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SamanSuttam

30. Anupreksasutra

PRECEPTS ON REFLECTION 关于反省

反省に関する教訓

 

Jhanovarame�vi muni, niccamaniccaibhavanaparamo.

Hoi subhaviyacitto, dhammajjhanena jo puvvim. (505)  

Even when ordinary meditation is over then before undertaking the meditation called �dharma-dhyana�, a monk

ought to constantly make his mind permeated with deep reflection pertaining to things transient etc. (505)  

dharma-dhyana之前,即使进行了冥思,僧侣也应当不断深入考虑那些短暂的事物  

dharma-dhyanaの前に、瞑想をしても、僧侶は存在が短い物事を深く考慮し続けるべきだ。

 

Addhuvamasaranamegattamannattasamasaraloyamasuittam.

Asavasamvaranijjara, dhammam bodhim ca cimtijja. (506)  

(A monk) should reflect upon transitoriness, helplessness, loneliness, distinctness (of body and soul), mundane

existence, the terrestrial world, impurity, influx of Karmas, stoppage of Karmic influx, release from Karmas,

religion and enlightenment. (506)  

僧侣应当对短暂、无助、孤独、身体与灵霊魂的差别、世俗的存在、陆地上的世界、不纯洁、

因果报应之源、结束因果报应、从因果报应中解脱、宗教以及启迪进行反省。  

僧侶は一時的なもの、無力、孤独、身体と霊魂の区別、世俗の存在、陸地の世界、不純潔、因果応報の源、因果応報の停止、因果応報からの解脱、宗教及び啓発に対して反省すべきだ。

 

Jammam maranena samam, sampajjai jovvanam jarasahiyam.

Lacchi vinasa-sahiya, iya savvam bhamgura munaha. (507)  

Know that birth is accompanied by death; youth is succeeded by odl age, wealth is

perishable. Thus should one reflect that everything is transient. (507)  

人们应该知道生与死相伴,年轻的后面就是衰老,财富是容易逝去的,因此人们应当反思,

任何事情都是短暂的。  

人は死と相手をすることを知るべきだ。青年の後は老衰だ、財産は去りやすい。そのため、人は万事が短いことだと反省すべきだ。

 

Caiuna mahamoham, visae muniuna bhamgure savve.

Nivvisayam kunaha manam, jena suham uttamam lahaha. (508)  

After discarding the great illusion, and reflecting that all objects of senses are transient, cultivate a detached mind

so that you may attain supreme bliss. (508)  

在抛弃了错觉,反思了所有事情都是短暂的之后,人们就能够发现灵霊魂与外界是分离的,这

样人们就能得到至上的福祉。

 

錯覚を投げ捨てて、万事が短いと反省してから、人々は霊魂と外界が分離することが分かる。そうすれば、人々は至上な福祉を得ることができる。

 

Vittam pasavo ya naio, tam bale saranam ti mannai.

Ee mama tesim va aham, no tanam saranam na vijjai. (509)  

A fool thinks wealth, animals and kinsmen to be his protectors, saying to himself they are mine, I am theirs.

Infact, they are neither his protectors nor his shelter. (509)  

愚蠢的人认为财富、动物或者权贵都能够保护他,并对自己说他们是我的,我也是他们的;

世界上,他们既不是他的保护神也不能为他提供庇佑。  

愚かな人は財産、動物或いは権力者が自分を守れると考えて、それらが自分のもので、自分がそれらのものだと独り言を言う。実は、それらは彼の保護者ではくて、加護を提供できない。

 

Samgam parijanami, sallam pi ya uddharami tivihenam.

Guttio samuo, majjham tanam ca saranam ca. (510)  

I know that they are all (the forms of) attachments; I shall remove those defects knows as salya from my mind,

speech and body; the guptis and the samitis are my protectors and shelters. (510)  

我知道他们都属于爱恋,我应当远离这些过失;只有自律和修行才是我的保护神和庇佑。  

それらはすべて愛着だと分かる。私はそれらの過失を遠く離れるべきだ。自律と修行が私の保護者と加護する人だ。

 

Dhi samsaro jahiyam, juvanao paramaruvagavviyao.

Mariuna jayai, kimi tattheva kalevare niyae. (511)  

Fie upon the transmigratory cycle where a youth, highly proud of his own handsomeness,

is born after death as a tiny insect in his own dead body. (511)  

这就是生死的轮回,一个年轻的、以自己美貌为荣的年轻人可能就是前世他尸体上一只小昆

虫转生的。  

それが生死輪廻だ。自分の美貌で自慢する若者は前世死体の上に一つ小さい昆虫が転生したかもしれない。

 

So natthi ihogaso, loe valaggakodimitto�vi.

Jammanamaranabaha, anegaso jattha na ya patta. (512)

There is no place in this world, even as tiny as tip of hair, where a soul has not suffered the pangs of births and

deaths several times. (512)  

在世界上的每一个角落,灵霊魂都要承受多次生与死的痛苦。  

世界上のどこでも、霊魂が何回の生と死の苦痛を受ける。

 

Bahijaramaranamayaro, niramtaruppattiniranikurumbo.  

Parinamadarunaduho, aho duramto bhavasamuddo. (513)  

Oh, this ocean of mundane existence is difficult to cross over; there are many crocodiles in the form of disease,

old-age and death; there is great mass of water in the form of constant births and deaths, the result of all these

are terrible misery. (513)  

哦,世俗的海洋是多么难以穿越啊,疾病、衰老以及死亡就像是海洋中的鳄鱼,生与死就像

是海洋中的水一样,他们的结果就是无尽的痛苦。  

ああ、世俗の海洋はどんなに通り抜けにくいか。病気、老衰及び死亡が海洋の中のワニのようで、生と死が海洋の中の水のようだ。それらの結果は無限の苦痛だ。

 

Rayanattaya-samjutto, jivo vi havei uttamam tittham.

Samsaram tarai jado, rayanattaya-divva-navae. (514)  

A soul endowed with the Three Jewels constitutes an excellent ford. One can cross the ocean of transmigratory

cycle with the aid of the divine boat of Three Jewles. (514)  

在三大要旨的指引下,他就像小船一样协助人们通过这生死轮回的海洋。  

三大要旨の指導は舟のように、人々を生死輪廻の海洋を通り抜ける。

 

Patteyam patteyam niyagam, kammaphalamanuhavamtanam.

Ko kassa jae sayano; ko kassa va parajano bhanio? (515)  

In this world where every one has to suffer the fruits of his own Karmas individually, is there any person whom one

can call his own either related or stranger? (515)  

在这个世界上,每个人都要承受因果报应,有谁能够说他与他的因果报应是有关的还是无关的?  

この世界で、誰でも因果応報を受けるべきだ。自分の因果応報と関係があるかどうかとは誰が言えるか。

 

Ego me sasao app, nanadamsanasamjuo.

Sesa me bahira bhava, savve samjogalakkhana. (516)  

My soul endowed with knowledge and faith is alone permanently mine; all others are alien to me and are in the

nature of external adjuncts. (516)  

我的被赋有知识和信仰的灵霊魂将永远属于我,所有属于我的东西和我的敌人从本质上来说都是身外之物。  

私の知識と信仰を与えられた霊魂は永遠に私のものだ。他のすべてのものは異質で、外部の付属品だ。

 

Samjogamula jivenam, patta dukkhaparampara.

Tamha samjogasambamdham savvabhavena vosire. (517)   

All the series of miseries suffered by a soul are born of these alien associations; therefore, I sever whole-heartedly

contacts from all alien associations. (517)  

所有灵霊魂所承担的痛苦都是源于这些外在的敌对的事物;因此我要一心一意地断绝同这些事物的联系。  

霊魂が受ける苦痛はそれらの外在の異質なものに根源がある。そのため、私は一心にこれらの物事の関係を断絶する。

 

Anusoai annajanam, annabhavamtaragayam tu balajano.

Navi soyai appanam, kilissamanam bhavasamudde. (518)  

A foolish person grieves over the death of another person when he has departed to assume another birth but he

does not think of his own soul which is suffering in this ocean of mundane existence. (518)  

一个愚蠢的人在别人逝去时哀悼,其实这正是他人要去开始一个新生,而他正在这世俗的世界中承受痛苦。  

愚かな人は他人がなくなるとき深く悲しくなる。実は、それが他人が新生を始めることろだ。その霊魂は世俗世界に苦痛を受ける。

 

Jo janiuna deham, jivasaruvadu taccado bhinnam.  

Appanam pi ya sevadi, kajjakaram tassa annattam. (519)  

He who reflects over his own soul, after knowing that, in principle, his body is distinct from

his soul, achieves effective results. (519)  

如果一个人在了解到他的身体同他的灵霊魂截然不同后,再对他的灵霊魂进行反思,这就会起到非常好的效果。  

人が自分の体と霊魂が全く違うと分かってから霊魂に対する反省すれば、非常な効果が現れる。

 

Mamsatthiyasamghae, muttapurisabharie navacchidde.

Asuim parissavamte, suham sarirammi kim atthi? (520)  

What is there auspicious in this body, which is constituted of flesh and bone, filled with urine and excrement, and

foul matter through nine openings? (520)  

在这个由骨肉组成的,填充了大便与小便的身体中,哪些是吉祥的,哪些是污秽的。  

この骨肉からなって、大便と小便がいっぱいある体のなかに、どれが吉祥だか、どれが汚いか?

 

Ede mohaya-bhava, jo parivajjei uvasame lino. Heyam ti

mannamano, asavaanuvehanam tassa. (521)

 Thus absorbed in an experience of calmness the person who renounces the mental state born of delusion

considering that they are worth being renounced, truly undertakes deep reflection related to karmic inflow. (521)

 如果一个人脱离了与生俱来的错觉的人认为他的这种行为是应该的,那么他就真正意义上对

因果报应的积累进行沉思。

 

生まれたつきの錯覚から抜け出した人はその行為が拒否する甲斐があると思えば、それは本当の意味上因果応報の累積に対して沈思したことだ。

 

Manavayanakayaguttim-diyassa samidisu appamttassa.

Asavadaranirohe, navakammarayasavo na have. (522)  

A monk who controls his senses through restraints of his mind, speech and body, and is aware of the observance

of samiti, i.e., the five types of vigilance, prevents influx of karmas and will not attract the dust of new karmas. (522)  

一个僧侣通过限制自己的思想、言语以及身体来控制自己的感官并能够遵守誓言(如五大警

醒、阻止因果报应的叠加)将不会造成新的罪恶的因果报应。

 

Nauna logasaram, nissaram dihagamanasamsaram.

Loyaggasiharavasam, jhahi payattena suhavasam. (523)  

Having understood the nature of worldly existence and the worthlessness of long transmigrations in mundane life,

a monk should exert to meditate residing on the top of the universe (i.e. siddha-sila) where living is blissful. (523)  

如果理解了世界万物的本质以及生命轮回的无意义,僧侣就应当居住在宇宙的顶端进行冥思。  

世界万物の本質及び生命輪廻の無意味を理解した上、僧侶は宇宙の最高の最上位に住んで瞑想すべきだ。

 

Bamdhappadesa-ggalanam nijjaranam idi jine hi panattam.

Jena have samvaranam, tena du nijjarana midi jana. (524)  

It is preached by Jina that the dissociation of Karmic matter (from the self) is called Nirjara. Know that means of

Samvara (stoppage) are also the means of Nirjara. (524)

 Jina说,因果报应的分裂叫做Nirjara,这也是Samvara的含义。  

因果応報の分裂はNirjaraと呼ぶ。それもSamvaraの意味だ。

 

Jaramaranavegenam, vujjhamanana paninam.

Dhammo divo paittha ya, gai saranamuttamam. (525)

For living beings who are floating in the currents of odl age and death, religion is the best island, resting place and

supreme shelter. (525)  

对于那些仍然飘泊在衰老与死亡间的生灵来说,佛教是最好的岛屿、休息的场所和最好的避难所。  

まだ老衰と死亡の間に漂流している生命に対して、仏教はもっともよい島で、休憩する場所と最高な避難するところだ。

 

Manussam viggaham laddhum, sui dhammassa dullaha.

Jam socca padivajjamti, tavam khamtimahimsayam. (526)  

Even after being born in a human body it is the most difficult to listen to the scriptural texts; having listened them

one accepts penance, forgiveness and not-voilence (Ahimsa). (526)  

即使出生为人,能够聆听佛教的典籍也十分困难;一旦聆听了这些典籍,人们就接受了修行、宽恕以及非暴力。  

人として生まれても、仏教の典籍を聞くことも非常に困難だ。それらの典籍を聞くと、人は修行、許し及び非暴力を認める。

 

Ahacca savanam laddhum, saddha paramadullaha.

Socca neauyam maggam, bahave paribhassai. (527)  

Even after listening to the religious text, it is extremely difficult to cultivate faith in it; because there are many

people, who even after learning about the righteous path, deviate from it. (527)  

即使在聆听了佛教经文之后,也很难培养一种正确的信仰,因为有许多人即使知道了解脱之路,也会偏离它。  

仏教の経典を聞いても、正確な信仰を培養しにくい。多くの人が解脱の道を知っても、それを外す。

 

Suim ca laddhum saddham ca, viriyam puna dullaham.

Bahave royamana vi, no enam padivajjae. (528)  

Even after listening to the sacred lore and acquiring firm faith in it, it is again difficult to undertake the endeavour

needed, for certainly there are many people who even having a firm faith in religion, do not practise it. (528)  

即使聆听了这神圣的知识,并从中树立了坚定的信仰,也很难坚持下去,因为有很多人即使

具有了坚定的佛教信仰,也不去遵循它。  

その神聖な知識を聞いて、信仰を堅く樹立しても、堅持しがたい。多くの人が固い仏教信仰をもっても、実行しない。

 

Bhavanajoga-suddhappa, jale nava va ahiya. Nava

va tirasampanna, savvadukkha tiuttai. (529)  

A person who has purified his soul by his thought activity resembles a boat; as boat

crosses an ocean, so also such a person secures freedom from all misery. (529)  

一个人通过思考而净化了他的灵霊魂就像一条小船;就像小船能够穿过海洋一样,他也能够从

所有的痛苦中得到解脱。  

思考によって浄化した霊魂は舟のようだ。舟が海洋を通り抜けるように、その霊魂を頼って人はすべての苦痛から解脱することができる。

 

Barasa anuvekkhao, paccakkhanam taheva padikkamanam.

Aloyanam samahi, tamha bhavejja anuvekkham. (530)  

The twelve Anupreksa (deep reflections), abstinence, repentance, confession and

meditation, one should deeply contemplate on these reflections. (530)  

人们应当坚定的遵循深思、戒酒、悔改、坦白以及冥思。

人は断食、後悔、自白及び瞑想などの十二の戒律を堅く遂行すべきだ。