Դֻ֓ ֿ ׮־֤֯ ״׾ֻ.

֬ ӟ ߸׮־ Ӿ֟ Γ׻֟ ֹ ... 527 ֬ ־ӟӮ ㌟ ֯ ֻ ִֻ֕ ֟. ֓߮ ӣӟ ֕֓ 605 5 Ʈ ꤸ . ־߸ ׮־ 껵֓ ״ ־ֺ ֓ ֓ š .

(־֯õ ƹֳ֟ן֤ ֻ֩֯־֟ ָ ֬ /

߾ִ֬Դ֮ו֤֮ ן ߟ ׮־ִ֯ ־֮ ׾֬֯֟ //24//(



- ־֯㸓 ֻ껵 ֻ־֯ ָָӓ ֳ֬ ֻ껵 ֟ Τ־ָ (־ԟ־ָ) ԓ ֿ . ־߸Ӯ ׮־ ׯ ֻ ֮ ֪ //14 ֡ ֕ ־õꓵ ֟: Ԥ֓ ꤸ ׌ֳֻ ֻ. ֲֲ֟ӟ ߻ ׻ƻ .

21)(־ ߸ו ֤ ӓ־׸ /

ִ ֤ ӕ֤ פ ƾ //1499//(

-----ס.. /

22)֢ ӓ פ /

ֈ׾ ָ ָפ () ׾׸ //

֓ ־ֵָ עִֵ Ɠ֋ /

֤ߋ ߋ ָ ־ֆ // 3 //(

---.־..1,,81



4. ־֮ ־߸֮ӟָ ִ֬ԓ ã֟.

. ־߸ӲӬ  Ɵӟ Ɵ ״ ־ֺ ï™ פ , ־߸ ֯ ֟ ֻ֢߮ ִ֮־ָ ӓ ֮ ן γ־ ָ֓ ־ָ ֻ . ӓ γ־, ֯ ™ ׮ïƟ ӓ֓ ׸ִ , ֕ ִ֬ ֻ֯ ֮-״ִ֬ (ִָ֬ ) ֺ ִֵ ; ֙ ִ ֟֯Փ 㯟ֵ֯ ֻ.

. ־߸ӓ ָ֑֕޵־ָ ֻ γ־ . (֟ӿ( ӓ ֟ ׻֓ ֟ӡ֓ δ ֕ ӓ . ...6 ֟ӟ ָӟ ׻֓ ֕־ӿ ޵ִ֮ ӿ֯ . ӓ ָ ֻֻֿ ָ֑֕ ִֻ֕ ֟ . . Ӯ ׻ƻ , ( ӯ֓ ֕ ꚵ Ɵ ֕ ־ָ δ ޵֓ ֵָ , ֮ ֿ, ֻ ꓵ 18 ֕Ӯ (׻֓( (ֻӮ( ־ Ӯ ׾ָ֓ , ָ ? ֿ֓ ֜޵ ֵָ ָ ? ־߸ӓ ׮־֮ӟָ ֙ꓵ ô֚ 18 ֕Ӯ ״ ־ .( ־ֹ ï™ , ־֓ δ ֕־ӿ Ο ָ Ο֯ ־߸ӓ ֵԴ γ׾֟ ֻ . ׿־ֵ . ־߸ӓ ά֮ ׿µ . ӟ δ ִ ָ֬ . . ־߸֮ӟָ ӓ ׿µִ֬ ߮ ֻ֖֮ . Σִ ִ ָ֬, ָ ִþִ ןָ Ӳþִ. ֮ӟָ ӓ ֻ ֻ. 1. ׾ 2 פ״֡ 3 ָו֟ 4 ֬Ԯ ӓ־ ֦. ןִ ֻ ֦ ֬ӟ ֛֮ӟָ ֻ֯ ӑ ׾ָ ֻ. ִ ״, Ӭ ԙ Τӟ ִ֬ԓ γ־ ֻ.

. ־߸֮ӟָ ִ֬ԓ ׸ã֟ߓ ׸ֵ ޵֚ ן֓ ׾ֳӟ ׾ֳ ݵ ָ . 1 ָ ָӟ߻ ִ֬Փ ã֟ 2 ָ֟߻ ִԓ ã֟.



ָ ָӟ߻ ִ֬.



ָ ָ֓ ׮ָ׮ָ ӟӟ߻ ã֟ ֓ ָ֑֕޵־ָ߻ γ־ ޵֯ ߻ ã֟ߓ ׾ִ־ֻ ݵ ָ .

׮ָ׮ָ ן ֕ӓ ׻޵־ֹ פ , 㬤 ׮־֮ӟָ Σִ ֟ӟ ָ ָӟ߻ ׮ָ׮ָ ׾ֳӟ ֻ δ . ߮ ֡ Ƶ㋮֟ .. 7 ֟ӟ ָӟ ֻ. ֮ ֻӤ֓ ׾ָ֓ Ԯ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֡־Ԯӟ וƻ , ( ן ׾֪֟֕ ׮գ () ֬Ӯ ־ ֙ꓵ ֿþ֟ ׾µ ֟׾ֻ .( ־ֺ ֬ ֕ӟ ִ֬ ָ ï™ פ֟. ִ֬ԓ ֟ߓ ָ δ ־ ֕ (֓ ( . ӟ ׮գӮ ֮ ޵֓ ֖ . ֟ (׮գ( ֓ Ӿ֮ ֬ ֻ . ָ߻ ֹ ֓ ׮գ ֡ ֻ֮ ֟ ֟ ӓ γ־ , ֻ ӓ δ ֡ ֮ ׮֤Կ ־ֿ ִ֕־ ֻ.

ָ ָӟ ִ֬ԓ ֟ߓ ™߮ ׻֓ Ӿ ֮ߵ . ...2 ֟ӟ߻ ֬ ִ֙ ָ֓ ׿ֻֻ ׻ִ֬߻ ִ֬ԓ ־ֻֿ ָָ֙߻ ׮׿֟֯ ׾֟. . þִ ָӓ ֟֯δ  ִԓ Γָ֚ ֮ ֻ֯ ֕־֙ߴ֬ ׾ֻ ֻ, ֓ ׸ִ ֻ , ֬ӟ߻ ִ֬Փ þֳ׾ ƻ־ֻ ։ ׻ . Ƶ㋮֟֓ ֵ՟ ִ֬Փ ֻ֓ γ־ .

ָ֓ ׿ֻֻ֯δ ֬ ֻ껵 ֣ꓵ ׿ֻֻ־渮 ï™ פ , .. ƻ ֟֓ ֤ ֟߯ (֣( ִ֬Փ ֬ ֟.

֯δ . ־߸ӓ ׮־֮ӟָ ־־ ӓ ֟ ֵ՟ ִ֬ ָ ָӟ߻ ׮ָ׮ָ Τӟ γ־ֻֿ γ־ ߟ߮ ן ߟ . ֟־ ֟֯ ֡ ֓ ֮֟ ָӳ ֻ.

֯ ָ ָӟ߻ Ο ӟ֟, . ־߸֮ӟָ ִԓ ã֟ߓ ׸ֵ Ӯ Ӯ ִ֬ԓ ָ , ִԵ Ӿ ӓ ֵ֮ ִ֬ ֻ ֻ ֻ, ֓ ֕־ӿӓ δ ֕ӓ ׸ֵ פ ևԻ ꤸ ָ ָӟ߻ ָ׳ ן֓ ֻ ד֟ ָ .

. ־߸ӓ ֬֓ ֮־ָ ׿ֿ־ӿ ֕ (ײײָ( (( ׾ִָ֮֕ ֟. ӓ ָ׬ָ ӓ ֿ֟֡ () . ֿ֟֡ ֻ֯ ֕ ֓֓ ֕־ָ δ ֻ ׻֓ ֬ ִ֕ӟ ׾ֻ߮ ֻ ֕ߓ ֕ ֻ ֮֕֬ ֮׾ֻ. ֿ֟֡ ֮ ֮ (֙߯( ֬֓ ֮֕֬ . ӿ֓ ֿ ֻ־ָ ֬֓ ֕ Ӥ ӿ֮ ֻ ӟָ Ӧ㯟 Ԯ Ӥ֓ ֮ ֲߕ . Ӧ㯟֮ӟָ ֓ ײӤָ ֮ӟָ ֤߾ָ ֻ. ֮ӟָ ֓ ָ ָ׬ָ ֕ ߟ . ֙ ִ֙ Ʀ ֓ ֯ן µ״֡ ֮ ֹ ֮ ֲߕ . ֯δ ־ӿ֓ ֕ ֻ.

µ״֡ ֬֓ ֤߾ָ ӓ β ֡ ִ֮ ־ ֻ. 1 ֵ־ Ƨ ֟ (֮Ӧ( ֮ ֓ ֕־ָ δ . ׻ָ֕ (ָ( þָ . ןַ ׯ֜߮Ӹ ־ӿ ֻ ӟָ ߻ Ӭӓ ֕ ֻ. . ֮֓ 4 ֟֓ ָӳ Ӭ֯ ׬ָ ׬㯟 ֮ 㯟 ӿ֓ ֵ ֻ֟. ָ ָ߻ ן֓ ־ ָ֬ ָ . ӓ ׾ß Ԯ ӟ֓.



23)ײָ ӟӟ߻ ִ֬ .



ײָ . ־߸ӓ ֳ֮״, ֯״ ׮־ֳ״ , ֲָָ ӓ Գ . ߻ ָ֑֕޵ֿ ֓ ײ ӲӬ . ִ ӓ ӓ֮ӟָ ִ֬ԓ ֻ ָ ֻ. ֕ ָ֑֕ Ӯ ִ þָ. ֯ ߓ ׸ֵ .



֕ .



Ɵ֟ ֻߓ ֕ ן֯֬ . ָ ָ ֕ . ־߸ӓ ָ ֕ . ־߸ӓ ֟ סֻֿ ֕֓ . 8 Ꟶ ӓ ֻ֟߮ δ ָ֑֕޵ӟ ׾־ ֻ . Ӭ߸ ֓ ֮, ָ֮߮ Ω, Ӳߓ ֕ ֮֟, ӯ֤֓ ֕ ׬־Ʈ ֬֓ ֕ (ײײָ) ־ ֕֓ Ӿև . Ɵ֟߻ ((  Ɵӟ߻ (ֿ֟֡( Ӿ֮ ֬ ִ֬֙ ֓֯δ ,  ִ ӯΤֵ֓ Ɵӟ߻ ֬ ֕ ( ֮( ֕֓ ơ (֟) . ֕ ָ֓ ֻ֟߮ ֢ ֕ӟ߻ ܵ ֕֓ ֵ ־ ֟. ӓ ן֖ , ׿־ֵ ַ ֿ ֻ֯ ӓ ׾־ ־ֵ֓ . ֕ ֮֓ ߮ ֻ֯ ƻӟ ֵֻ ׮ִ ӟ ו֮Ӧ ־ӟӓ ֟ . ֟ ֕ ֮ ִ֯֬Եӓ ֌ ָӟ ֜ ֓ ו֮ ־ӟ־ָ ֬ ֛ ֻ .

þ.. ׻Ɵ֟ , ִ֬ԓ ֮ ֵ֤֟ . ִ ֻ ִ֬ԓ Ӹ ֻ֮ , Ӯ ӛ ӓ ֚ ƙ .



֕ (...601 552)



ָ֓ ןӟ ן֯֬ ֬׬֯ן ֕ ײײָ Ɵӟ ֕ (( Ӿ֮ ֬Τ ֻ . ֕ Σִ  ִԮֵ . דָ֮֡ ֕ ד֡ פ. ד֡ ֕ Ɵ ֻ דָ֡ ߓ ֛߻ӓ Ӿ ׾ָ֓ ֻߓ ֕֓ ־ԟ ֮ (֮( , ִ֕ ֻ. ֮֕ ֕־ ן֓ . ָӟ ׾ִ֬ ֕ ֻ֯ ֕ ׾ִ֬ ִֵֻ . ֮ ֓ . ֓ ֵָ ֮ ֻ֟ ֮ Ƹ ןֻ ֻ֯ כӓ þ׬֮ . ӓ ׾־ ֻ. ֮ ֕ ֓ ֮ ִ֬ ׾ֻ . ־߸ӓ ֵ ֻ ־߸ӓ ֳ֤ ־ԟ ܵ ֵ ֻ ־߸ӓ ֳ֤ ־ԟ ܵ ֟ ֻ֮. ֟ ד֮ Ɵӟ ֕ ֮ ο ׾ָ֓־ָ ־ӟӮ ָ פ, ״. ֮ (ֿ֟֡) Ӿ֓ ֻ. ֬֓ ֮־ָ ֻ ֮ ֻ֯ ֛߻ Ӯ ׯӕַӟ Ӥ . פ ֻ֯ ֿ כ ; ֓֕־ ֓ և ֮ ֻ ֮ ֻ֯ և ׾ָ֓. (և! ֯δ ֻ֯ ־ָ ָ ֻ֯ ־ָ ߟ ֵ ?( ο ֮ꓵ ӟ ִ. ӓ ָ ׾ָ֓ ֻ (! 㗵 ֛߻ӓ 㗵־ָ ָ ָ ֮ 㗵 ֟֓ ֙ ָ , ֳָ֡ . ־ ֛߻ Ӯ ָ ֻ֯ ӛӟ ֟ ִ ן ״ .( ӓ ֛ ֻ֯ ֓ ֿ֢֯ ׯӕָ ֜޵֚ ֛ ׮ֻ֑. ֣ӟ ֻ ֻ ָ޵֓ ֻ ִ֕ ޵֓ ӟָ ֮ ׯӕַ־ָ ֻ֯ ӟ ֯֙ . (82000 ծ) : ִ֬ԓ ߣָ ֟߻ (֕ ( Σִ ߣ ߻.





ֿ֟֡ (...552 518)



 Ɵӟ ֿ֟֡  ִԓ ָ 껵֓ ״ ֻ ָ ӿ֮ӟ פ , ֿ֟֡ ִ ׬ ™ . þ.. ӓ ß־֮ӟ ׻Ɵ֟ (ֿ֟֡ ֻ֯ ֕־֙ߓ ֟ Ӯ ֻߓ ֳ֮ ׾ֻ ־Ɵ. ָ 㬤 ׮־֓ ֚ ꤸ ֮ 㬤 ֵ . ָӟ ־ ֤˳־֮  ִԮֵ ֻ ִ ֙ ; ָ , ֮µ ֛ ֻ֯ כӓ ֓֯δ ֻ֯ ֕ ָָ ֜և , ֖֚֮֟ ָ . ִ ֮ . ֓ ִԯ׸֟Ԯ ޵֓ ֵ , ֓ ֯ ƕƕ ֮ . ܵ ™ , ֮ ֻ֯ ֕ ֻߓ ֕ ӓ ָָ 㬤 . ֕ . ־߸ӓ ִ ӓ Ӹ . ָ ־ָ ֜և 껵ִ ֿ֟֡ ӓ ֳ֮ ִ։֓ ֻ . ןï֬ ִ ״޵֓ ֮ ׾ֻ .( ֯ . ׻ߟ֟ , ( ֿ֟֡ ֻ ו , ָ ™ ֕ Ӥ ִ֕֓ ֵ . ָ֯ ֬ ִ֕֓ ߴ ֜׾ִֻ  ִԮ ֻ֯ ָ֚ ־߮ ֻ . ִ ֟㸟 Ɵ ֯ ƻ , ־ ִ ֱ֟ ֯ ޵ ִ֣ ֻ . ֓ ָ ܵ ֟ӓ ָ ָֻ ֮֕ן ӲӬ .( ִ֓ ֟֯δ ӓ ֱ֟ ָ ֮֕ן ӲӬ ֜ӓ ־Ɵ. ׿־ֵ ָ ֻ ָ ֯ β ָ ֜ӓ ! .



Ӥӿ (...305)



ֵߓ ӟָ ֬֓ ֮־ָ Ӥӿ֮ ֻ֯ ׬ָ ֯ . ָ֕ ָ֓ ׿ֻֻ־ֺ פ , ָ֕ ӤӮ ֻ֯ ֻ֕ӟ ׻ ־ָ ֜և ֮ ׻ ָ֑֕޵ӟ߻ . ֳ֤ӓ ןִ ֻ ֻ. ֙ӟָ 300 Ԯ ׻׬֯֟ ָ ֮ ֬־ָ þָ ו, ֻ֢߮ ֬׬֯ן µ״֮֡ ןִ ָֻ ָ . ָ ןִ 300 ԯֵ՟ ָ֑֕޵ӟ ֟ Ɵ ֓ , Ӥӿ֟ ןԓ ־. ָ ֟ Ӥӿ ִ֬ԓ ׾ָ ֟, ָ ן ָ֯ פ ֟ ƻ ֟. (ָӟ( , ֌֮ Ӥ ֕֓ ӡ (( ׾ӟ ׾޵֚ ֻ֯ (ו־֬( ֯ ֮־ ֚׾ֻ . ֯֓ ݮ ֬ ӣִ֬ ֜. Ӥ֓ ӡ ֕ Ӥ ޵֓ ӳ־ פ֟.



ִ֙ Ӧ㯟 (...320)



ִ֙ Ӧ㯟 . ӓ־ ֬ӟ ָ ԟ ֛ . ־ ֻ֯ ־ָ ֳָ֕ ӯ־ ֻ֯ ִ ֵ֓ ֦ ӓֲָָ . ֯:֮֬ ָ Ԯӟָ Ӧָ ־ԟ־ָ þԾ ־ֻ. ֻ ן ־ ״֟. ן֯֓߮ ӣ (ןֻ֢( ӟ ׻ƻ , (ָ ֕Ӵ֬ ֙ Ӧ㯟 Ӯ ו֤֮ ֻ ӓ֮ӟָ ֟֓ ָ ֮֕ ו֮פ ֻ .( (.146)

֟ ן֖ ™ߓ ָ֟֟ ׾ ߟ ־Ɵ. ָӟ ֕ӟ߻ ־ֲ ߻ Ӧָ ־ԟ־ָ߻ ֿ֟ ֻ, ן֖Ӯ ™ þָ־ ֻ. և Ӯ ־ԯΣִ ׿ֻֻӓ ӿ֮ ӓ ֤ . ִ ׾֮֫ӓ ӿֵ֮ ָ ֳ ֻ. (Ӧ㯟 ֻ ( ӓ ֟֓ ״. ָܵ δ ׾֮֫Ӯ γ־ ִ֣Ԯ . (ִ֬ Ӿ ִ( ֻ֯ ӟ ֟֟. (Ӧ㯟 ( ™ Ӯ ƕ þֳ׾ ֲ þֹ֮ ֻ֮ . ֚ ֟ δ֓ ־ֿ ֟ ֙ . ָ ֙ ־ ֯֟: ֓߮ ï™ ӤƸƟ . ָ ӓ ӟ ӓ Ӿ . ֻ֯ ׯִ֟ Ӧ㟯֯ ׬ ֌߿ֻ ֻ ֓ ֲ֟ӟ ֯δ ־ , ִ֬ԓ ֻ ֻֻֿ ָ֬ ֵ֤֟ . ד֟ ֮ ֻ֯ ִԯ׸֟Ԯ ָ ־? ã֮֓ 㬤 ӓ ד֟ , Ӧ㟯֮ ִӓ ״ ׿ þָ ִ ִԵ ֬ӟ ֮ߟ ־Ɵ. ֯δ ָ֬֟: ־ ׾֮֫ ׾ֵӟ ֟ , Ӧ㯟 .

Ӧ㟯Ӯ ֕֟ 껵־ָ ־ֲ ֬ ָ ־ֻ ™ӓ ִ֣Ԯ þ. . . . ô֣ Ӯ ֻ֯ (ָ־ԓ ֓߮ ן( ִ ӣ֓ Σִ ־ ֬ . Ӧ㯟ָ֓ 韵֧ ׻ߟ ֟Ӯ ֟֟ (Ӧ㯟 ֮ ֵӟ֓ ֮֕־ָ ֻ . ֮ 24 ֕ 50 ԯՓ ־.( ֯δ ֓ 韵 ӲӬ ׮׿֟֟ . ָ֯ ן֖ ߟ. ָ ־ָ ֟ Ӿ ֻ ã ֟ ָ ֙ ״ֻ ֟. և֮ ֻ껵 ־ֲ֓ ׿ֻֻӮ ׾֮ߵ ֻ֮ ָ ӓ ־ ָӯָ ׾֮ߵ ֮־ ֟߻ ן֖Ӯ ן ֯ע֮֕ Ի. ãӟ և ֟֟ ֯δ ָ ִ ׾ , ( Ӧ㯟 Ο ָ ֮ ֵ֓ ָָ֦ Ӧָ ־ԟ־ָ .( ָ ӟ ֻߓ ָ . ֓ ß֓ ַ ־ӟ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֟ ֻ֤ ָӟ ןַ ־ӟ Ӯ ֻ֯ ָ ׻ƻ , ( ֗ ֟ ֡ ֻ , ӓ ܵ ܵ ֲ֟ӟ ֣֣ Ӧ㯟 ָָ ֕֟ ֻ .(

þԵ . . . ֵþֻ ׻Ɵ֟ , ( Ӧ㯟 ֻ֯ ָߤԓ ֙ ֻ ӟָ ֕֟ Ӯ פ ֻ ãӟ ָ ־ֻ, ӓ ֮޵ ֟ ָ . ָ֮ ƻ֓ ֌ . ״. և , Ӯ ֲ֓ ׿ֻֻӓ ԯ ֵ֮ . Ӯ ֟ ԯ ֻ֯ ֟ Τ׿ԟ .( ״..ô֣ ֙ ֟ .





ִ֙ (...277)



ִ֙ Ӧ㯟֓ ֟ . ӣӟ ֻ֓ ־ ״֟. ׾֮֫ӓ ( כ֮ י ; 5) ֟ , ֟ ִ֬ԯ ӟָ 㬤 ֻ ֲ֟ӟ ֓ ӓ δ פ ֟, ָӟ ӟ ï™ 㬤 ֻ֓ ֜ ߟ. ֙ ֬ӟӓ ӟ ׬ . ֓ ֮Ӿ (֮ ׯֵ ׯֵ֤( ֜, (֮ ׯֵ( ׾ֿ ׾ֿ֟: -ӣ֟ ֕֓ ׬ פ ֟ ָӟ ֓ 22 ԓ (־ָ( οßӟ  ֻӓ ï™ δ . ֓ ֤ (ׯֵ֤( ֜ӓ ׻ƻ , ӟ (֮ ׯֵ( ׻ƻ . Ӿ ֬ӟָߓ ӓ  ֻ ־. ׾֮֫ӓ ֟ , ֮ ꓵ ֲ֟ӟ ׮ִֵ Γ׻֟ ֟ ֯ ӯ ӿߓ ׬ ״ . : ( ֟¯־֤ ִֵ֬ ߟ Ӯ Ӿ ޵ִ֬ ߟ Ӯ 㬤 ָ޵֓ ׮ ( ( ֣ ֚ ֻ ޵֓ ׮ ָ ן֣ ־ ־ Ӥ ߾ ™ ֟֓ .(  á֓ ׬ָ ֕ . Ի ֟֟ , ( ֓ ֕-ߟӟ ӿ֮ ӓ γ־ ״ , ״֟־ֵ ߾ֿ֮ Ӳ֬ ֓ ֖ Ӿ ߸ ꬤ֯ ֿ֟֟ӓ ׬ ״ .(



Ӵ֙ ӯן (...220)



ӯן ֓ ֟ ֵ֓ (ß( Ӯ ִ֬ ִ֬ԓ פ . ֮ӟָ ֮  ִ֚ ӓ ӯΟ߮ ִ֚֬ . ֵ־ ָƧ߻ ֵ ӟ ӯΟ߮ ִ֬ԓ Γָ ֜׾ֻ. ֚֬ ׾ָ ã֮֯ . ֯δ ֮ ꚴꚵ ָ Ӭ׾ֻ. ִ֮֕֯֬߻ ֻ֟߮ ֻ֓ ֟֟. ׾֮֫ӓ ֟֯δ ֓ ־Ӯ ֬ ֻ ׿ֻֻ 㬤 ӯΟ߮ ׻׾ֻ ־.

24)֯δ ־߸ þִ߯ 400 ԯֵ՟ ִ֬ ֕ , ָ֕ Ӧ㯟 ӓ פӮ ָ־ ӓ ֕ . ӟ ִ֬ԓ ֯ δ־ָ γ־ Γָ ƻ. ֮ӟָ ִ֕֓ ֻ ָ޵ӟ߻ ןִ ִ֙ Ʀ ֓ ִִ ֯ן µ״֡ ֮ ָ ֹ ֢֕ ֻ֯ ֟ӟ ֻ. ֮ ֡ ִ־ָ ָ֓ ָ֓ ӓ ׾ָ ß ™ .ָߵ ן ָ ӣӟ . 616 ָ ֻ߻֯δ ֜.

(ֻáޛָ׬֯: ָԟ ֵԤ¾ׯ ξןԟִ׾ָ: ִן ָ֕ ־֟/

(

֕ ֻ֓ ָ֕ ӯן ָ֓ ߮ӛӓ þִ ՟ ־ӟ֓ ֌- . ֮ ֵ ӟ ִ ӓ ׾ָ ׾ֻ .



2 ӟ߻ ִ֬.

׻ ξ֟ ָ (...174)

׻ ן֯֓߮ ֯ ִ֬ԓ γ־ . ...424 ֯ ֬ ִ֙ Ӥ֮ ׻ ו ו֮ ־ӟ֓ ן ֬ . ִ֙ ӯΟߓ־ ߾ӿ֓ : ֕ ֻ. ָ ӿӟ߻ ֬ ִ֙ . ׻ ξ֟ ָ֕ ָ ӿ֟߻ ֬ ִ֙ . ׻ ξ֟ ָ֕ ָ ӓ ֻ֟߮ ָ֕ӟ ־ԟ ׬ Ɵ . ӓ Ƣ ӱ ַ֜ ׿ֻֻ֓ ꤸ ֻ . ֯δ ָ ֜ ־ ָ ׸֓ ־ ™ғ ־ ִ֮ܵ ִֵ . þ...ֵþֻ ׻Ɵ֟ (׸ӟ ִ֬ԓ ξ ׿ֿ־ӿ ֕ Ӥ֬Ԯ ֓־ ֻ . ָ֓ ꓵ ꤸ ָ ־ԟ־ָ ՟ӓ פ . ֓ ָ֓ ֟ ֻ . ־ֺ פ , ָ֓ ִ֬ ֟ӯֵ՟ ׸֓ ™ߵ ִ ƻ .(

ָ֕ ָ 15־ ָ֤֕֯ ֯ ֻ 24 ӓ ָ֕׳ ֻ. ֮ӟָ ַ֓ ֮ ֻԓ ־ ׿ִ ֻ֯  ֚׾ֻ ָ ָו֟ . ־֜ ָ֮ :׿ִ þָ ӓ Ӯ ֻ֯ ָ ֓ ָ ִ֟ß ֻ. ܡߓ ־֮ ֕ פ״֟  ֬֯Τ־ָ ֻ ֻ . ָ֮ ֿ֓ ִ֮ . ֬֯Τӟ ־֮ӓ ֙ ޵ӓ ԯ ָ ֟. 12 Ӯ ӕֲ־ָ ֜և . ֟ԓ ֕־ָ þַ 껵־ָ ־ָ֮֕ פ״֟ ֻ ֬֯Τӟ ׯ֙ ־ֻ־ָ ָ ֻ֟߮ ־ ֕Ӵ֬ δ ֻ֮ ։ ֻ . ֵ֟֯՟ִ ֮ ֻ֯ ׻ ֓ ֯ ׿ִ߻ ֕ ָ™־ָ ָ ־ ֻ껵 ֬־ָ þָ . ָӟ ֟ ֮ ָ ן 㸤 פݾֵ֕ ޵ ֟ . ֓ ֢ ָ פ ָ֓ ןִ ߴֵ՟ ֻ. 12 ֮ ָ֣֯֓ ֕Ӯ ֻ. ֬־ָ ֜և 껵־ָ ֬֓ ֕ ¯״֡ ֟ ָ־ֵ ־ ִ֟ß ֕ ӤӮ ׻ ߻ וִ֮ : ׻ӟ ã֮֯ . ׾ֵ֮֕ӟָ ֮ ֟־Ʈ ָ֣֯֓ ־֮ ־ծ ָ ֻ ָ֮ ִ֬Փ ֮ š֮ . ֮ ָ־՟߻ ִ, ֟֯þ, ׾֮֫ כ Ӯ ־ ִ Ӵ֮ . ӑ֮ ָ ֓ ׾ֵ֕ ӟ (ָ֕(,(׳֕(, (ִԸ֕( . ֤ פ. ֕ ָ֓ ָߤԴ֬ ִ֬ԓ ֮ ֻ֬ .

׿ֻֻӟ . 165 פ . Ӿ֟ þ. ֵþֻ Ӯ Ӿ֟ ֬ . ָ֕ Ӧ㯟֓ ָ֕ (...321) ֯ ֻ . ֮֕, ַ þ֟ӡ ֮֕ 껵 Ӿ֟֓ ֵ ־? ֲ֟ . ֵþֻ֕ӓ , Ӧ㯟 ׿ֻֻ־ֹ ֬ . ֮֕ ֻ׾ֻ껵 Ӿ֟֓ ֵ ַ ֮֕ ָ ֟ ֵֿ ֻ?

֯δ ײָ ׸ . ־߸֮ӟָ ִ֬ԓ ַ֓ δӟ ֻ. ..308 ֬ ֙߯֕־߻ ־ӓ ꙵ ֮֕ Ӧ㯟 ׻֓ ӿ֓ ָ פ . ׻֓ ӿ ֻߓ ֕֓ ӿ , ֮ ־߸ þִӓ ׯ֟ . ֕ ֣֬ ֬֓ ֕ Ӯ ֻ֯ פ Ꟶ. ֻֿ ӿӟ߻ ֻ֯ ׾־ , ™ ִ֙ Ӧ㯟֮ ï֤ ֻ֮ ֟. ß׾ ӲӬִ ָ֕ ֻ. Ӯ ֻ֯ ޵־ָ (׻֓ ӓ ( ֻ֯ á֓ ן ֜ . ӓ ӿ֕, ׻֓ ӿ ֻ֯ ִ ™ߓ ׳ִ֮ ߟ ֟. ָӟ 㬤 ֬擵 ֤֮ Ӧ㯟֮ ִ þָ. ֓ ִ㯟 ֮ ִִ֬ þָ. ָ ..629 ֬ ֻ ߮ ֡ Ƶ㋮֟ ֮ ֻӤ, ֻ, ֕, 㛾֬Ԯ ך ׮լ ֬ ƻ . ׻ ӓ ܵ ֻ֓ ֟. ־ֹ ï™ , ָ֮ӟָ ֌ ߬ ֵ֯՟ ִ֬ ׻ӟ Γ׻֟ . ִ֙ ָ֮ӟָ γ־ֻֿ ֕ ֻ . ָ ִ֬ ָ֬֟: ־ ֕־ӿִ֬ , ֻ ֕Ӯ ֵ פ, ָ Ӯ ֯ ֕ ߓ .





3. ִֻ֬߻ ִ֬.

׾֮֫ӓ ™߮, ִ֬Փ ã֮ ׾֡ ã֮ ֬ ׿ִ ֻ ִֻ֕ ֟. ־ ִֻ֬  ִԯ ִ֬ԓ ׾ֿ Γָ ֻ פ֟. ߻ ֳ֮, Ƴ ߸ ֤Դ֮ . וֻӓ Ӿ . ־߸ ֬Դ֮ Ӿ־ָ ָ֬ . ִ֬ԓ , ӓ ִԮ ֻ. ֻ֓ ׿ִ ӟ ֱָ ן ֜ ־ӓ ôן . ִפӓ ֿ, ִן, ׿ֻֻ ôןד֮ ֻ֓ ״ ׳֮ ӟ ֜ ֟. ߵ .. ״֡ ӓ ӿӬ֮ӟ Ӯ Ӹ֮֓ ־ ӓ 10 ִ ״ֻ. ߸ וֻӟ ִ ״ֻ֓ ִָ֓ ״ֻ . . ֻ֤ ֕ Ӯ ֻ֟߮ ӓ ά֮ ֻ֓ ׾ֻ . ֻ֓ ߤ וֻӟ߻ Ӿӟ ֮ 1940 ֬ ߮ ӓӓ ן ׮ֻ֑ . ֻ֓ ӟ ꚴꚵ ִן ֓ Ӿ֮ ׯ וֻ ֟֟. ֳ֮ ך ꛵֛֮֯ ִפӓ ֿ ֜ ֟. ֳ֮ ߻ ӓꙓ ֕֓ þ֬߮ ֻ껵 Ӿӟ ׾ֻֿ ִԓ Ӥ Ɵ Ӿ ִ ߟ . (( Ӿ֮ ֻ ֟֟ ֟ߓ ֻֿ ֟. ־ Ծָ ״֟. ָ ֵ㌟ ן þ. ֻ֤ ֕ ӓ֙ ָ֕֯ .

ӟ׮֮֓ ֵ֓ þ. ןִƮ ׾־ߓ (( ӟ (™ .204 ָ ) ׻Ɵ֟. (ָևԮ ƻ ֟, ֻ֓ ִ՟, ָ֓ӟ Οӟ ִ֬ԓ γ־ פ . ӓ ֲ ֻߟ ֻ . ֓߮ ֻ ׻֯ߓ ָ ׾ֿ֟: ָ ָ֮߿ ߟ. ָ ֓߮ ׻ׯֿߓ ׬ ״ .(



4. ִָ֣֬߻ ִ֬.



ָֿ֣ ִ֬ԓ ӲӬ ן֯֓߮ . 22 ߣָ . ֣߮ Ӯ ֻ֓ ָָ ־ԟ־ָ ו֮פ ׌ ֯ ֻ . ֻ ֳֻ ָӟ ߸ ׮־ .993 ֬ ס֟ ֻ껵 Ӳָ ӑ֮ ֻ֯ ִ ӣӮ ־ã֟ þֹ ޵ߟ ׻ׯֲ֬ . ֯δ ָӟ פ. ӓ ֲֻ ƻ. ֓֯δ ִָ֣֬ Ӳָ ӓ ֲֻ ƻ. ִָ֣֬ ָ֣ӟ߻ ӕ֮ ã֮ӟ ״ֻ껵 ׿ֻֻӟ ƻ ־ԓ ßן . ־ԓ . וֵ֮֓ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֵ֬־ֻ֓

1- Architecture of Ahamadabad. (ӟ ׻ƻ , (ָ֣ӟ ִ֬ ֯ ֻ Ӿ ֻ Ɵ . ָӟ ִ֓ Ɵ߯δ ӟ ִԓ ӟ ֵ ܵ ã֮ .(

ꓵ οßӟ ־ԓ (ԸָӦ( Ӿ֮ . ־ֹ ï™ , ־Ԯ ָָ֣ ֕ . ֓ ֕ӟ ִ֬ ֻ֓ Ƹ.

™֓ ֟ӟ ׮֑ ָ֣, ׿ִ ֻ㌵֓ ֟ӟ . ־֛ ӿߵ ָ֮֮֕ ־ָ ֻ֯ ׬ָ ִ׾ֻ. ֓ ֻֻ֮֮֯ ֬擵 ָֻ ֻ. ִ ִ֬ ֻ. ֮֕ ƻ־֛֓ ã֮֯ ִӡӓ֓ ֵ ֮ פ Ӭ׾ֻ. ־֛ ӿӟ ׮֑ ָ֣ ֻ㌵ӓ ֟ӟ ֻ. ִ֬Փ ֻ֮ ߟ . ӓ ƻ ֕ ֕ ֮ ƻ־֛ ִפ Ӭֻ. ƻ ߴ֓־ ֓ ֯ן ׾ִֻ ֮ ־ԟ־ָ ֬ ִפ Ӭ׾ֻ. (׾ִֻ־( ֟֟. ֬֕ ֵ ן֯֬ ֕ ֻ. ֓־ָ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӓ ן֯γ־ . ֓֓ ӾӾָ ֵ֓ծ ֻ֯ (֬ ( ֮ . ֮ ִ֬ þָ ֻ ָ ֵ֓Փ ޵־ֹ ֬ ־߸ þִӓ פ Ӭ׾ֻ ָָ ־ԟ֓ ֡ 㬤 .

ֵ֮ӟָ ָֻ ָ֣֓ ֤߾ָ ֻ. ֓־ָ ֓Ӧֵ֓Փ ֻ֓ γ־ ֛ ֮ ִ֬ þָ, ֮ӟָ ֮֕ ָ ׿ָ ޵֓ ֻ֯ ֕ӟ ֿ, ָ ֪֮ Ӯ Ӥ . ֵӮ ִ֤֮ ߮ ԓ ։ ޵ӟ ֻ. ִӮ ֖ӟ ֿ㓵 ֕ ֮ ƾ֮ ޵֓ ֖ פ . ֮ -ߣՓ ֡ 껵 פ Ӭ׾ֻ. ֓ ָԴ֬ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧ֮ ӣӓ ֮ .

ֻ㌵ӓ ß ֻ־ָ ־ ֟ӟ ֑ӓ ֕ ֻ ӓ־ ßֻ ֻ֯ ־ӓ ӡӮ ߻ ֬ פ Ӭ׾ֻ ֵ֡ ָ ־ԟ־ָ פ Ӭ׾ֻ. ֯δ ִָ֣֬ ֵ֕ ״ֻ֮ ִ֬ԓ ָߓ ן ֻ.

֯δ . ־߸֮ӟָ ײָ, , ָ֣ ך ־־ 2000 ԯֵ՟ ִ֬ԓ ֻߓ ָָ֙ ֻ. ־ γ־ֻֿ ֵ֓ծ ֤ áֻ֮ á֣ ӓ ָ ִ֬ԓ Γָ . Ӵֳֵ֦֟֓ծ ־ ָ־ԟ ׾ָ ָ֤֕Ӵ֬ ֻ֯ γ־ ֌颾֮ ֌߮ γ־ ֛ . ָ ӟ ״ַ ôָӾֺ ִ֬ԓ ָ֓ ׾ßָ ֻ֓ ־ ֜ ֟.



5. ֮֕֯ӟ߻ ִ֬.



þ. ֕ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֮֕֯ӓ ןӟ ׻ƻ , (ִ וֻƵ֓ ֻ ִ Ӿӟ ߸ . 84 (...443) ׿ֻֻ ״ֻ , ִ긓 חִִֵ֬ ֟ . ־ֺ ֮ ׮֑֟ , ֓ ꤸ ֮֕֯ӟ ִ֬ԓ ָ ֻ . ӓ ֟ , ֕ ӯΟ߮ ִԓ ָָ֙ . ֮֕֯ ֓ ֯֓ Τӟ פ Ӭ׾ֻ. ׾δ Ӿ֟֓ ַ ֟ӟ 껵 ֣ꓵ ֻ ߻ꓵ ß־ֺ ߻ ַ ך ֯ ֻ껵 ֓߮ ׿ֻֻ Ծֺ פ , ־ ֮֕֯ӟ ִԓ ֻ Γָ ֻ .(

־ֻ, ӛ־ֻ, ֑긾ֻ, ֻ߾ֻ . ֬ ֬ ֟ӓ ִã֮ ֮֕֯֓ ֻ֮ ֟. ד֟ꛓ ֓߮ ןßӳ ӮӮߓ ֮׾ֻ . ֯渓 ֕ӟ߻ ָߵ֣֮ ӓ ֓߮ ׾֡ ã֮ ֓ , Ӥ ָ ֟. ֮֕֯ӟ Ӯ ֟Ԯ ֻ֮ ֤֕֯, ӡ֤߯ ֯ן֤֯ ֲ׾ֻ. ִ ֮֕֯֓ ןָӟ ӓ Ӿ ָ ֻ . ֮֮֕֯ Ӝ Ӥߓ ״ ׾֮֫ ׮ִ , Ӯ , ӟ߻ ӣ־ָ ִ Ӥ ׻ Ӿָ ӟ ָ . ֮֕֯֓ ֻ״ָ, ֵ֯, , ִ . ך ֓߮ áֳӛָ ֕ .



6 ֬֯ӟӟ߻ ִ֬.

֬֯ӟ֟ ־ԟ ֕־ӿ (֓( ӿ . ֓ ֲֻ 8 9 ֟ӟ ָ . ֓ ֕ ֟ ִ֬ԓ . ׿ֻֻӟ ״ , ֳ Ӯ ִ ־ָ ֜և ߻ ֕Ӯ ָו֟ ־ָ ֻ֯ ֕ ִ׾ֻ. . ִþִ ָ Ӯ ֬

1. ֮֕֯ ־߸

2. Studies in South Indian Jainism P. 53-56.

, ֳξӿ ֕ ִ֬ԓ ֌ ֵ . ִ ӟ 껵־ָ Ӯ ִ֬ԓ ָߓ ן . ֳξӿ ֓ ӿ֓ ֻ֓ ִֻ֕ ֟. ӓ ӿ֕ ֯渓 ֯ ָ . . ֬ӯӟ֓ ֓ ָ ִ֬ԓ . ֓ δ , ӓ ™ ֿ֕ ׮™ ӲӬ . ֕־ӿӟ ׾־ӲӬ ֻ , ™ ֕ ִ֬ԯ .

֓ӓ ֮֕֬ ס֯ ֮֯ ֕ ֓߮ ִן ݮ־ֿ ״֟. ӟ֟ ֟ߣ . וֻӟ ָ, ָ וֻӟ ƕ־ ֯, ׮ִ֛ וֻӟ ָ֬ ־ ֻ֯ ӤԮ פ֟֟. ־߻ (ָ֮( ӓ ן֯־߮ ã֮ . ׿ֻ֣֮֟ ߣӓ ֳ֮ ִֻ ןֵֿ- ִֻ֕ ֟. ӣӟ ֓ (֧֯( Ӿ֮ ֻ ֟.

Ӥӛӟ ֟ߣ . ӟ ָ, ֜, ָ, ָ ֮ߵ . ֕֓ ֬ ִӤ߸ ֕ ֡ӓ ֮ ™ ֟. 17 ֟֯ ִ֬ԓ ֻ. . ֟ ִ֬ԓ ֢ ִפӓ ݮ־ֿ ݮ ִԾֹ֓ ִ֕ ־ ֟.



7 ָ Τ֟߻ ִ֬.



ָ Τ֟ ִ֬Փ ™߮ ֣ Ӿ ֮ߵ . ߻ ֻ ߻֬ ֜ , ...2 ֟֯ 5 ֵ֟֯՟֓ . ™߮ ן֯֓߮ . ־ֹ ֜ , ֌ ߑ ֻ־ֵ֬߯՟ ֣ ָ ִ֬Փ δ . ׿ֻֻӾֺ ִ֬ԓ ן־ָ ï™ ֿ ֛. ־ֹ פ , ִ֬Փ ֬Ӯ ֓ ־ã ן֯֓߮ . ߻ ִ֓߮֟ ׿ֻֻ־ֹ ֻ ß ֟ӯԓ . ֲ֟ӟ ״. Ƹ ׻Ɵ֟ ( ï ֓߮ , ־ ׻߻ ï֓ ָӳߓ Ɵ ׾ôֵ֯ ֻ .(

ß׾ ָ Τӟ߻ ִ֬ԓ ן ֤ߓ Ӭֵָ . ָ Τ֓ ֕ӓ ִ֬Կ ӲӬ ï™ ֟ . ָ ָ Τ֟ ־ԡ ֓߮ ן ִ ״, ־ֹ ï™ פ , ִ֬ԓ ֻ γ־ ֕Ӯ ֵ פ . . Ծ֬Ԯ ӟ Οֻֿ֯ ֕ . ־ ־ ־ ָ Τӟ ӓ ֕ ָ ֮ 5 ֵ՟ εִ֬ ״ ֟־ ӟ ֮ ִ֬ԓ ״ ӓ ֻ ָ֤֟ 껵֓ פ֟.

֕ ִ֬Փ ֻ֮ ߟ ־Ɵ, ָӟ ִ֬ԓ ԟ ֬ ߟ ־Ɵ ִ ֕ӓ ӟ ִ֬ԓ ָߓֿ ֟ ֻ. ־ ָָ ֬-ָӟ߻ ־ Τ֟ ֕ ӯָ֛ ִ֬ԓ ד֮ ֿ ™߻ . ָ Τӟ וֻӟ ֕ ִִ֡ ƻ , ך ֓߮ ߓ ֿ ӯ֛֟. . ֯ וֻӟ ׸ ֻ㌵ӟ ֛ Ӥ ӓ Ӿ ׮ֵ . Ʋ֤ 11 Ӿָ ׸ ߟ ָ ֓߮ ӛ־ֿ ӯ֛֟. ׮ ӓ , ֤ ӿ֓ ֮ ֕ Ɵ ִ֬ԓ ֻ֮ ߟ . . ־߸ þִӓ ן ֮׾ֻ ޵֚ ֵ֮ߓ ֕ ֮ ӓӟ 㬤 ֻ.

ִָֻ֯ (ꬵ) ׿ִ 12 Ӿָ (ꚴ( Ӿ֓ ך . ִ ֻ ӓ ך ־ß ָ ( פ ֻ). ֲ֟ӟ . Ƹ ׻Ɵ֟ , 11 ֟Ӵ֬ ־ßӟ ִ֬ԓ ָߓ ָָ֙ ֻ , ָ ߻ ִӟ ߣִӟ ߣָӓ ֜ ־ָ Ӿ֟ 1112 1133 ꤻ֓ ֜. Ǭ֕ ־ßߓ ֕ӯ ֙ ֕ . Ӵ֤ ֮֗ߓ ֻ .

ָ וֻӟ (Ɠ( Ӿ֓ ߣã֮ . ֕ ָ 긬֕ Ӿ֓ ֕ ֟֟. ִ֬ԓ ָߓֿ ָָ֙ ֻ . ֓ ֯֓ ꛵ӟ ַֿ֓ ִן ӯ֛ .

֓֯δ ־֓ Կ֮ 27 Ӿָ (ָ( Ӿ֓ ך ִפӓ ݮ־ֿ ӯ֛֟. . Ƹ ӓ , ӓ ֬ Ƹ ִֻ ֻ . ݾֻ긓 ӟ ׾ֻֿ ִ ꚵ δӟ ӯ֛֟. ™ ֓߮ ָ֑֕޵ӓ ִ֬Կ ӲӬ ֻӓ ד֟ .

֯δ ָ ָӟ߻ ֮ߵ ֕ӓ ״ ֻ ָ ֕ӓ ִ֬Կ Ƶ ֻ֓ ד֟ . ־߸ӓ ֿ֟ ִ֬ ֻ ԯ֟ ™ ï™ .



8 ָӟ߻ ִ֬.



ָ ָӟ߻ ִ֬ԓ ã֟ߓ Ɵ פ֮ӟָ ֟ ָӟ߻ ִ֬ԓ ã֟ ֮ӓ . Ӧ㯟 ԓ ָ ָ֟ 12 ԓ ֵ ֛֮ӟָ ֵ֓ ֦ Ӯ ֻ֯ ׾ֻֿ ӑֲָָ ָ ׾ָ . ־ ִ֬ԓ . Ӥã֮ӟ ֻ֓ ָ ֦Ӯ ׾ , ӓ ӑ ֟ ָ ָ . ֟ ָ ֌ ꚵ ӑֻ ָָ ָ ޵֓ Ӯ ֟. ӑ֓ ֡ . ָӟ ִ֬ ׬ ß ָ޵ ֻ ־ ״ֻ.

ִ פ ߯ ƴ ׬ ָ ƻ . ׬ָ֓ Ӭ֮ פ ӟ ֜ ִ ӟ ־Ɵ. ߣָӮ ֻ֯ ֤֓ ִ֬ (( ӓ ׾ֻ . -֬ ִ֬ԓ ֻ֟ ױ Γָ ֟֟. Ӯ ֮֟ ֻ֯ ָ߸֓ ã֚ פӟ ߸ ָӟ 㬤 ֮ ״, ֓ ߟָ߯֙ 滵 ֟׿ ֤֤֓ ֮ ֮֟ ֟ ָ ׸ִ Ɵ֓ ׮״ԟ 㜓 ׯל׸ ֟׿֓ ֻ ָ ֻ֯ ֟֟. ָ Ԛ ֮Ɵָ֟֟ ֬ ִִ ״ֻ, ӟ ӓ Γָ֓ γ־ ָ ™ ָ ֌. ֓ ׸ִ ֻ , ָ ָӟ߻ ӑ֓ ߻ ֡ . ָӟ߻ ӟ ׾׿™ ӟ ׮ִ . ӓ Ɵ ָ ִ鬤 ֵ֓Փ ߓ Ӹ֓ Ӿ֬Ԯ֓

1. . ִþִ ָ ֻ֯ (Ùߕ ։ כ֮ ׮ִ֗( ßӟ ׻Ɵ֟- (׿֟ ֬ ֻ֯֯ ֮ ֮ ִ ־ ӟ ָ . ߻ ӟ ֻ֯ ״ Ɵ ׮ִ ֻ֯ ״ ׾ָ֓ ãֵ ֮ ֮ ֮֟ӟ ָ׾ֻ. ָӟ ӵԟ ֬ ׮־ ߮ Ɵ ֟, ֮ . ӓ ָֿ ӲӬ ־Ɵ ™ ™߮ ָ . ָӟ ã֮ Ԯ־ֹ פ , ... ֵ֟֯՟֓ ֕ ֻ֯ Ӯ ֚ ֮־ ִ ֕ߵ ֲ֧֙ þ֟ӡ֯ ӓ ִֻֻ֟ ֟. ӓ 韾ֻ ֕ӓ ã֮֯ ֻ ֕ ֵ֟՟ ִ֬Կ ֟ ֟. ָӟ ִ֬-ӣӟ ֯֟֓ ׮־ָ ֟ן פ , ִ ӯ ִ֟ ֮֕ן™ ֟ ֻ( . 105-106. ֻ֮ .

ִ֬ԓ Γָ֓ ™Ӯ . ָ, ִ ԙ ӟ ׾ֳ֌ ։ . ִ ӟӟ , ӛ ֕Ӯ ִ֬ ֻ ֵ פ. ָ֓ ׿ֻֻ־ֹ פ , ִ֙ ָ֓ ֕׳֓ ӛ ֮֕ ֕ ֹ Ӯ ֚׾ֻ . ִ֙ ָ ӛ ֕ . ֛ ӿ֮ ִ֬ ֵ פ ֜ӓ ־ ָ ӓ ָ֓ ׾ָ֓ 㬤 þָ. ֓ ӓ ֮֕֬ ֤ . ָӟ߻ ӓ δ ã֮ ֻ֮ . ִ ӣ (׻פָ( ֲ֟ӟ ֟֟ , ָ ָӟӟ ֛֮ӟָ ֚ ƕָ ֬ ӛ ӟ ֻ . ָ ։ ֻ ӛ ֕Ӯ Ӯ ޵֓ Τ׿ԟ . פֿ ֡ߓ ӛ ֕ӓ ֮֕֬ ׮ֻ֑. Ӹ ֟ ֟Ӯ Ο ֬ ֛֡־ָ ֪ ׻ƻ. ־ ߟ ֓ (׻פָ( ӣ ֵָ ֻ. ֵ֓ 敵֤֯ӓ ׿µ ֕ήӤ Ӯ ӛӮ ֮֕֬ ֤ ׾ֻֿ ӑ֓ ã֮֯ . ִ Ɵӟ߻ (( Ӿ֓ ןӣ ־՟ ֻ ִֻ֕ ֟. ֻ (ִ ( ֟֟. ֓ ӣָ ֵ֓ԓ ӓ Ӿ . ֻ־-ӿߵ ׿־Ӥִ ָ֕ ӓ ׿µ . .. 10 ֵ֟֯՟ ֕ ַ ֯Ο֯ ֻ־ ֕ӓ Ӿָ ֤™ . ӓ ֮֕֬ ӓ ־ ִՓ ã֮ . ߮ ֡ Ƶ㋮֟ 7 ֟ӟ ӓ ֻ . ֮ ֜ ִ ƻ ӟ ִ֬ԓ . ־ֹ ӓ ӓ ܵ ã֮ ֬ . ֕־ӿ֮ ԯֵ՟ ֕ . ֯δ ִ ֵ֓ Ο ֯Οӟ Ӯ֓ Ɵ֯ . ָ 򻙸 ׻ֵ֬ ӓ ִ֟֯ ߻ ָָ߾ָ ִ֬ԓ ָ֓ γ־ . ֯ ӓ ׬ ֟ γ־ ִ Ɵ־ָ ֛ . ײֿ֯ 򻛾 ֓ , ӓ ֟ߓ ӓ ִ Ɵӓ . Ӯ ִ, ֛֮ ָ ӓ ֵ . ִ ӓ ՟ ׬ ֻ ִ֬ԓ ֬ӟӓ Ӯ ־ָ֬ ӟ ׬ Γָ .

֛֮ Τӯ ׸ֵ֯՟ ִԓ ֻ γ־ . ָ߸־ Ӯ ֻ֯ (Ӭ Ի ׮ִ֗( ӟ ־ ֿߟ . ־ֹ פ , ֕֓ ׾ּ֕֯ Τӟ ֓߮ ִ֬ ָ ӓ פ .

ָӟ ִ֬ԓ ־՟ Ɵ֯ ã֮ ԙ ӟ֓ ןӟ פ ӟ ֓߮ ֯֓ פӲָ

1. Coins Of Southern India (London 1886) P.No.38-40-126.

2. (Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South Indian Family of languages(.

ןָ ־ (ӛ 1913).

ӯΤֵ֓ ܵ . ӟӟ ִ֮֕ӟָ Ӭ ӿ֓ ֕ Ӭ ֕ ִ֬ԓ . Ӭ ӿ֓ ֿ֟ ֵ־ Ӥ֓ Կ֮ ֻ־ӓ ֕ . Ӳ ӿ֓ ׿ֻֻ ״ֻ . ӟ߻ ӟ Ӯ ֮ 껵֓ ״. ֕־ӿ֓ ִ ִ֬ . ֮ 1922-23 ׯֱ ׸՟ ׻ƻ֯δ Ӯ ֻ־ӓ ֿ֟ ӟ ֕ ֮־ߓ ֓߮ Ӳ ֻ挵 ֕ ׮:ӿֵ ָߓֿ ֌֟ , ֓߮ ֻ־ . ָ (֢׾ֻ( Ӿ֓ ֮ . ֻ־ָ֕ Ӧִ ֮ ׸ƻ֓ ֟֟. ӣӟ ־ Γ׻֟ ӯΤֵӓ ™ . ׾ֿ֟: ֿ֟ ֯׻  ׳ ֵ֯֡ ֮־ ™ פ֟. ӟ Ӯ ִ߻ . ־ֹ פ , ־ Ӧִ ӣ ׻Ɵ , ־ ӟָ ֬ ָ ֮ Ӧִ ֮׾ֻ . ָӿ, Ӳ֯δ ֻ㌵ ִ֬ԓ δ ֵ֤֟ . ֻ㌵Ӯ פ

1. (Early kadambas Banbasi and Chalukyas, who succeeded pallavas as overlords of Tuluva were undoubtedly Jains and it is probable that early pallavas were the same(.

2. (ֈ כ֮ Ù ћ ָ,( .1 .584.

3. Smiths:- Early History of Indian,P.444.

Ӭ׾ֻ ԑָ , Ӯ ֮ פ ֛֮ߓ ֬ פӯ ӓ ֻ ֮֮ .

׿־ֵ ן־ֹ פ֟ , ԙӟ áֵӮ ִ֬ԓ Γָӟ ֻ . áֵӟ ָ֑֕޵ӟ߻ áֵ Ꟶ ָ֬ ָ޵ӟ߻ áֵӓ ֮ߵ . ָ֓ ֟ (Ӥד( ӓ Ӿ ׮ֵ . ߮ ߯ Ӿ֓ ך ָ ִפ Ӭ׾ֻ. ָ֓ ׾֮ӟ߯δ ֮ן ߯ ֮ פ Ӿ - ֮ פ. áߓ ָ֕ ׸ָ־ָ ֻ γ־ . ָ ֮ߵ á ( ׌ֲ( . ָ֢֮֕Ԯ֓ ֟ . ָ ׾ֳ֓ ο . ן 껵־ָ ֓ ָ ֮֕ ֟ߓ ׮ֵ׌ . ֟߮ ָδ֓ ׸ֵ פ ֻ֮֯ ׾֕Ԯ .

.. 10 ֟ӟ ׿ִ ֻ㌵ ֕ ֯֓ ֯֟ ֻ֯ . ֓ עִ־ ֤ ִԓ׸ . ן֮ ֻ֯ ֓Ԯ ꮵ֓ Ӵ֟ ӓ 1500 ֮׾ֻ Ꟶ. ֕Ӧ ֻ ֓ և ־ָ Ʈ ..1050 ֬ և (פ) Ӭ׾ֻ.

Ӳ ֕ ןԤ ֓ ƻ ֟ ֻֻ֤ ӓ ã֮ ִԯ ƻӟ ָ . Ʈ ..1077 ֬ ֩Ӥ ֬ӟ֤ Ԯ֣ ֵֻ ֮׾ֻ. δ ִӮ ־ ӓ֓ וֵֻ֮֓ Ӿ (δוֵֻ֮( ׾ֻ.

ָӛߓ ״ ןӟ ֽ֤ӓ ׾׿š ã֮ . ӟָ ׸ָӟ߻֤ . ӟָ ׸ָ ֟־ֻӲ ֓ ִԯ ן֯֬ . ּ֤߮ ӟָӓ ֮֕֬ Ӳ㓓֯ פ Ӭ־ ָָ֯ .

. ָ֓ ֕ߵ ן־ָ Ɵ ݵ ָ֮֕ 渓 ꚵ ־ָ .. ַ ֟֯ ־ ֵ֟֯՟ ֕ . ֮ӟָ ӓ ֻ ֕Ӯ ֳָ־ ; ָӟ ָ֕ ߑֵֻ֯՟ ֕ ߟ. ֻ Ӯ ֻ פ. ֻ֯ þ֟ӡ ֕־ӿ ãׯ֟ ֮ 11 14 ֵ֟֯՟ ֕ .

֓߮ ֻ挵Ӯ 6 ֟֓ ֯ ֕ ãׯ֟ βֻ ֮֓ 껵־ָ ֓ Ե ֻ挵 ׿ִߵ ֻ㌵ ֻ. Ե ֻ挵Ӯ ..750 11 ֵ֟֯՟ ֕ ֮ӟָ ӓ ֕ ֕Ӯ ֻ֯ ֕ӟ ׾ֻ߮ ֻ. ׿ִߵ ֻ㌵ ֕ ..750 ָ ™Ӯ ֲߕ .

™Ӯ ..973 ֵ՟ ֻ֯ þ֟ӡ֟ ִֵ ֻ ֮ӟָ ׿ִ ֻӮ ֓ ֳָ־ . ֻ㌵Ӯ ־ ־ ֿ ֕ ֮ӟָ ֻ֓ Ӯ ֓ ֳָ־ 30 ֕ . Ο ֕־ӿ֓ ִ֬ԓ ã֟ӓ Ԯ þ֟ӡ֯ .



25. ־ӿ.

ӿӓ ã֮֯ .. ַ ֟ӟ ֵ֓ ƮӤ Ӯ . ӓ ƻ ֕ ֬־ ߾ִ ֟. ָ ־ ָ ֓ ִ֬ ִ֕֬ 3 4 ֕Ӯ ӓ ߓ ԕ ׮׿֟֯ ִ֬ ֵ . ֬־֓ ָ׬ָ ֮ߟ ֓ ָ׬ָ ׾Ԯߟ ֬ ֵ֓ 㕵֤֯ ӓ ׿µ .

.. 4 ֟֯ 12 ֵ֟֯՟֓ ׿ֻֻӾֹ ™ ï™ , ־ӿ֓ Ӯ פ Ӭֻ, ֯ןִӓ ã֮֯ ֟֯þ׸ ӱֵָ֟ 껵 ֵ֓ծ ֮ פ.

ӿӟ߻ ֕֓ Ӿ ָ 2 (ָ) . ֓ ӟ , ӛ ӿ־ָ ׾ֵ֕ ״׾ֻ . ֬ӟӓ ָ ֵ . ֵԯ ֕ 껵־ָ ֮ ֤֕֯ ָ֛ ӟӟ߻ ֯ ך ֻ֯ ו֟ ӓִ ִ׬֯ ֟ . ׿ֻֻ֓ ָ֬ ֓ ָ֓ ֮ ..975 ׮׿֟ .

ִӛֵָ ָ ׫ߵ ֓ ݵ ӡ , ֕ 껵־ָ ֓ ֕ ִֻ֕֓ ӡ ֯֟ ֻ. ӡ֓ Դ ָ ׾ֵ֕ ״ . ־ֲ () ߻ ׿ֻֻӟ ֓ ָߓֿ ο . ִԬӬָ, ߸֟՛, ָ, ִ֙ . ׬ Ꟶ. ן ׾ָ ״ . Ӵ㛸ֵ֮ ־ֲ ߻ ׾֬߸ ־ԟ־ָ 괴ֲþߴӓ ן׾ֻֿ Ӥ ã֮֯ . ן ֟߻ ֿԵկ ֵֿ ִֻ֕ ֟. ֻ֯ ָ֟ӟ ִӛֵ֮ ֻ֯ ָ֓ ״ ֵ՟ ֻ׾ֻ. ִӛֵ ִ֬ԯ ָ ֓ ֻ ִԖ ׾֮֫ . ֓ ֛֮ ӟ߻ ס֯š ֯ ӣ ן֯֬ . ִ֬ (׸ָ( Ӿ֓ ֮ ׻ƻ ӣ . ִӛֵ֓ ִ֬ԓ ֯ӟ (ֵ՟) ֮ ֟. ֓ Ɵֵ֓ ֻ ֜ ֻ . ֬ӟ ӣӓ ָ (괴ָ֙( Ӿ֓ ߓ ӣ ӓ ׮״֢֮ ׻ƻ ӓ 괴ֵ֙ Ӿ־ָ ӣӓ ִ . ֛֮ӟ߻ ֬ (( ֓ ֻ ֵ֤֟ .

֯׸ָ֟߻ áֵ ֻ֯ ִԿ߻֚֟ ן֯֬ Ꟶ. οßߟ ֤ (ו֮֓ ָ ֻӟ߻ 㲬ֳδָ( ֻӓ ׻ƻ . ƻ ֲֻ 괴֛ ֮֟ ֕֓ ֟ . ֕ ָ֓ ꙵ ӓ (֯־ָ( . ִӓ ן ֌ Ӯ ָƤ֮ ߟ .

ָ֮֕ ..1004 ֬ ֕֓ ֮֕֬ ֻ֤ ו, ֯ ӿ֓ Ο֯ . ӟָ ӿӟ߻ ֮֕ ֕ . ָӟ ֻ֯ ָ ֜ ߟ. ִ ִ֬ԓ ָߓֿ ֮ ֻ.



2. ֻ ӿ.



ӿ֓ ֟ӟ ߓ ֟ . ӿ֓ ԕ ֕ (ֻ( . ֕ ֻ֯ ֤ߓ פӟ (㤢( Ӿ֓ ֬־ ׾֪ ߟ . ֮ ֮ӟ ֑֮ (ֻ( ֕־ָ ƻ . ֬ ӛ ֻ֕־ ƙ ( ֻ( (ָ ֻ) ֻ֮ ֑ ָ. ֙ꓵ ôָ֣ ֮ ֻ֯ Ӿ (ֻ( ֻ ӟָ ӓ ־ (ֻ( ֻ.

־ӿ֯δ ӿ֓ ֕ ׾׼ ֵ՟ ִ֬ԓ ƻ. Ӯ ִ֬ߟ ε֟ . פֲ֤ þִ ָ Ӯ (׾֬Ԯ ׾ּߤ( ӓ ֕֓ ״ ã߲֧֟ ߻֯δ ׻ƻ . ־ ֵ: ִֵ . ָ֕ ִ֬ԓ ֵ . ָӟ ־־ ..1000 ֬ ӓ ׾ֹ ָ֮֟֯ . ־ Ӯ ו޵֓ ε֟ . ִ ־֛ Ӳ־֛ߓ Τ ӓ ֕ӟ . ָ֯ Τӟ ӓ ִ֬ ֻ挵ӓ ִ֬ ӓ ָïָ ִ֮ ֻ. ׾֬Ԯ֮ 㸓 ָ֕ӟ ֻ, ־ 㸓 ״ ã֟ ׮׿֟ . ָ ֯ ִ֬ βֻ , ָ ִ֬ ־ִ֬ԓ ֵ . ..1116 ָ ׾ּߤ ִ֮㸕ֵ֓Ԯ ־ ֮׾ֻ ֮ ֻ֯ Ӿ (׾֬Ԯ( ֻ. ׾֬Ԯ֓ ƻ ֻ֤֟ . ־ֲ ָ ך ״ֻ껵 ׿ֻֻ־ֹ ן֓ ִֵՓ ο . ֻ֤֟ߓ ֛߻ և . 껵־ָ ן֓ ևԾ֛߻ ӓ ־Ӈ ֻ֯ ִԯ ֻ ֻ ָ ִ֬Բ֧ ֓ ֮ ִֵ . ֮ ֻ֯ ׾ֵ֕֓ ôָ֯ߟ֣ ƻߛ ߻ פӟ ã֮֯ 껵 ִԓ Ӿ (׾ֵ֕-Ԯ֣( ֻ. ֓ ӡ ָ֕ ִ֬ԓ ָ֬ßӳ . ֓ ״ ֮־߸ ӓ Ԯ ׿ֻֻ֟ ״. ӓ ֟ӓ Ӿ ִ֬ Γֲֲָ֟ ן֯֬ . ן֮ ִפ Ӭ׾ֻ ֚ ָ֮֕ ָ ״֤֮ . ײ׼֮ӟָ ָ (ƻ) ֕ ֻ. ֓ ӡ 㻻֯ ֮ ִ֬ԓ ֟ .

֮ ӓ γ־ ã֯޵֓ ε֟ . ָӟ ֻ ֕Ӯ Ӹ פ껵 ־ ִԓ ֟߮ ָ ֟, ִ֮ ꟵӮ ־ã֟ δֲ֬ ׾ָ ׻ֵ֟ӓ ֵ δ ִ Τӟ ִ֬ԓ ֮ן ֮֟ ֻ. ָӟ ִ֬Փ ִ ֙ ֻ, ֮ ָӟ ־ ָ פ ӯΤֵӓ ״ ׾ִ ӓ ֮ Ծ֟ ƻ . ƻ ָ ִ֬Ԯֵӓ ܵ ־ . ָӟ ָ֕ӟ ӓ γ־ ֟ ֛ ־Ɵ.