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SamanSuttam

26. Samiti-Guptisutra

PRECEPTS ON CAREFULNESS (SAMITI) AND SELF-CONTROL (GUPTI)  

关于谨慎与自律  

慎重と自律に関する教訓

 

(A) ASTA-PRAVACANA-MATA

Eight Mother Precepts 八大规则  

八大規則

 

Iriyabhasesanadane, uccare samii iya. Managutti

vayagutti, kayagutti ya atthama. (384)  

Vigilance in walk, speech, begging alms, receiving and keeping down of things and excreting are five Samitis (acts of

carefulnes): control of mind, control of speech and control of body (i.e. actions) are three guptis. All are eight in number. (384)  

谨慎的行走、说话、乞求布施、接受或保存物品以及排泄是五种谨慎的行为;对思想的控制、对言语的控制以及对行为的控

制是三大自律,总计是八种。  

警戒心をもって歩く、発言、施し物を請求する、物をうける或いは保存する及び排泄することは五大慎重な行為で、思想、発言と身体(例えば動作)に対する制御は三大自律で、あわせて八種だ。

 

Edao attha pavayanamadao nanadamsanacarittam.

Rakkhamti sada munino, mada puttam va payadao. (385)  

These eight are called pravacanamata (mother precepts). Just as a diligent mother protects her son, so they protect right

knowledge, right faith and right conduct of the monk. (385)  

这八条称为八大规则。这就像勤勉的母亲保护自己的儿子一样,他们保护僧侣们正确的知识、正确的信仰和正确的行为。  

以上の八種は八大規則(各種の方針の起源)と呼ばれている。それらは勤勉な母親が自分の子を保つように、僧侶に正しい知識、信仰と行為を保つ。

 

Eyao pamca samiio, caranassa ya pavattane. Gutti

niyattane vutta, asubhatthesu savvaso. (386)  

The five types of vigilances are meant for the practice of religious life and the three controls (guptis) for the prevention of

every thing sinful. (386)  

五大谨慎意味着遵守宗教的要求生活,而三大控制意味着防止罪恶的事情。  

五大の慎重な行為は宗教が要求する生活を送ると意味し、三大自律は犯行を防止すると意味する。

 

Jaha guttassiriyai, na homti dosa taheva samiyassa.

Guttitthiya ppamayam, rumbhai samu sacetthassa. (387)  

Just as one who practises the gupti is not touched by defects pertaining to Samiti so also one who practises the samiti;

does not have the defects of gupti. Certainly a gupti puts an act of negligence on the part of one who is undertaking an

activity, to an end. (387)  

就像一个自律的人不会受到受到谨慎行为的影响,反过来也是一样。谨慎的行为能够结束一 个人的疏忽大意。  

自律のある人は慎重な行為の影響を受けない。逆に言っても同様だ。慎重な行為は人の粗忽を終える。

 

Maradu va jiyadu va jivo, ayadacarassa nicchida himsa.

Payadassa natthi bandho, himsamettena samidisu. (388)  

The person who is careless in his activities is certainly guilty of violence irrespective of whether a living being remains

alive or dies; on the other hand, th4e person who is careful in observing tghe samitis experiences no karmic bondage

simply because some killing has not taken place in connection with his activities. (388)  

一个行为上不谨慎的人肯定会不顾及生物的死活而在行为上出现暴力;另一方面,一个谨慎

的遵循samitis的人就不会受到因果报应的限制,因为他的行为不会造成杀生。  

行為に不慎重な人は生き物が生きるかどうかを配慮しなくて、暴力行為を犯す。他方では、慎重な行為を実行する人は殺生を起こさないので、因果応報の制限を受けない。

 

Ahacca himsa samitassa ja tu, sa davvato hoti na bhavato u.

Bhavena himsa tu asamjatassa, je va vi satte na sada vadheti.

Sampatti tasseva jada bhavijja, sa davvahimsa khalu bhavato ya.

Ajjhatthasuddhassa jada na hojja, vadhena jogo duhato vahimsa. (389 & 390)  

A monk who is observing the Samitis i.e. vigilant about his activities may commit himsa (injury) through oversight; in such

a case, there is only external violence (Dravya-Himsa) and not the internal. On the other hand a negligent person is guilty

of the internal violence (Bhava-Himsa) even though no external violence is caused by him by killing being. When an injury

is caused through negligence of a person, whether he is ascetic or not there will be both types of violence external

(physical) as well as internal (mental). A monk firm in his observance of the samitis will not cause nay violence because

of the purity of his soul; there will be neither external violence nor internal violence. (389 & 390)  

一个遵守Samitis的僧侣会因为疏忽而导致伤害,在这种情况下,这只是外部的暴力而不是内心的暴力。在另一方面,一个疏忽的人尽管可能不会造成外部的暴力,其内心却是暴力的。

当一个人由于疏忽而造成对别人的伤害的时候,不论他禁欲与否,他都具有外部的和内心的

伤害。一个遵守Samitis的僧侣由于他内心的纯洁,不会造成任何内部和外部的暴力。  

慎重な行為をする僧侶は粗忽で傷を招くこともある。それは内心の暴力ではなくて、外部の暴力だ。普通の人が粗忽で他人を傷つける時、その人は禁欲するかどうかを問わず、その行為は外部と内心の暴力だ。慎重な行為をする僧侶は内心の純潔さによって、いかなる内部と外部の暴力を起さない。

 

Uccaliyammi pae, Iriyasamiyassa niggamanatthae.

Abadhejja kulimgi, marijja tam jogamasajja.

Na hi tagghadanimitto, bandho suhumo vi desio samae.

Muccha pariggaho tti ya, ajjhappa pamanado bhanido.(391 & 392)  

If a tiny living creature is accidentally crushed under the foot of a monk who is careful in respect of his movement, the

scriptures state that he will not attract even the slightest of karmac bondage (i.e. he is not responsible for that violence).

Just as possessiveness consists in a sese of attachment so the violence consists in the intention of killing. (391 & 392)  

如果僧侣无意中踩死了细小的生物,根据典籍,他不会受到因果报应的束缚,因为他不需要

为这个暴力负责。就像占有欲存在于爱恋中一样,暴力存在于有意的杀戮。  

僧侶が不注意できわめて小さい生物を踏みころすなら、典籍によって、因果応報に束縛されない。この暴力の責任を負う必要がない。それは占有欲の恋愛に存在することと暴力の故意に殺戮することに存在することと同じだ。

 

Pauminipattam va jaha, udayena na lippadi sinehagunajutta.

Taha samidihim na lippai, sadhu kaesu iriyamto. (393)  

Just as a lotus-leaf possessing the property of smoothness in not touched by water; similarly a monk practising samitis

is not touched by karmic bondage in the course of moving around in the midst of living beings. (393)  

就像莲花叶子表面光滑而且不会沾水一样,一个遵守samitis的僧侣在生物中移动时,不会因为杀生受到因果报应的束缚。  

蓮の葉が滑って水につかないことと同じく、慎重な行為をする僧侶は生き物の中に移動するとき、殺生によって因果応報に束縛されない。

 

Jayana u dhammajanani, jayana dhammassa palani ceva.

Tavvuddhikari jayana, egamtasuhavaha jayana. (394)  

Carefulness (Yatana) is the mother of religion; it is also the protector of religion; it helps the growth of religion and it

begets perfect happiness. (394)  

谨慎是宗教的母亲,它同样也是宗教的守护神;它使宗教成长并带来无尽的快乐。  

慎重は宗教の母親で、宗教の保護者だ。宗教を育って、宗教に絶えず歓楽をもたらす。

 

Jayam care jayam citthe, jayamase jayam sae.

Jayam bhumjamto bhasamto, pavam kammam na bandhai. (395)  

A monk who moves cautiously, stands cautiously, sits cautiously, sleeps cautiously, eats cautiously and speaks

cautiously would not be bounded by the evil karmas. (395)  

一个谨慎行走、站立、坐、睡眠、进食以及说话的僧侣不会受到罪恶因果报应的束缚。  

慎重に歩行、直立、座り、睡眠、食事及び発言する僧侶は罪悪の因果応報に束縛されない。 

 

(B) SAMITI Acts of Carefulness 谨慎的行为  

慎重な行為

 

Phasuyamaggena diva, jugamtarappehina sakajjena.

Jamtuna pariharamteniriyasamidi have gamanam. (396)  

Iryasamiti consists in walking along a trodden path during day-time when required to move out for any work, looking

ahead to a distance of four cubits and avoiding the killing of tiny living creatures. (396)  

Iryasamiti就是指当白天需要出去工作,走在路上时要注视着前面四腕尺以免杀害微小的生物。  

行動要領とは、昼間に仕事をする必要がある場合には、微小な生物を殺さないように、4キュービットの前をよく注視する。

 

Imdiyatthe vivajjitta, sajjhayam ceva pamcaha.

Tammutti tappurakkare, uvautte iriyam rie. (397)  

Not paying attention to the objects of sensuous enjoyment and not taking up the study of five types, one should walk

cautiously absorbing oneself in the task of walking and giving all out prominence to the task of walking. (397)  

即使不关心能够带来感观欢愉的事物、不学习,人们也应当全神贯注于苦行并首先要开始苦 行。  

感官の歓楽をもたらす物事を関心しなくて、五つの方式で勉強しなくても、人々は苦行に注意力を集中して、苦行を重視すべきだ。

 

Note:-The five-fold methods of study are: Reading of sacred texts (vacana), questioning the teacher (prcchana), revision

by re-reading (paravartana), pondering over what has already been studied and learnt (anupreksa) and reading

illustrative strories (dharmakatha).

 

备注:五种学习方式为:阅读典籍,向上师提问,反复阅读,对已经学习过的进行沉思,阅读具有启发意义的故事。  

備考:五つの方式とは:典籍を読むこと、導師に質問すること、繰り返して読むこと、すでに勉強したものに対して沈思することと啓発意義のあるストーリを読むことだ。

 

Tahevuccavaya pana, bhattatthae samagaya.Tam ujjuam na gacchijja, jayameva

parakkame. (398)  

Similarly, one ought not to walk on straight within the midst of such livintg beings of all sorts as have gathered together

(on the wayside) with a view to feeding themselves: this is how one ought to move cautiously. (398)  

同样地,一个人也不应当在微小生物聚集的地方径直穿过,而应当从路边走过,这就是人为 什么要谨慎走路的原因。  

それと同様に、人は微小な生物が集まるところにまっすぐ通り抜けるべきではない。その代わりに、道のそばに通るべきだ。それは人は慎重に歩く原因だ。

 

Na lavejja puttho savajjam, na nirattham na mammayam.

Appanattha parattha va, ubhayassantarena va. (399)  

Even when enquired, a monk ought not to utter a sinful word, a senseless word, a heart-rending word either for the sake

of oneself, or for the sake of another one, or for the sake of both. (399)  

即使被问讯,僧侣也不应当因为自己或者他人而说出罪恶的话、无意义的话、令人伤心的话。  

尋ねられても、僧侶は自分或いは他人のために罪のある話、無意味な話或いは人に悲しませる話を言い出すべきではない。

 

Taheva pharusa bhasa, gurubhuvaghani.

Sacca-vi sa na vattavva, jao pavassa agamo. (400)  

The monk should not use harsh words or speak what is harmful to other living beings; even if it is true, because it is

sinful. (400)  

僧侣不应当对他人说出严厉的或者有害的话,即便它是正确的,因为这样做是罪恶的。  

僧侶はほかの人に正しくても、厳しい或いは害のある話を言い出すべきではない。そうすることは罪があるからだ。

 

Taheva kanam kane tti, pamdagam pamdage tti va.

Vahiyam va vi rogi tti, tenam core tti no vae. (401)  

Similarly, he should not call an one-eyed person as one-eyed, and eunuch as eunuch, a diseased person as diseased

or a thief a thief. (401)  

同样,他也不能够直陈别人的缺陷。  

それと同様に、直接に他人の欠陥を言うべきではない。

 

Pesunnahasakakkasa-paranimdappappasamsa vikahadi.

vajjitta saparahiyam, bhasasamidi have kahanam. (402)  

Carefulness in speech (bhasasamiti) consists in avoiding slanderous, ridiculous and speeches blaming others, self-

praise or incredible stories. Such speeches conduce neither to the good of oneself nor that of others. (402)  

谨慎的言语包括避免诽谤、荒唐和责备的话、自我夸耀或者虚假的故事。这样的言语对自己 和他人都没有好处。  

慎重な発言とは誹謗、でたらめな話と非難する話、自分の誇り或いは嘘を避けることだ。そういう発言は自他共に利益を与えない。

 

Dittham miyam asamdiddham, padipunnam viyamjiyam.

Ayampiramanuvviggam, bhasam nisira attavam. (403)  

A wise monk would speak what he has seen; his speech should be frief, free from ambiguity, clearly expressed, free

from prattle and incapable of causing anxiety. (403)  

一个智慧的僧侣能够说出他所见的,他的话应当简短、意思清楚、表达清晰,不会啰嗦或者 给别人造成焦虑。  

知恵のある僧侶は見たことが言い出せる。その発言は簡潔で、曖昧ではなく、陳述がはっきりして、無駄な話を言わなくて、他人に焦らせないべきだ。

 

Dullaha u muhadai, muhajivi vi dullaha.

Muhadai muhajivi, dovi gacchamti soggaim. (404)  

It is difficult to find faultless alms-givers; it is more difficult to find one who lives on faultless begging; one who gives

faultless alms and the one who lives one faultless begging, both will attain happy state in the next birth. (404)  

很难找到完全布施的人,也不可能找到一个人完全靠布施生存。这二者在来生中都会得到欢 乐。  

完璧な慈善家はすくない。その完璧な施しに頼って生活する人はもっと少ない。この二種類の人は来世で歓楽を得る。

 

Uggama-uppadana-esanehim, pimdam ca uvadhi sajjam va.

Sodhamtassa ya munino, parisujjhai esana samidi. (405)  

The monk, who begs for a meal, an implement or a bedding in a manner not vitiated by the defects pertaining to their

sources, preparation and receiving, practises in a true sense the carefulness (samiti) in respect of begging for

alms.(405)  

一个祈求饭食、器皿以及床位的僧侣而不会受到这些物品的来源、制备等的影响,是真正意 义上对于乞讨的谨慎。  

食事、お皿及び寝わらを希求して、それらの物の出所、準備などの影響を受けない僧侶は本当の意味上、乞食に対する慎重だ。

 

Na balausauattham, na sarirassuvacayattha tejattham.

nanatthasamjamattham, jhanttham ceva bhumjejja. (406)  

A monk should not take food for the sake of (physical) strength, taste, bodily improvement

or lustre; but only for acquisition of knowledge, self-restraint and meditation. (406)  

僧侣不应当为了力量、味道、身体上的改善或者贪食来乞求食物,他们乞求食物只是为了知 识、自律以及冥思  

僧侶は体力、味覚、肉体的な改善或いは光沢のために乞食すべきではない。乞食は知識、自律及び沈思のためだけだ。

 

Jaha dumassa pupphesu, bhamaro aviyai rasam.Na ya puppham kilamei, so ya pinei

appayam.Emee samana mutta, je loe samti sahuno.Vihamgama va pupphesu,

danabhattesaneraya. (407 & 408)  

Just as a bee sips the sap of a tree flowers without injuring the flowers and pleases itself, similarly in this world the

monks who properly observe the monstic code of conduct and are free from all possessions are engaged in begging for

meal and other things heeded (from householders without being burden on them) as the bees procure nourishment

from flowers. (407 & 408)  

就像蜜蜂吮吸花蜜而不伤害花朵一样,僧侣们就像蜜蜂一样遵循宗教的行为、身无一物却靠

乞讨来生存而不给其他家庭造成负担。  

蜂が花を傷つけなくて蜜を吸うことと同じく、僧侶は蜂のように宗教行為を遂行して、一つのものをもたなくて、乞食によって生存してい、他の家庭に負担をかけない。

 

Ahakamma-parinao, phasuyabhoi vi bamdhao hoi.

Suddham gavesamano, ahakamme vi so suddho. (409)  

A monk who entertains in his mind the idea of having a violently prepared meal; binds down karmas even if he is actually

having a non-violently prepared meal. On the other hand, a monk who always looks for a pure (non-violently prepared)

meal is pure (blameless) even if perchance he gets a violently prepared meal. (409)  

如果一个僧侣在其大脑中希望获得一份精心准备的饭菜,那么他就会受到因果报应的束缚,即使他没有得到精心准备的饭

菜;反过来,如果一个人没有想到会获得一份精心准备的饭菜 却得到了一份精心准备的饭菜,他是不会受到责备的。  

僧侶が頭脳でよく準備した食事を空想すれば、よく準備した食事を得なくても、因果応報に束縛される。もしよく準備し

た食事を得ることが思わなかったのによく準備した食事を得たなら、責められない。

 

Cakkhusa padilehitta, pamajjejja jayam jai. Aie

nikkhivejja va, duhaovi samie saya. (410)  

If a monk attentively undertakes the required visual inspection and cleaning while receiving or placing down things, he

always practises the concerned two-fold samiti (i.e., samiti in respect of receiving and placing things). (410)  

如果一个僧侣在接受或者出售物品时,刻意的去追寻一种视觉上的感受,那么他就在遵循接

受与出售物品方面两重的samiti  

僧侶が物を受ける或いは売る時に、わざに視覚上な感受を追い求めるなら、受ける或いは売る両方の慎重な行為を遂行すべきだ。

 

Egamte accitte dure, gudhe visalamavirohe.

Uccaradiccao, padithavaniya have samidi. (411)  

A monk should answer his calls of nature at a place which is solitary, free from insects and grass, concealed, spacious,

free from objection, this is observance of Utsarga Samiti. (411)

 

当僧侣在一个孤独的、没有昆虫和青草、隐蔽的、空旷的地方居住时,应当满足他自身的需

求,这是遵照Utsarga Samiti  

一人で昆虫と草のない、隠蔽して人々としたところに住む時、自分の需要を満ちるべきだ。それはUtsarga Samiti慎重な行為によるものだ。

 

(I) GUPTI

Self-Control 自律  

自律

 

Samrambhasamaramhe, arambhe ya taheva ya.

Manam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (412)  

An attentive monk should prevent his mind from indulging in evil thoughts (samrambha), collection of impliments which

cause harm to others (samarambha) and evil actions (arambha). (412)  

僧侣应当避免他的思想陷入邪恶的想法、会对别人造成伤害的自我膨胀以及罪恶的行为。  

僧侶は邪悪な考え、他人に傷つける用具の収集及び罪のある行為を避けるべきだ。

 

Samrambhasamarambhe, arambhe ya taheva ya.

Vayam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (413)  

An attentive monk should control his speech as soon as it is inclined towards the thought of evil expression efforts for evil

expression and evil expression. (413)  

一旦他的思想想要表达邪恶的主意时,僧侣应当控制他的语言。  

一旦自分の思想が邪悪な考えを表したがる時、僧侶は自分の発言を制御すべきだ。

 

Samrambhasamarambhe, arambhammi taheva ya.

Kayam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (414)  

An attentive monk should bring under control his body as soon as it is inclined towards a mental plan for causing misery,

collection of impliments to others to cause misery to others and action causing misery to others. (414)  

当他想要产生会给别人带来痛苦的行为时,僧侣应当控制他的身体。  

他人に苦痛をもたらす行為をしたがる時、僧侶は自分の体を制御すべきだ。

 

Khettassa vai nayarassa, khaiya ahava hoi payaro.

Taha pavassa niroho, tao guttio sahussa. (415)  

As a fence protects a field, a ditch or a rempart protects a city, so the guptis (i.e., control of

mind, speech and body) protect a monk from sins. (415)  

就像篱笆保护土地,壕沟和护城河保护城市一样,自律保护僧侣远离罪恶。  

ませが土地を守り、塹壕と堀が都市を守ることと同じく、自律は罪悪から僧侶を守る。

 

Eya pavayanamaya, je sammam ayare muni.

Se khippam savvasamsara, vippamuccai pandie. (416)  

A monk who practises these eight mother-precepts by his righteous conduct is a wise

person who will be liberated quickly from all bondages of mundane existence. (416)   

一个通过其正确地行为来遵守这八条准则的僧侣是一个智慧的人,他会从世俗中迅速的解脱。  

正確な行為を遂行することによって、この八の規範を従い守る僧侶は知恵があり、世俗から早く解脱できる。