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SamanSuttam

34. Tattvasutra

PRECEPTS ON FUNDAMENTAL TRUTHS 关于基本的真理  

基本の真理に対する教訓

 

Javantavijjapurisa, savve te dukkhasambhava.

Luppanti bahuso mudha, samsarammi anantae. (588)  

All persons who are ignorant suffer misery; most of those who are foolish will remain

confounded in this endless mundane existence. (588)  

所有无知的人将会承受痛苦,大多数愚蠢的人在这个无尽的世俗中将会一直迷惑下去。  

すべての無知な人は苦痛を受ける。大多数の馬鹿な人はこの永遠な世俗の中にずっと困惑していく。

 

Samikkha pamdie tamha, pasajaipahe bahu. Appana

saccamesejja, mettim bhuesu kappae. (589)  

Therefore, a wise person, considering that most of the ways of living result in entanglements of (mundane)

existence, should search for truth with (the aid of) his own soul and develop affection towards all living beings. (589)

因此,一个智慧的人在考虑到大多数的生存方式都将导致同世俗存在的纠缠后,他就应当在

其灵霊魂的帮助下寻求真理并对所有的生灵要博爱。

 

そのため、賢者は大多数の生存方式は世俗存在との絡みを導くことを考えてから、霊魂の協力で真理を尋ねて、すべての生き物に博愛すべきだ。

 

Taccam taha paramattham, davvasahavam taheva paramaparam.

Dheyam suddham paramam, eyattha humti abhihana. (590)  

Truth, emancipation, the nature of substance, the highest reality, the supreme pure goal,

all these words convey the same meaning. (590)  

真理、解脱、物质的本质、最高的事实、至上的纯洁的目标��所有的这些名词都是一个含义。  

真理、解脱、物質の本質、最高な事実、至上で純潔な目標。。。それらのすべての名詞は同じ意味だ。

 

Jivajiva ya bandho ya, punnam pavasavo taha.

Samvaro nijjara mokkho, samtee tahiya nava. (591)  

Soul, non-soul, Karmic bondage, merit, demerit, karmic-influx, stoppage of influx, release

(from Karmas) and liberation, these constitute the nine fundamental principles. (591)  

灵霊魂、非灵霊魂、因果报应、美德、缺点、因果报应的开始、因果报应的终止、摆脱因果报应

以及解脱,这九点构成了基本的原则。

 

霊魂、非霊魂、因果応報、美徳、欠点、因果応報の開始、因果応報の終止、因果応報の抜け出し及び解脱、これらの九点は基本の原則になる。

 

Uvaogalakkhanamanai-nihanamatthamtaram sarirao.

Jivamaruvim karim, bhoyam ca sayassa kammassa. (592)  

A soul is characterised by consciousness; is enternal, immortal, different from the body (in which it is embodied),

formless, an agnet, and the door and enjoyer of his own Karmas (i.e., fruits of his actions). (592)  

灵霊魂的特点就是意识,灵霊魂是永恒的、不朽的,它同躯体不同,它是无形的,它是通向因果

报应之路,是因果报应的承受者。  

霊魂の特徴は意識だ。霊魂は永遠で、不朽だ。躯体と違って、霊魂は形のなくて、因果応報の道で、因果応報の相続者。

 

Suhadukkhajanana va, hidapariyammam ca ahidabhiruttam.

Jassa na vijjadi niccam, tam samana vimti ajjivam. (593)  

The Jinas call that an ajiva (i.e., non-soul) which invariably does not have any knowledge of pleasure or pain, does

not know what is beneficial and does not have any fear of what is detrimental. (593)  

Jina说没有灵霊魂的人将永远不会知道欢乐与痛苦,不知道什么是有益的,也不会对有害的事情产生恐惧。  

霊魂のない人は永遠に歓楽と苦痛や、何が有益だかがわからなくて、有害なことに対して恐怖を起こさない、とJinaがいう。

 

Ajjivo puna neo, puggala dhammo adhamma ayasam.

Kalo puggala mutto, ruvadiguno amutti sesa du. (594)  

Ajiva should again be known (to be of five kinds): matter (pudgala), motion (dharma) rest (adharma), space (akasa)

and time (kala): matter has form as it has the attributes of colour etc., the rest of them are verily formless. (594)  

没有灵霊魂的人应当知道:物质、运动、静止、空间和时间,物质具有形式,就像它具有颜色一样,而其余的几个都是无形的。  

霊魂のない人は、物質、運動、静止、空間と時間を知るべきだ。物質は形がある。たとえば、色。他のいずれも形がない。

 

No imdiyaggejjha amuttabhava, amuttabhava vi ya hoi nicco. Ajjhatthaheum

niyayassa bandho, samsaraheum ca vayanti bandham. (595)  

The soul is not perceptible to the senses as it has no corporal form; it is enternal since it has no corporal form; due

to internal activities like the passions, Karma binds the soul; and it is said that bondage is the cause of mundane

existence. (595)  

灵霊魂不能为感官所感觉到,因为它没有任何形态;它是永生的,因为它没有任何形态;由于人们内心的行为,因果报应就同灵霊魂相联系起来,这种束缚就是由世俗的存在所造成的。  

霊魂は感官に感じられなくて、不滅でいかなる形がない。内心の行為のせいで、因果応報は霊魂と束縛してくる。この束縛は世俗の存在が齎したのだ。

 

Ratto bamdhadi kammam, muccadi kammehim ragarahidappa.

Eso bamdhasamaso, jivanam jana nicchayado. (596)  

Attachment binds the soul (with Karmas); a soul which is free from attachments becomes liberated from Karmas.

Know that this surely is briefly (the nature of) the Karmic bondage of souls. (596)  

爱恋束缚了灵霊魂,能够从爱恋中解脱的灵霊魂能够从因果报应中解脱。这就是因果报应对于灵

霊魂的束缚。  

情熱は霊魂を束縛した。情熱から解脱できる霊魂は本当に因果応報から解脱できる。それは因果応報の束縛の本質だ。

 

Tamha nivvudikamo, ragam savvattha kunadi ma kimci.

So tena vidarago, bhaviyo bhavasayaram taradi. (597)  

Therefore, it is desirable to renounce the attachments; do not do anything at any time that brings about an

attachment even to the slightest degree; it is due to this that a soul conquers all attachments and crosses over the

ocean of worldly existence. (597)  

因此,人们应当同爱恋相脱离;任何时候都不要做一些能够带来爱恋的事情;这样,灵霊魂就

能够征服所有的爱恋并穿过世俗的海洋。  

そのため、人は情熱から離脱すべきだ。いつでも情熱をもつことをやらない。そうすれば、霊魂はすべての情熱を征服して、世俗の海洋から抜け出せる。

 

Kammam punnam pavam, heu tesim ca homti sacchidara.

Mamdakasaya saccha, tivvakasaya asaccha hu. (598)  

Karma is the cause of merit (punya) and demerit (papa); auspicious thoughts give rise to merit while inauspicious

thoughts to demerit. Those who are possessed of subdued passions have clean (mental states); those with intense

passions will have unclean (mental states). (598)

因果报应是美德和缺点之源,吉祥的想法带来美德而不祥的想法会导致缺点。能够抑制自己

感情的人们具有纯洁的灵霊魂,而那些感情强烈的人们的灵霊魂就不纯洁。  

因果応報は美徳と欠点の源だ。吉祥な考え方は美徳をもたらすが、不祥な考え方は欠点をもたらす。自分の感情を抑制する人は純潔な霊魂がある。感情の激しい人の霊魂は純潔ではない。

 

Savvattha vi piyavayanam, duvvayane dujjane vi khamakaranan.

Savvesim gunagahanam, mamdakasayana ditthamta. (599)  

Always speak words which are dear (to others), even those wicked men who use harsh words ought to be forgiven;

one must take the best from all people, these are illustrative of persons possessed of subdued passions. (599)  

应当经常说一些对他人友善的话,即使是那些经常说一些不当的话的邪恶的人也应当得到原

谅;与人为善,这些都是能够压抑自己感情的人们所做的事情。

 

他人に友好に話す。よく不当に発言する悪人にも諒として、人を助けて、それらは自分の感情を抑制できる人の実例だ。

 

Appapasamsana-karanam, pujjesu vi dosagahana-silattam.

Veradharanam ca suiram, tivvakasayana limgani. (600)  

Praising oneself, picking up faults even with those who are worthy of worship and maintaining inimical attitude for a

pretty long time, these are the characteristics of persons possessed of intense passions. (600)  

自我夸耀,指出别人的过失,即使这人值得人们的尊敬;对他人长时间的保持敌意�这都是 感情强烈的人们的特点。  

自慢や、尊敬られべきな他人の過失を指摘することや、他人に長い間に敵意を保つことはこういう感情の激しい人の特徴だ。

 

Ragaddosapamatto, imdiyavasao karei kammaim.

Asavadarehim avi-guhehim tivihena karanenam. (601)  

A person, having lost his self-awareness due to attachment and aversion, remains enslaved by the senses. His

doors of karmic influx being open, he commits Karmas continuously through three fold means, i. e., mind, body and

speech. (601)  

如果一个人由于爱恋以及厌恶而丢失了自我意识,那么他就仍然受到感官的束缚。他的因果

报应仍然不断的积累,他仍然受到业报的控制。

 

情熱及び反感によって自己意識を失うなら、依然として感官に束縛される。因果応報は絶えず累積して、因果応報に制御される。

 

Asavadarehim saya, himsaiehim kammamasavai. Jaha

Navai vinaso, chiddehi jalam uyahimajjhe. (602)  

There is a continuous inflow of the Karmas through the doors of influx, i. e., violence etc.,

just as a boat with holes sinks in the sea due to the inflow of water, so does the soul. (602)  

如果一个人仍然拥有暴力的话,那么他的业报就会不断地增加。就像破损的船会因为漏水而

在海洋中沉没,灵霊魂也是一样。  

もし因果応報の門の前に、絶えず流体(たとえば、暴力)が流れると、因果応報は増やす。壊れた船は水が入れるから沈む。霊魂もそうだ。

 

Manasa vaya kayena, ka vi juttassa viriyaparinamo.

Jivassa-ppaniogo, jogo tti jinehim niddittho. (603)

(Yogas are also the doors of Karmic influx). The vibrations in the soul through the activities of mind, body and the

speech are known as Yoga. So say the Jinas. (603)  

(瑜伽术也会增加业报的累积)。Jina曾经说过,瑜伽就是心灵的颤抖通过思想、肢体以及言语表现出来。  

ヨーガも因果応報の累積を増やす。ヨーガとは思想、身体及び言語によって心の震えることを表現することだとJinaがいったことがある。

 

Jaha jaha appataro se jogo, taha taha appataro se bamdho.

Niruddhajoigissa va se na hoti, achiddapotassa va ambunathe. (604)  

As soon as the Yogas, i. e., the soul vibrations lessen, the bondage or the Karmic influx also lessens. The moment

the Yogas are stopped, the Karmic-influx does not take place; just as the water does not enter the boat which has

no holes. (604)  

随着瑜伽的减弱,业报的累积也会减弱;一旦停止了瑜伽,业报的累积也就停止了。就像当

小船上的孔洞被堵住后,水也就不会再渗进去。  

ヨーガの弱くなることにつれて、応報の累積も弱くなる。一旦ヨーガをとめると、因果応報の累積はとめる。それは船の穴を埋めたあと、水は再び入れないことと同じだ。

 

Micchattaviradi vi ya, kasaya joga ya asava homti.

Samjama-viraya-damsana-jogabhavo ya samvarao. (605)  

Wrong faith, non-refrainment, passion and Yoga are the causes of Karmic influx. Self-restraint, de-tachment, right-

faith and the absence of Yoga are the causes of cessation. (605)  

错误的信仰,缺乏信仰,强烈的感情以及瑜伽都会造成业报的积累。自律、超脱、正确的信

仰以及不练习瑜伽术能够停止业报的积累。

 

間違った信仰、信仰の欠乏、激しい感情及びヨーガは全部因果応報の累積を齎す。自律、超脱、正確な信仰及びヨーガの停止は因果応報の累積をやめることができる。

 

Rumdhiyachiddasahasse, jalajane jaha jalam tu nasavadi.

Micchattaiabhave, taha jive samvaro hoi. (606)  

Just as there is no inflow of water in the boat after the thousands of its holes have been plugged, similarly, the

wrong faiths being removed, there is the cessation of Karmic influx in the soul (Jiva). (606)  

当船上的成千上万个漏洞被堵住后,那么它就不再漏水了;一旦错误的信仰被改正,就不会

再有业报的累积。  

船の数えない穴を埋めてから、水は入れない。間違った信仰を正せば、因果応報の累積はない。

 

Savvabhuyappabhuyassa, sammam bhuyaim pasao.

Pihiyasavassa damtassa, pavam kammam na bamdhai. (607)  

He who feels all beings to be like himself and who has stopped all the doors of the Karmic influx, such a self-

restrained person does not suffer the bondage of sinful deeds. (607)  

如果一个人对待万物生灵的态度就像对待自己一样,那么他就能够终止所有业报的累积,一

个能够这样自律的人不会受到罪恶事情的束缚。

 

世界すべての生き物に接する態度は自分に対する態度と同じであれば、すべての業法を終止することができる。こういう自律な人は悪いことに束縛されない。

 

Micchattasavadaram, rumbhai sammattadidhakavadena.

Himsadiduvarani vi, didhavayaphalihahim rumbhati. (608)  

The soul aspiring after liberation blocks the doors of influx of wrong faith by the firm shutters of righteousness and

those of violence etc. by the shutters of staunch vows. (608)  

解脱的灵霊魂渴望通过正直以及坚定的誓言来阻止由错误的信仰而带来的业报的积累。  

解脱した霊魂は正直及び堅い誓言によって、間違った信仰が齎した因果応報の累積をやめたがる。

 

Jaha mahatalayassa, sanniruddhe jalagame.

Ussimcanae tavanae, kamena sosana bhave.

Evam tu samjayassavi, pavakammanirasave.

Bhavakodisamciyam kammam, tavasa nijjarijjai. (609 & 610)  

Just as the water of a huge pond gradually dries by blocking the way of the inlet of water, drawing out its previous

water and by sunheat, in the same way, the Karmas of the self-restrained, accumulated during crores of births, get

destroyed by blocking the entrance of sinful deeds and by austerities. (609 & 610)  

如果阻断了一个大池塘的进水口,抽净里面的水,日光照射,那么它就会渐渐干涸;同样如

果断绝了罪恶的事情并进行苦修,就能够结束以往的业报。  

大きな池の水の入れることを遮断して、水を吸い上げて、よく太陽に照らすなら、その池は干上がる。それと同様に、悪いことをやめて、苦しい修行を行うなら、今までの因果応報を終えることができる。

 

Tavasa ceva na mokkho, samvarahinassa hoi jinavayane.

Na hu sotte pavisamte, kisinam parisussadi talayam. (611)  

It has been asserted by the Jinas that one who has not controlled the influx of the Karmas, does not achieve

liberation by practising austerities only; just as the water of a pond does not dry completely, if the sources of the

inlet of water are kept open. (611)  

Jina宣称,如果一个人只是苦修而不阻断业报的积累,那么他就不能够实现解脱;就像如果

不把进水口堵住的话,池塘中的水永远也不会干涸。  

苦しい修行しかしないくて、因果応報の累積を遮断しないなら、解脱できない。水の入れることを遮断しなけなければ、池の水はどうしても干上がらない。

 

Ja annani kammam, khavei bahuahim basakadihim.

Tam nani tihim gutto, khavei usasamittenam. (612)  

The annihilation of the amount of Karmas, which an ignorant person does during the crores of years by practising

austerities, is done by the wise person, practising the three Gupties, in a single breath. (612)  

如果一个无知的人通过几千年的苦修消除的业报,而一个智慧的人通过对自己自律只需要一生就能够完成。  

無知な人が何千年の苦しい修行に通じて消した因果応報は、賢者は自律で、一生の間に完成できる。

 

Senavaimmi nihae, jaha sena panassai.

Evam kammani nassamti, mohanijje khayam gae. (613)

Just as the army is destroyed after the Commander is dead, in the same way, all the Karmas are automatically

destroyed after the annihilation of the MOhaniya Karma (infatuating Karma). (613)  

当指挥官死亡后,军队就已经瓦解了;同样,当摧毁了MOhaniya业报,所有的业报就自然而然的被消除了。  

指揮官が死んだ後、軍隊はなくなる。それと同様に、Mohaniyaの因果応報を消滅すれば、すべての因果応報が消える。

 

Kammamalavippamukko, uddham logassa amtamadhigamta.

So savvananadarisi, lahadi suhamanimdiyamanamtam. (614)  

The soul, liberated from the Karmic pollution, assends the top of the universe and there enjoys transcendental

infinite bliss, possessing all knowledge and all perception (i. e., being omniscient). (614)  

一个从业报中解脱的灵霊魂能够逐渐上升到宇宙的顶端,并在那里享受无尽的福祉,拥有无尽

的知识和感知。  

因果応報から解脱した霊魂はだんだん宇宙の最高のところに上昇できて、多くの福祉を今享受できて、多くの知識と感知を持つ。

 

Cakkikurufanisuremdesu, ahamimde jam suham tikalabhavam.

Tatto anamtagunidam, siddhanam khanasuhem hodi. (615)  

The bliss attained by the Siddhas in a moment is imfinite times more than the pleasure enjoyed by the emperors,

by the Jivas residing in the regions of the Karmas, and by the Fanindras, Surendras and Ahamindrasin all the ages. (615)  

Siddhas在一瞬间所得到的福祉无限倍于君王,受到业报束缚的JivasFanindras, Surendras 以及Ahamindrasin所能享受到的欢愉。  

Siddhasは瞬間に得た福祉は皇帝や因果応報に束縛したJivasFanindras, Surendras 及びAhamindrasinが享受できることの何倍だ。

 

Savve sara niyattamti, takka jattha na vijjai.

Mai tattha na gahiya, oe appaitthanassa kheyanne. (616)  

It is not possible to describe the state of liberation in words as they transcend any such verbal expression. Nor is

there the possibility of argument as no mental business is possible. The state of liberation transcends all the

determinations and alternatives. Side by side with it, there is no pride due to being devoid of all the blemishes of the

mind. There is no melancholy even if there is knowledge of upto the seventh hell, due to it transcending the

pleasure and pain. (616)

由于解脱已经超越了所有语言表达,因此很难用语言来描述解脱的状态。解脱的状态超越了

所有的状态。尽管思想上已经没有了污点,但是人们不会变得傲慢。尽管人们已经拥有了达

到第七重地狱的知识,但是他们没有忧郁,因为这已经超越了欢乐与痛苦。  

解脱ということはすべての言語を超えて、言語で解脱の状態を述べられない。解脱の状態はすべての状態を超えた。思想上は汚点がなくても、自慢になれない。第七重の地獄の知識をもっても、憂鬱しない。それは歓楽と苦痛を超えたからのだ。

 

Na vi dukkham na vi sukkham, na vi pida neva vijjade baha. Na

vi maranam na vi jananam, tattheva ya hoi nivvanam. (617)  

Where there is neither pain nor pleasure, neither suffering nor obstacle, neither birth nor death, there is

emancipation. (617)  

解脱就是没有痛苦和欢乐,没有苦难与阻碍,没有生与死。  

解脱とは歓楽と苦痛がなくて、苦難と阻害がなくて、生と死がない。

 

Na vi imdiya uvasagga, na vi moho vimhayo na nidda ya.

Na ya tinha neva chuha, tattheva ya hoi nivvanam. (618)  

Where there are neither sense organs, nor surprise, nor sleep, nor thirst, nor hunger, there is emancipation. (618)  

解脱就是没有感官、没有惊奇、没有睡眠、没有口渴、没有饥饿。  

解脱とは感官、驚き、睡眠、渇きと飢餓がない。

 

Na vi kammam nokammam, na vi cimta neva attaruddani. Na

vi dhammasukkajhane, tattheva ya hoi nivvanam. (619)  

Where there is neither Karma, nor quasi-Karma nor the worry, nor any type of thinking

which is technically called Artta, Raudra, Dharma and Sukla, there is Nirvana. (619)  

涅磐就是没有因果报应、不需要为因果报应而担忧、没有任何形式的思考。  

涅槃とは因果応報がなくて、因果応報のために心配することがなくて、いかなる類型の思考がないことだ。

 

Vijjadi kevalananam, kevalasokkham ca kevalam virayam.

Kevaladitthi amuttam, atthittam sappadesattam. (620)  

IN the emancipated souls, there are attributes like absolute knowledge, absolute bliss,

absolute potentiality, absolute vision, formlessness, existence and extension. (620)  

在一个解脱的灵霊魂中具有绝对的知识,绝对的福祉,绝对的潜力,绝对的先知、无形、存在以及拓展。  

解脱した霊魂は絶対な知識、絶対な福祉、絶対な底力をもつ絶対な先知で、形のない存在と拡張だ。

 

Nivvanam ti avahamti, siddhi logaggameva ya. Khemam

sivam anabaham, jam caramti mahesino. (621)  

Emancipation which is realized only by the great is the state of unobstructedness, perfection, residing at the top of

universe, well-being, goodness and freedom from the obstacles. (621)  

解脱只能是伟大的人才能够达到,这种状态是畅通无阻、完美、生存在宇宙的顶端、安宁、仁慈以及脱离了所有的障碍。  

解脱は偉大な人しか達することができる。その状態は滞りなく通じて、完璧で、宇宙の最高のところに安寧で仁慈に住んで、すべての障害物から抜け出したことだ。

 

Laua erandaphale, aggidhume usu dhanuvimukke. Gai

puvvapaogenam, evam siddhana vi gati tu. (622)  

Just as there is an upward motion in gourd if freed inside the water, in caster-seed (when it is dried), in fire or

smoke and in the arrow shot from the bow, in the sameway there is a natural upward motion of the emancipated souls. (622)  

如果把一个葫芦放在水里面,它就会自然而然的向上浮,火或者烟会自然而然的向上升,射

出的箭会自然而然的向前飞出;同样,一个解脱的灵霊魂会自然而然的向上升华。  

軽いものを水に押す力がなければ、軽いものは自然に浮かぶ。矢は自然に前に飛び出す。それらと同様に、解脱した霊魂は自然に上がる。

 

Avvabahamanimdiya-manovamam punnapavanimmukkam.

Punaragamanavirahiyam, niccam acalam analambam. (623)  

The state of emancipation is free from all obstacles and sense-organs, unique, devoid of

merit and demerit, devoid of rebirth, eternal, immobile and independent. (623)  

解脱不会受到任何事物以及感官的阻拦,它是独特的,它与美德与优点无关,与重生、永恒、

静止以及独立无关。  

解脱はいかなる物事および感官に遮断されない。独特で、メリットとデメリットと関係がなくて、復活、永遠、静止および独立と関係ない。