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SamanSuttam

33. Samlekhanasutra

PRECEPTS ON PASSIONLESS DEATHS 关于平静的死亡  

平静な死亡に関する教訓

 

Sariramahu nava tti, jivo vuccai navio.

Samsaro annavo vutto, jam taramti mahesino. (567)  

The body is called a boat, the soul is a boatman, the worldly existence is an ocean which the great sages cross over. (567)  

如果把身体比做小船,那么灵霊魂就是船夫,世间的万物就是圣人要穿过的海洋。  

体を船のたとえとすれば、霊魂とは船頭さんで、世間の万物とはJinaが抜け出る海洋だ。

 

Bahiya uddhamadaya, navakamkhe kayai vi.

Puvvakammakkhayatthae, imam deham samuddhare. (568)  

He who has an eye on his upward journey (liberation) shoul not think of the external objects (i. e., worldly pleasures): he

should protect his body for annihilating the past Karmas. (568)  

如果一个人关注着解脱之路,那他就不应当关心外界的事物。他应当保护他的身体来破除过去的因果报应。  

解脱の道に注意を払うなら、外界の物事に関心を持たないべきだ。

 

Dhirena vi mariyavvam, kaurisena vi avassamariyavvam.

Tamha avassamarane, varam khu dhirattane marium. (569)  

The man possessed of a calm disposition must die, the man possessed of a cowardly disposition too must die; so when

death is inevitable in any case, it is better to die possessed of a calm disposition. (569)  

心怀镇静的人会死去,心怀胆怯的人也会死去,既然死亡是无法避免的,因此最好还是心怀镇静的死去。  

冷静な人はいつか死ぬ。卑怯な人もいつか死ぬ。死亡はどうしても避けられない時に、冷静に死んだほうがよい。

 

Ikkam pamdiyamaranam, chimadai jaisayani bahuyani.

Tam maranam mariyavvam, jena mao summao hoi. (570)  

One death-of-the-wise-man puts an end to hundreds of births; hence one ought to die such a death as earns one the title

well-died. (570)  

一个智慧的人的死亡结束了上百人的生,因此人们应当以这样的方式死去以赢得善终的美名。  

知恵のある人の死亡は多くの人の出生を終える。そのため、人は大往生を遂げると言われるように、こういう方式で死ぬげきだ。

 

Ikkam pamdiyamaranam, padivajjai supuriso asambhamto.  

Khippam so marananam, kahie amtam anamtanam. (571)  

A wise person who is free from anxiety dies a peaceful death once; by such death, he immediately puts an end to an

infinite number of deaths. (571)  

一个脱离了焦虑的智慧的人如果安详的死去,能够终止无数人的死亡。  

不安から抜け出た賢者は穏やかに死ねば、無数の死亡を終えることができる。

 

Care payaim parisamkamano, jam kimci pasam iha mannamano.

Labhamtare jiviya vuhaitta, pacca parinnaya malavadhamsi. (572)  

One ought to undertake every activity with the fear of bondage (i.e., possibilities of bondage) one ought to prolonge ones

life in the hope of acquiring ever new gains in the future and at the end, one ought to destroy ones defilements with

prudence. (572)  

人们在做任何事情时应当怀着对束缚的恐惧;人们应当延长他的生命以期在将来获得更新的

收获,人们应当审慎地去除自己的污点。  

いかなることをするとき、束縛に対する恐怖を持つべきだ、より新しい進歩と収益を得るために、生命を延ばすべきだ、慎重をもって自分の不潔な点を取り壊すべきだ。

 

Tassa na kappadi bhatta-painnam anuvatthide bhaye purado.

So maranam patthito, hodi hu samannanivvinno. (573)  

He who has no fear of any kind before him, should not take the vow of desisting from food and water; if he seeks death, he

should be treated as disgusted taken even from his monkhood, i.e., fast-unto-death. (573)  

如果一个人对任何事物都没有恐惧,他就不应当起誓禁用食物和水;如果他寻求死亡,人们也不应当厌恶他。  

いかなる物事に対する恐怖はなければ、食べ物と水をやめるという誓いをたてるべきではない。死亡を求めるなら、僧侶の身分から考えても、反感を招くように扱われるべきだ。

 

Samlehana ya duviha, abbhimtariya ya bahira ceva.

Abbhimtariya kasae, bahiriya hoi ya sarire. (574)  

A Sallekhana-i. e., fast-unto-death is of two kinds; interanl and external, internal sallekhana consists in emaciating the

passions while the external one consists in emaciating the body. (574)  

迅速的死亡分为两类:内心的和外在的;内心的就是抑制自己的感情,外在的就是控制自己 的身体。  

迅速な死亡は二種類に分けられる:内心的死亡と外在的死亡。内心的死亡とは自分の感情を抑制することで、外在的死亡とは自分の身体がやせ衰えることだ。

 

Kasae payanuem kicca, appahare titikkhae.

Aha bhikkhu gilaejja, aharasseva amtiyam. (575)  

A monk (adopting the vow of sallekhana) should first subdue his passions and (then) reduce the intake of his food

gradually; but when the body becomes extremely weak, he should stop taking any food. (575)  

僧侣应当首先自己的感情并逐渐减少进食;但是当他的身体变得极端虚弱的时候,他就应当开始进食了。  

僧侶は自分の情熱を制御して、食事の量をだんだん減少すべきだ。体が極めて虚弱になる時、食べることをやめるべきだ。

 

Na vi karanam tanamao samtharo, na vi ya phasuya bhumi.

Appa khalu samtharo, hoi visuddho mano jassa. (576)  

A person whose mind is pure, needs neither a bed of straw nor a faultless ground; his soul itself becomes his bed. (576)  

如果一个人的灵霊魂是纯洁的,那么他既不需要稻草床也不需要一块平地;他的灵霊魂本身就可以作为他的床。  

霊魂が純潔であったら、草の寝所や平地を要らない。霊魂自身がその人の寝所になる。

 

Na vi tam sattham ca visam ca duppautu vva kunai veyalo.

Jamtam va duppauttam, sappu vva pamaino kuddho.  

kammasamattho bhavissadi hi.Iya samannam sadhuvi, kunadi niccamavi

jogapariyammam.To jidakarano marane, jjhanasamattho bhavissati. (583 & 584)  

One who is born in a royal family and performs his (military) exercises regularly will become completent to win all wars:

similarly a monk who regularly engages himself in meditation and practise of the vows of monastic life, conquers his

mind, and will become competent to practice meditation at his death. (583 & 584)  

一个在贵族家庭中出生的人,如果经常锻炼他的身体就能够在所有的战争中取胜;同样如果

一个僧侣经常进行冥思、遵守誓言、征服了自己的思想,那么在他死的时候也能够进行冥思。  

貴族家庭の中に生まれた人はよく体を鍛えればすべての戦争の中に勝つことができる。それと同様に、僧侶が瞑想をよくし、誓言に従い、自分の思想を征服すれば、死亡の時刻に瞑想を行われる。 

 

Mokkhapahe appanam, thavevi tam ceva jhahi tam ceva.

Tattheve vihara niccam, ma viharasu annadavvesu. (585)  

Fix (your) soul on the path of liberation and meditate on the soul only; always be

engrossed in it and not in any other substance. (585)  

将灵霊魂牢牢地固定在解脱之路上并只对灵霊魂进行冥思,全神贯注,心无旁骛。  

霊魂を堅く解脱の道に固定して、霊魂だけに対して瞑想する。一心不乱になって、他のものに注意力を集中しない。

 

Ihaparalogasamsa-ppaoga, taha jiyamaranabhogesu.

Vajjijja bhavijja ya, asuham samsaraparinamam. (586)  

One should give up desire for pleasures in this world as also in the next; should give up liking either for life or for death or

for enjoyments, should engage thought in the evil consequences available in the world of transmigration. (586)  

人们应当放弃今生与来生对欢愉的渴望,放弃对生活、死亡以及享乐的喜爱,集中精力思考

由于轮回所造成的邪恶的后果。

 

人は今生と来世が歓楽への渇望や、生活、死亡および享楽への好みを放棄すべきで、輪廻がもたらす悪の報いに注意力を集中すべきだ。

 

Paradavvado duggai, saddavvado hu suggai hoi. Iya

nau sadavve, kunaha rai virai iyarammi. (587)  

One gets birth in a miserable state by being devoted to other substances, i.e., worldly things and birth in a good state by

being devoted to contemplation of ones own soul; knowing this one should be absorbed in meditation of ones soul and

desist from thinking of other substances. (587)  

如果一个人关注外物的话,那么他就会生于一种痛苦的状态;如果一个人关注于对自己的灵

霊魂进行沉思的话,那么他就会生于一种良好的状态;因此人们应当全神贯注于对自己灵霊魂的

沉思并摒弃对其他事物的思考。  

外のものに注意を払うと、苦しい状態に生まれる。自分の霊魂に対して瞑想すれば、よい状態に生まれる。そのため、人は自分の霊魂に対する沈思に注意を払って、他の物事に対する思考を捨てるべきだ。