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SamanSuttam

39. Nayasutra

PRECEPTS ON VIEW-POINT 关于看问题的角度  

見地に関する教訓

 

Jam nanina viyappam, suyabheyam vatthuamsasamgahanam.

Tam iha nayam pauttam, nani puna tena nanena. (690)  

The thought activity which grasps only one aspect of an object with the aid of scriptures, is called Naya. He who possesses such knowledge is wise. (690)  

如果一个人借助典籍能够通过思考了解到事物的一个方面,这叫做Naya,具有这种知识的人是智慧的。  

典籍の力を借りて、物事の一面を把握できる思考の活動とはNayaだ。そういう知識のある人は賢明だ。

 

Jamha na naena vina, hoi narassa siyavayapadivatti.

Tamha so bohavvo, eyamtam hamtukamena. (691)  

Since without a (knowledge of) naya a man cannot have a knowledge of syadvada (the doctrine of conditional

statement). A knowledge of naya can be had by one who is desirous of destroying all the extremes. (691)  

如果一个人不具备Naya的能力,那么他就不能够syadvada(条件语言的教条)。如果一个

人渴望破除所有的极端,那么他就能具备naya的能力。  

Nayaの能力に備えないなら、syadvada(条件文の教義)の知識を得られない。すべての極端を破壊するのを願ってやまない人はnayaに関する知識を持つことができる。

 

Dhammavihino sokkham, tanhacheyam jalena jaha rahido.

Taha iha vamchai mudho, nayarahio davvanicchiti. (692)  

Just as an irreligious person desired to attain bliss without practising religion or a thirsty person desires to quench

his thirst without using water, similarly the fool desires to determine the nature of a substance without taking

recourse to naya. (692)  

就像一个没有信仰的人为了获得福祉而不去修行,一个口渴的人想要却不去喝水一样,

愚蠢的人想要了解事物的本质却不去Naya

 

信仰のない人は福祉を得たがるのに、修行しない、喉がかわい人が渇きをいやしたがるのに、水を飲まないのように、愚かな人は物事の本質を知りたがるのに、Nayaを行わない。

 

Titthayaravayanasamgaha-visesapatthara-mulavagarani.

Davvatthio ya pajjavanao, ya sesa viyappa sim. (693)  

The entire body of the teachings of Tirthankara taken in its entirely and taken in its particular details is to be 

explained with the help of two basic standpoints (nayas)-viz that substantial point of view (dravyarthikanaya) and

that modificational point of view (paryayarthikanaya). The rest of them are the offshoots of these two. (693)  

Tirthankara的教义是个整体,通常从两个基本的角度对他来进行解释。一个本质的角度(dravyarthikanaya)和一个形式的角度(paryayarthikanaya)。其余的都是这两种方法的支流。

 

Tirthankaraの教義はひとつの全体で、常に二つの基本な角度によって解釈される。ひとつは本質の角度(dravyarthikanaya)で、もうひとつは形式の角度paryayarthikanayaだ。他の方法はその二つの方法の分枝しかない。

 

 

Davvatthiyavattavvam, avatthu niyamena pajjavanayassa.

Taha pajjavavatthu, avatthumeva davvatthiyanayassa. (694)  

What is said from the substantial view-point appears, as a rule, unreal from the modal view-point. Similarly what is

said from the modal view-point appears unreal from the substantial view-point. (694)  

从本质的角度上看来是正确的,从形式的角度来看则是不真实的;反过来也是一样。  

本質の角度からみれば正確なものは形式の角度からみれば現実ではない。逆に言っても同じだ。

 

Uppajjamti viyamti ya, bhava niyamena pajjavanayassa.

Davvatthiyassa savvam, saya anuppannamavinattham. (695)  

From the modal view-point, things necessarily originate and perish. But from the substantial viewpoint, there is

neither origination nor destruction. (695)  

从形式的角度来说,事物必然会产生与消亡。但是从本质的角度来说,根本没有产生和消亡。  

形式の角度からいえば、物事は必ず発生と滅亡する。しかし、本質の角度からいえば、発生及び滅亡がない。

 

Davvatthiena savvam, davvam tam pajjayatthiena puno.

Havadi ya annamanannam, takkale tammayattado. (696)  

From substantial point of view, everything is of the form of substance (always remaining the same), but from modal

view-point every thing differs from time to time. From each particular stand-point, a thing appears to its

corresponding form. (696)  

从本质的角度来说,所有事物都是由物质构成(通常是相同的),但是从形式的角度来说,

事物与事物各不相同,从不同的角度来看,事物都有其特定的形式。  

本質の角度からいえば、すべての物事は(常に同じ)物質によって構成する。しかし、形式の角度から言えば、物事はそれぞれ特定な形式がある。

 

Pajjaya gaunam kicca, davvam pi ya jo hu ginhai loe.

So davvatthiya bhanio, vivario pajjayatthinao. (697)  

The stand-point which gives secondary status to the modes and only grasps the substance, is called substantial

view-point, while the opposite to it is called modal view-point. (697)  

本质的角度就是指不考虑事物的状态而只抓住事物的本质的角度;相反地就是形式的角度。  

本質の角度は物事の状態を考えなく、物事の本質をつかむ角度を指す。その反対は形式の角度だ。

 

Negama-samgaha-vavahara-ujjusue ceva hoi bodhavva.

Sadde ya samabhirudhe, evambhue ya mulanaya. (698)  

Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha and evambhuta-these are

the seven basic stand-points. (698)  

Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha 以及 evambhuta-是七种看问题的基本角度。  

Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha 及びevambhutaは七種問題を見る基本角度だ。

 

Padhamatiya davvatthi, pajjayagahi ya iyara je bhaniya. Te cadu atthapahana, saddapahana hu tinni ya. (699)  

The first three fall under the category of substantial view-point, while the remaining four come under the modal view-point. Among these seven, the first four give eminence to meaning, while the remaining three to the word. (699)  

前三者属于本质的角度,后四者属于形式的角度。在这七个总,前四者着重在于意义,后三者着重在于字面。  

前の三種は本質の角度に属する。後ろの四種は形式の角度に属する。この七つの中、前の四種は意味に重点をおくが、後ろの三種は単語自身に重点を置く。

 

Negaim manaim, samannobhayavisesananaham. Jam

tehim minai to, negamo nao negamano tti. (700)

 Naigam Naya deals with both the aspects of a thing, that is, generic as well as specific aspects, as the case might

be, in order to know this, it knows the thing in its various forms. (700)  

Naigam Naya涉及事物的两个方面,共性以及特性,它能够了解事物的多个方面。  

Naigam Nayaは物事の共通性と特性という二つの面に関わって、物事の多くの面を理解できる。

 

Nivvitta davvakiriya, vattanakale du jam samacaranam. Tam

bhuyanigamanayam, jaha ajjadinam nivvuo viro. (701)  

Naigam Naya is of three kinds, according to the three tenses. The past, the present and the future. (701)  

根据时态,Naigam Naya 分为三类,过去、现在以及将来。  

テンスによってNaigam Nayaは三種類に分けられる。過去、現在及び将来。

 

Paraddha ja kiriya, payanavihanadi kahai jo siddham. Loe

ya pucchamane, tam bhannai vattamananayam. (702)  

To describe the work as has been done when asked, the moment it has been started, is known as the

Vartamana Naigam Naya, for, example the food is said to have been cooked when the coooking has just been

started. (702)  

Vartamana Naigam Naya用来描述完成时,例如,当烹饪开始时,我们就说食物已经在做了。  

Vartamana Naigam Nayaは完成のテンスを述べる。たとえば、料理を作り始めるとき、われわれは料理はすでに作り始めたという。

 

Nippannamiva payampadi, bhavipadattham naro anipannam.

Appatthe jaha pattham, bhannai so bhavi naigamo tti nao. (703)  

To say that an act, which is to be performed in future has been completed, though incomplete is an example of

Bhavisya Naigam Naya e.e. when a person is about to start, we say he has gone. (703)  

Bhavisya Naigam Naya用来描述将来完成时,例如一个人正要出发时,我们就说他出发了。  

Bhavisya Naigam Nayaは将来完成のテンスを表す。たとえば、もう一人は出発するところに、われわれは出発したという。

 

Avaropparamavirohe, savvam atthi tti suddhasamgahane.

Hoi tameva asuddham, igajaivisesagahanena. (704)  

There are two kinds of samgrahanaya-suddhasam-grahanaya and asuddhasamgrahanaya. In suddhasamgraha-

naya, we accept only one common characteristic of things existence, ignoring all the mutual conflicting

characteristics, while in Asuddhasamgrahanaya, we accept the generic class characteristic of things. (704)  

Samgrahanaya分为两类:suddhasamgrahanayaasuddhasamgrahanaya。在suddhasamgrahanaya中,我们只承认事物共同的存在特点而忽略其相互矛盾的特点;但是在asuddhasamgrahanaya中,我们接受事物普遍的特点。  

Samgrahanayaは二種に分けられる。SuddhasamgrahanayaasuddhasamgrahanayaSuddhasamgrahanayaの中、すべての物事に存在する特徴を認め、互いに矛盾する特徴を無視する。Asuddhasamgrahanayaの中、物事の共通した特徴を認める。

 

Jam samgahena gahiyam, bheyai attham asuddhari suddham.

So vavaharo duviho, asuddhasuddhatthabheyakaro. (705)  

That which distinguishes between the pure synthetic approach and impure synthetic approach about the thing is

called Vyavaharanaya. This Vyavaharanaya is further of two gypes complete distinguishing and incomplete

distinguishing. (705)  

将综合的观点以及分离的观点区分的方法叫做VyavaharanayaVyavaharanaya又进一步可以分为两类。  

総合と分離の見地を区別する方法はVyavaharanayaと呼ぶ。Vyavaharanayaはさらに、二種類に分けられる。

 

Jo eyasamayavatti, gihnai davve dhuvattapajjayam.

So riusutto suhumo, savvam pi saddam jaha khaniyam. (706)  

The naya which grasps the evanescent modes of an enternal substance, is called Rjusutra naya, for example to

say that all the sound is momentary. (706)  

掌握永恒物质的瞬时状态的方法叫做Rjusutra naya,例如,所有的声音都是瞬间的  

永遠の物質の一瞬の状態を掌握する方法はRjusutra nayaとよぶ。例えば、すべての音は一瞬だ。

 

Manuyaiyapajjao, manuso tti sagatthidisu vattamto. Jo

bhanai tavakalam, so thulo hoi riusutto. (707)  

On the other hand that naya which attritubes a mode like man-ness etc. to a being, throughout the course of that

period during which this being continues to exhibit that mode is the sub-type of Rjusutranaya, called

Sthularjusutranaya. (707)  

另外一种方法掌握事物在某一段时间内持续出现的一种状态,这种方法是Rjusutranaya的一个分支,叫Sthularjusutranaya

 

もう一つの方法は物事がある間に持続して現す状態を理解する。そういう方法はRjusutranayaの分枝で、Sthularjusutranayaと呼ぶ。

 

Savanam sapai sa tenam, va sappae vatthu jam tao saddo.

Tassatthapariggahao, nao vi saddo tti heu vva. (708)  

Sapana, i.e. calling, is a word, or that which calls is word, or through which an object is reffered to is also a word. It is called Sabdanaya because it graspes the meaning of the word. (708)  

Sapananaya 则是通过词汇的意义来掌握事物。  

Sapananayaは単語の意味で物事を理解する。

 

Jo vattanam na mannai, eyatthe bhinnalimgaainam.

So saddanao bhanio, neo pussaiana jaha. (709)  

The naya that differentiates the meaning of the words according to their use, as gender etc., in a sentence is called

sabda naya, for example, the word pusya denotes a particular Naksatra, while the word Pusya denotes a

particular Tarika. (709)  

这种方法通过词汇的使用(如词性)来区分它们的使用。例如,�pusya�代表Naksatra

而�Pusya� 代表 �Tarika�。  

この方法は語彙の用法(例えば語の性別)によって使用を区別する。例えば、pusyaNaksatraを代表し、PusyaTarikaを代表する。

 

Ahava siddhe sadde, kirai jam kim pi atthavavaharanam.

Tam khalu sadde visayam, devo saddena jaha devo. (710)  

The naya which grasps the meaning of the word according to its etymology, is also

clled Sabdanaya, for example, the word deva generally means God. (710)   

根据单词的词源来掌握它的意思的方法也叫做Sabdanaya,例如deva的意思通常是指神灵。  

単語の語源によってその意味を理解する方法はSabdanayaと呼ぶ。例えば、devaの意味は神霊を指す。

 

Saddarudho attho, attharudho taheva puna saddo.

Bhanai iha samabhirudho, jaha imda puramdaro sakko. (711)  

Every word is followed by a specific meaning and vice-versa. The different synonymous words have their respective

connotations even if the same object is referred to by them. For example, the word, Indra, Purandar and Sakra

connote the same object, yet they have their respective meaning to. This is known as Samabhirudhanaya. (711)  

每个字都有一个确定的意思,反过来也是一样。不同的同义词具有各自的内涵,尽管他们用

来形容同一事物。例如,Indra, Purandar 以及 Sakra具有同样的意思,但是他们也还具有各自的含义。  

単語はそれぞれ確定した意味がある。意味もそれぞれ確定した単語がある。違う同義語は同じ物事を形容しても、それぞれの意味がある。Indra, Purandar 及び Sakraは同じ意味があっても、それぞれの意味がある。

 

Evam jaha saddattho, samto bhuo tadannahabhuo.

Tenevambhuyanao, saddatthaparo visesena. (712)  

A word only applies to an object in case it behaves in the manner suggested by the (etymological) meaning of the

word, denoting it and not in case it does not behave in that Evambhutanaya. Hence this particular naya cling to

the particular meaning of the word. (712)  

有些词语在一些特殊语境中使用,因此,这些词语就用来表示这些特殊的意思  

ある単語はいくつの特定のコンテストに使うしかない。そのため、これらの単語はこれらの特殊な意味を表す。

 

Jam jam karei kammam, dehi manavayanakayacetthado.

Tam tam khu namajutto, evambhuo have sa nao. (713)  

Whatever an act a person is now performing, through the instrumentality of his mind, speech or body, a name

corresponding to that act is to be applied to this person, this is what is maintained by the naya called

Evambhutanaya (e.g. A person is called teacher only while he is teaching). (713)  

不论一个人正在做什么,总会有一个相应的动作可以来形容这个人,这叫做Evambhutanaya(例如,当一个人在教书时,我们才称呼他为老师)

 

人は何をしても、適当な動作でその人を形容することができる。これはEvambhutanayaと呼ぶ。例えば、人は教えている時だけ、先生を呼ばれる。