Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德
与贡献 
     
   前言 
  绪论 
  五大神灵之圣歌
  引言 
  至上的宽恕
   至上的谦卑 
   至上的诚实 
  至上的纯洁 
  至上的善言 
   至上的自律
  至上的苦行 
  至上的舍弃 
  至上的情禁 
  至上的禁欲 
  结束语

TEN UNIVERSAL VIRTUES  十大美德 

3 SUPREME UPRIGHTNESS OR HONESTY

3 至上的正直或诚实

(Uttama Arjava Dharma)

 

A renowned English poet writes about uprightness:

A man of life upright

Whose guiltless heart is free

From all dishonest deeds,

Or thoughts of vanity.

The Hindi word 'Arjava' is a compound word framed by the addition of the suffix 'anr' with the root 'riju' i.e., riju + anr. The word Arjava means uprightness, straight­forwardness, simplicity, frank speaking, honesty, non-hypocrisy, large-heartedness and freedom from deceit.

In 'Baras Anupekha' Acharya Shri Kundkund Swamy has defined the virtue of supreme uprightness or straight-forwardness (Uttama Arjava Dharma) as below:

Motunr kudilabhavam, nrimlhidiyenr charrdi jo samnro

ajvdhmam tyio, tas du sambhvdi nriymenr

一位有名的英国诗人曾经这样描述正直

一个一生都正直的人,

他将不需要为那些不诚实的行为或者是虚荣的想法来承担过失。

 

在印度语中,'Arjava'是一个复合词,它是由词根'riju'与后缀'anr'结合而成。'Arjava'的意思就是正直、直率、诚实、不虚伪、慷慨、不说谎。

'Baras Anupekha' Acharya一书中,Kundkund Swamy定义至上的正直和直率如下:

Motunr kudilabhavam, nrimlhidiyenr charrdi jo samnro

ajvdhmam tyio, tas du sambhvdi nriymenr

 

A Jain saint (Shraman Muni) acts in life with an unblemished heart discarding crooked feelings, and follows a definite moral code of conduct; as a rule he practices uprightness (Arjava Dharma) i.e., the third virtue out of the ten supreme virtues. 'Rijorbhav aarjvam'. Simplicity in ideas is known as straight-forwardness (Arjava). Its opposite is hypocrisy or crookedness. To give up hypocrisy is the supreme virtue of uprightness (Uttama Arjava Dharma). Hypocrisy is a hindrance in life journey. So long this obstacle lurks in a devotee, he cannot fully perform his devotion. If a devotee wants to carry on his life journey in a well planned, simple and unhindered manner, it is essential for him to give up hypocrisy or crookedness. Acharya Gun Bhadra has stated the same thing in ‘Atmanushashnam’;

Bhayam mayamhagrtanmithyaghanatmomyat

Yansmalina na lakshyante krodhadivishmahiya

一位耆那教圣人(Shraman Muni)在一生中内心善良,没有任何欺骗的想法,奉行一种道德的行为,并以此作为他遵行正直(Arjava Dharma)的准则。思想的直白就是坦率(Arjava),与其相对的就是虚伪和欺瞒。放弃虚伪和欺瞒就是至上的正直(Uttama Arjava Dharma)。虚伪是人生道路上的一大障碍。只要这一障碍还潜伏在修行者的心中,他就始终无法全心全意地来修行。只有修行者在放弃了虚伪和欺瞒的行为后,他才能够正常地进行修行。在Atmanushashnam’中,Acharya Gun Bhadra也叙述了相同的事情:

Bhayam mayamhagrtanmithyaghanatmomyat

Yansmalina na lakshyante krodhadivishmahiya

 

We should dread the pit of hypocrisy, which is covered with the dense gloom of crookedness or deceitfulness and inside which are concealed fierce snakes in the guise of the evil passions of anger, vanity and deceit. Generally, a deceitful person thinks that the harm caused by his deceitful conduct remains either unknown or unseen. He is mistaken to think so. Just as the moon concealed temporarily by clouds comes to light again and thrills the world with delight by dispelling heat with its pure and cool beams. Even if Rahu swallows it deceitfully, it still becomes visible to the people -it can never be fully concealed. The deceitful conduct that a man does may or may not come to limelight then and there, but it is sure to be exposed in the long run. A fine example of it is:

我们应当畏惧虚伪的深渊,它表面上覆盖着浓密的欺瞒与欺骗来作为掩盖,里面隐藏着愤怒、虚伪和欺骗化身而成的毒蛇。通常,一个欺诈的人会误认为,他的欺骗的行为既不会被别人知道也不会被别人看到。就像乌云不会永远遮住月亮一样,真相迟早会暴露出来的。即使Rahu能够假装将月亮吞下,但是人们还是能够看见月亮,它的光芒永远不会被掩盖住。可能一时不会被人们发现,但是这种行为迟早会暴露的。有一个很好的例子来说明这个道理:

 

Due to resembling a crow in shape, size and color, the bird cuckoo leaves her eggs in the nest of a crow. She does not hatch and safeguard her own eggs on account of herself being crooked and deceitful. When the eggs get fully hatched and young ones come out of them, they grow young and are recognized by their voice; soon after they themselves fly away from the crow's nest. Thus, as a result of deceitfulness a crow looks after the young ones of the cuckoo. Very often we see that deceitfulness is found in a great degree among the animals.

由于外形、尺寸以及颜色跟乌鸦比较相近,杜鹃鸟会把它的蛋产在乌鸦的巢里。由于它的这种欺诈的行为,它就不需要再去孵化和保护它的卵。当这些卵被孵化出来后,幼年的小杜鹃就会被乌鸦识别出来,这样它们就只好自己飞离乌鸦的巢穴。因此,由于被欺骗,乌鸦代替杜鹃鸟来看护它们的幼鸟。这就是我们经常能够看到的在动物界发生的欺诈的事情。

 

The person who indulges in excessive deceitfulness is reborn in animal state of being (Trianch Gati). Its proof is available in the sixteenth couplet of the sixth chapter of 'Tatvartha Sutra' written by Acharya Uma Swamy: "maya teryagyonasye" -By practicing hypocrisy one gets birth in animal state of being i.e., 'Trianch Gati'.

In 'Atmanushashan' Acharya Gun Bhadra Swamy has drawn a very fine picture of hypocrisy.

Yasho marichiyam kankamrigmayamlinitam, hatos hvthamoktya pranryilghurasidhmsut

Sakrishnr krishnrobhutkptbtuveshenr nitrampichhdyalpantdvishmmiv hi dugdhsya mahta.

如果一个人经常欺骗的话,他的来生就会被变为动物(Trianch Gati)。这在Acharya Uma Swamy所写的'Tatvartha Sutra'第六章第十六句中可以找到证据:"maya teryagyonasye" –如果一个人欺骗的话,那么他的来生就会变成动物,例如,'Trianch Gati'.

在这本书中,Acharya Uma Swamy描述了一幅欺诈者的栩栩如生的画面。

Yasho marichiyam kankamrigmayamlinitam, hatos hvthamoktya pranryilghurasidhmsut

Sakrishnr krishnrobhutkptbtuveshenr nitrampichhdyalpantdvishmmiv hi dugdhsya mahta.

 

The glory of Mareech was rendered gloomy by his deceitful role of golden deer. Yudhister lost his high honor and fell to low esteem amidst his kith and kin by the utterance of his deceitful words, "Ashwathama hata" -Ashwathama has been killed. In Vamnavtar, Lord Krishna had to assume a dark complexion due to adopting the guise of a deceitful child; and as a result he suffered the black stain of defamation on his clean character. True it is, 'Even a little deceitful conduct proves fatal like milk mixed with poison."

由于他欺诈的行为,Mareech的荣耀变得灰暗。Yudhister失去它最高的荣耀,而被他的妻子和儿女所瞧不起,他们并这样说他,Ashwathama已经被杀死了。由于听信了小孩子欺诈的谎言,Krishna陷入了黑暗的困境。这就说明了,即使是一点欺诈的行为也是致命的,就像牛奶中掺入了毒药一样。

 

Most of the politicians indulge in deceit; for they believe that politics cannot be run without deceitful conduct. But it is a confirmed truth that religion cannot be practiced without giving up deceit. The two things are contradictory. Politics is the thing of the physical world. We can carry on life even without politics. But the boat of life cannot sail across the river from one bank to the other in the absence of religion.

"Yogsyavkrta aarjvam" -S.Si. 9/412/6

Not to be crooked or deceitful in mind, speech and body is straightforwardness (Arjava).

 大多数的政客都耍弄欺诈的诡计,因为他们认为玩弄政治就必须耍诈。但是,如果我们加入宗教的话就不能欺骗。宗教与欺骗是相互矛盾的。政治是社会的产物,如果没有政治,我们也能够生存,但是如果没有宗教的话,我们的生命之舟如何能够穿越这世俗的海洋呢?

"Yogsyavkrta aarjvam" -S.Si. 9/412/6

如果思想中没有欺瞒与欺诈,那么我们的语言和身体就会坦率(Arjava)

 

A string becomes straight on pulling it by catching hold of its two ends. Likewise, the mind becomes straightforward by uprooting deceit from it, i.e., the simplicity of mind is known as straight-forwardness (Arjava). Gentle and virtuous persons are simple hearted; they neither nourish deceitful feelings, nor practice deceitfulness in their daily deeds. It has been said:

Manasekam vachasekam karmnrekam mhatmanam

Mansyanad vachsyant karmnrynyad duratmnam

如果抓住绳子的两端拉扯的话,绳子就会变直。同样,如果根除了欺诈之后,人们就会变得坦率,例如,思想上的淳朴就是坦率(Arjava)。文雅和善良的人们内心淳朴;他们既不会产生欺骗的思想,也不会做一些欺诈的事情。有经文为证:

Manasekam vachasekam karmnrekam mhatmanam

Mansyanad vachsyant karmnrynyad duratmnam

 

The saints are same in speech as they are in mind, and they practice what they preach. But the deceitful persons have one thing in mind and a different thing in speech, and in actual practice they are contrary to it. In 'Sarvartha Siddhi' Acharya Pujya Pad Swamy has termed the same thing as crookedness or hypocrisy (Yog Vakrta). In Kartikeyanuprekskha Acharya Kundkund Swamy tells:

Jo chintayi nr vankam nr kunrdi vankam nr jampade vankam

nrya govadi nriya dosam ajyav dhammo have tas

The monk, who neither cherishes deceitful thoughts nor does deceitful deeds, nor speaks a deceitful thing; nor conceals his faults, possesses the virtue of straight­ forwardness (Arjava).

Hridi yatdhachi bahi phalti tadaivajarvam bhavatayt

Dharma nikritirdharmo dvavih sursadmnarkaptho

圣人们总是言行一致,他们的行为同他们的布道相一致。但是一个欺诈的人言行就不一,并且相互矛盾。在'Sarvartha Siddhi'一书中,Acharya Pujya Pad Swamy把这种行为称为欺骗或虚伪(Yog Vakrta)。在Kartikeyanuprekskha一书中,Acharya Kundkund Swamy说道:

Jo chintayi nr vankam nr kunrdi vankam nr jampade vankam

nrya govadi nriya dosam ajyav dhammo have tas

一个僧侣,如果他没有欺诈的想法,不做欺骗人的事情,不说骗人的事情,不欺瞒自己的过失,那么他就拥有坦率(Arjava)的美德。

Hridi yatdhachi bahi phalti tadaivajarvam bhavatayt

Dharma nikritirdharmo dvavih sursadmnarkaptho

 

Whatever thoughts one sustains in one's heart, the same should find expression in speech and the same put to action in outward life i.e., the body should also conduct accordingly; it is known as uprightness or straight-forwardness. On the contrary to cheat others, is irreligious or sin. Thus, the above two characteristics -uprightness and deceitfulness -are respectively resultant factors for divinity i.e., heavenly abode, and deviled i.e., hellish abode.

一个人心中想什么,他就应当按照他的想法说出来并且做出来,即言行与思想应当一致,这就叫做正直或者坦率。相反地,欺骗他人是不符合宗教信仰的,是罪恶的。因此,上述的两个特点正直和坦率,是神必不可少的两种特性。

 

Despite trying to conceal faults to your utmost power, they are sure to be exposed in the long run. Therefore, no attempt should ever be made to conceal crimes on having committed them; rather one should try to get rid of one's crimes by undergoing repentance or apologizing for them. It has been said:

"Papam kritva na guayt guhmanay vivardhatay"

无论如何费尽心机的掩盖自己的过失,这些过失迟早要暴露的。因此,一个人一旦犯错之后就不应当试图去掩盖它;一个人犯错之后,应当进行忏悔或者对自己的错误道歉,只有这样才能够洗刷这个错误。有经文为证:

"Papam kritva na guayt guhmanay vivardhatay"

 

On committing a sin one should not try to conceal it; a sin concealed does not subside, rather it goes on increasing day by day. In short, a guilty conscience needs no accuser, it is self evident from the face of the criminal. It has been well said:

"The spirit should not die and the time has come when we should prove by our independent work the truth of our convictions."

一个人犯下罪孽之后就不应当试图来掩盖,罪孽永远掩盖不住,如果可以去掩盖罪孽的话,它反而会一天天滋长。总而言之,一个负罪的心不需要谴责,因为它本身就时刻面对着罪恶。有经文为证:

灵魂永远不会死亡,我们独自来揭示我们罪恶的时候到了。

 

If a snake bites some one, poison spreads his body by and by, and a burning sensation develops in the whole body. Likewise, if the snake of hypocrisy bites somebody, the person soon begins to neglect all vows, self-restraint, penance and meditation. Thus, hypocrisy in no time destroys the blessings of good luck (Punya) earned by the good deeds of previous births.

如果一条毒蛇咬了人,毒素在他体内逐渐扩散,他的整个身体就会有一种灼烧的感觉。同样的,如果虚伪之蛇咬了人,这个人就会放弃他所有的誓言、自律、苦修以及冥思。因此,虚伪能够毁灭前世为我们带来好运的庇佑。

 

Two saints named Gundhar and Vineydhar were staying in a garden. One of these saints Gundhar performed the penance of self-torture (aatpanadi yog). During the four months of his rainy season stay at one place 'Chaturmas' he used to remain standing, unmoved at one and the same spot in a posture of bodily torture. Once, when the prescribed period of four months stay 'Chaturmas' was over, the Gods worshipped him. The whole sky resounded with the slogan 'Victory! Victory to thee'. The smell of flowers showered by the Gods made the whole surrounding atmosphere fragrant. This news spread in the whole city like forest fire. Next morning the city people set out to visit and pay homage to the saint. But by the time the city dwellers reached the garden, the saint had left the place on the completion of his Chaturmas; and saint Vineydhar had come there instead and settled there.

两个叫做Gundhar Vineydhar的圣人待在花园中,Gundhar通过苦修来忏悔。在连续四个月的雨季中,他都待在一个叫做'Chaturmas'的地方,他待在那里保持一个姿势一动不动来进行苦修。有一次,当他四个月的苦修结束后,神灵开始对他表示敬重。整个天空都回响着胜利了,你胜利了。神灵洒下的花朵的香气弥漫了四周。这个消息迅速传遍了整个城市。第二天早上,人们来拜访他并且向他致敬。但是当人们到了花园之后,发现这个圣人已经完成了苦修离开了,而圣人Vineydhar还待在那里继续苦修。

 

The city people mistook him for the saint Gundhar who had performed his four months rainy season stay (varshanuyog) there. Worshipping him with great devotion and respect, and singing hymns and saying prayers they began to adore him, "O Holy Saint! Even long accumulated sins are washed away in on time by seeing a detached saint like you." It has been said:

Darshanain jinendranram, saddhunam vandnen cha

Na chire tishthatay papam, chidrhaste yathodkam

I.e., On seeing the holy saints and sacred images of Lord Jinendra, the sins accumulated since times immemorial are destroyed in the twinkling of an eye, just as water held between two joined palms with a gap is wasted in no time.

市民们错把Vineydhar当作了Gundhar,人们怀着极大的热情和尊敬向他致意,向他颂唱赞美歌并向他祈祷,人们开始崇拜他,哦,高尚的人啊,看到你之后我们的罪孽就会被一扫而光。人们是这样唱的:

Darshanain jinendranram, saddhunam vandnen cha

Na chire tishthatay papam, chidrhaste yathodkam

即,看到这高尚的圣人和这神圣的场景,我们所积攒的罪恶在眨眼间就会消失,就像水在掌缝之间迅速流过一样。

 

Saint Vineydhar thought that if he disclosed the truth to the people, they would not worship him. Thinking so, concealing the deceitful feeling in his mind, he sat motionless with closed eyes in a posture of deep meditation. Having worshipped him, the city people left for home. Holy Vineydhar's mind was polluted a bit by deceitfulness. Therefore, after death he was reborn as a semi God (Deva). Again, on the completion of his life period as semi God, he was born as an elephant named Triloke Mandan. One day Ram was frolicking in water in the company of Sita. In the meantime the elephant named Triloke Mandan, uprooting a pillar, reached the city near the same tank where these people were frolicking in water, and as soon as he saw them he had recollection of his previous birth (Jati smaran). Now he began to repent on his deceitful conduct in the previous life.

圣人Vineydhar想,如果他向人们说明了事情的真相,人们就不会敬重他。想到这儿,他就准备来掩盖事情的真相,他继续一动不动的坐在那里冥思。人们敬拜完Vineydhar之后,就陆续回到了自己的家。就这样,神圣的Vineydhar的思想就受到了欺骗的污染。因此,他的来生就转生成为亚神(Deva),而他的再下一生就转生成为一头叫做Triloke Mandan的大象。一天,RamSita在水中嬉戏,这时,这头叫做Triloke Mandan的大象也卷着一根柱子来到这个水池旁,当它看到了RamSita之后,它马上就想起了前世(Jati smaran)的事情。现在,它开始为了自己前世欺诈的行为而感到后悔。

 

"Ah! Bharat and I had performed penance together at the same time. But on account of my deceitful conduct to entertain people's worship and homage, I am born as an elephant." Ultimately, by performing severe penance in successive births the elephant, Triloke Mandan, later on attained the superb state of man i.e., Godhood.

啊,Bharat跟我一起进行苦修,由于我使用欺诈的方法来获得人们的崇拜和尊敬,我被转生成一头大象。最终,通过几世的极端苦修,Triloke Mandan终于又达到了人的最高境界神。

 

Thus, even a petty deceitful deed may lead to birth in an evil state of being. On being reduced to this low state of birth, a creature has to suffer untold types of tortures. One who is deceitful in conduct is fated to be born in an animal state due to his bondage of Karmas. So every living being should give up deceitful conduct.

因此即使是一件很小的欺诈的事情,也会给人们的来生带来罪恶。如果转生为一个更低的层次,它就要承受各种说不出的折磨。由于因果报应,一个欺诈的人来生必定会转生成为一个动物。因此,所有的生灵都不应当做欺诈他人的事情。

 

King Pushpchu ruled over Pattanpur City. Seeing the Grey hair on his head, he became detached from the worldly enjoyments. Being initiated as a nude Jain monk, he began to perform severe penance. His queen Pushpdatta also followed suit to him. Going to a HeadNun(Aryika Pramukh) named Brahmila, she got herself initiated as a female ascetic or Nun (Aryika). But she had not the least feeling of detachment in her heart. She adorned her body day in and day out and applied perfumed oil on her body. One-day nun Brahmila said to her, "It does not befit a renounced lady like you to adorn yourself thus." Hearing this Pushpdatta said, "My body has natural fragrance. I apply no perfumed oil." Consequently, she suffered for her deceitful action. After death she was reborn as a daughter of a maidservant a Seth. Her body now gave out foul smell. Hence, all the city people looked down upon her. Right it is, "Those who are deceitful in conduct with their teachers and elders, come to such a state of affairs." Therefore, one should never do a deceitful deed in order to escape ill luck. After committing a deceitful deed, even if we try our best to conceal it, we shall utterly fail. Hence, "If you are wrong, don't be afraid to admit it. Everyone makes mistakes sometimes. No one is perfect. Do not be ashamed of having erred. Be ashamed if you are so little, so lacking in broad-mindedness that you cannot own up to your mistakes. Then indeed you need pity." It has been said:

Kapt chhipate na chhipe, chhipe na mota bhag dabi dubi na rahe, ruyi lapeti aag

I.e., Deceit can never be concealed in spite of our attempt to conceal it; nor can bad luck remain hidden. Fire wrapped in cotton cannot be kept suppressed for long.

Pushpchu国王统治着Pattanpur城。当他看到他头上灰白色的头发时,他开始变得忧心忡忡。作为一个裸体派耆那教徒,他开始进行苦修。他的王后Pushpdatta同样也来配合他。她去了一个叫做Brahmila的寺庙,并出家做了一名尼姑。但是她一点也没有放弃对外界事物的爱恋,她每天都要化妆并且使用香水。一天,Brahmila尼姑对她说,你这样对你的修行一点帮助都没有。听到这些话后,Pushpdatta说,我的身体天生就是这种香味,我没有使用什么香水。后来,她就得到了她欺诈言语的报应。在来生中,她被转生成了女仆的女儿。现在她的身体散发着臭味,全城的人们都看不起她。因此,如果一个人对他的导师或者长辈撒谎的话,他就会得到这样的下场。所以人们不应当撒谎,这样就能够避免坏运气。当做了欺诈的事情之后,即使我们努力的来掩盖它,最终都会失败的。因此,如果你错了,不要害怕去承认错误,每个人都会犯错误。人无完人。不要因犯错误而害羞。当你不能够因为不够坦率而去承认你的错误的时候,你就需要去感到羞耻,这时你会感到惭愧。有经文为证:

Kapt chhipate na chhipe, chhipe na mota bhag dabi dubi na rahe, ruyi lapeti aag

即,欺诈永远不能够被掩盖,坏运气永远不会被隐藏,就像纸里永远包不住火。

 

The snare of deceit must break down one day or the other, there after when it is exposed, the deceitful person has to undergo a very miserable plight. Therefore, we should always follow the superb virtue of uprightness or honesty (Uttama Arjava) beneficial to self and others as well.

当欺诈的行为暴露后,欺骗的陷阱终将坍塌,而欺诈之人将会经历无尽的痛苦。因此我们应当始终遵守正直或者诚实的美德(Uttama Arjava),这对我们自己和其他人都有好处。

 

Deceit (Maya) wrong belief (Mithya) and ambition of reward for a good deed (Nidan) are the three thorns (shaliya). If any of these thorns persists in somebody's mind, the person cannot lead a happy life. Likewise, when the thorn of deceit enters a man's heart, it goes on pricking him. A deceitful person is always worried and remains suspicious, lest his deceit should be exposed. It is a well-known saying: 'A guilty conscious is always suspicious'.

欺骗、错误的信仰以及可望对自己善行的回报是三种荆棘。如果有人信中还怀有某种此类的想法,他的生活就不会快乐。同样的,当某种欺诈的想法满足了一个人的心灵,它就会继续刺痛他。一个欺诈的人会一直焦虑并且怀疑他人,因为他一直在担心他的欺诈会暴露。有一句名言:罪恶之心不停的怀疑。

 

One day a king began to ease himself sitting under a jack fruit tree. Ripe jackfruits had dropped ala around the tree. On seeing the jack fruits the king's mouth watered. Finding it a secluded place, he picked up a jackfruit and put it into his mouth. But soon fear overpowered his mind with the doubt lest some one should have seen him. After easing himself, the king came back to his palace. That day, while dancing in the royal court, the court dancer began to sing, " I shall disclose today's secret, O King". As soon as the king heard this, filled with his own mental doubt, he began to think, "Probably she has seen me eating the jack fruit." Doubting lest she should disclose the secret in the presence of all counselors and citizens, he took off his necklace and offered it to the court dancer. When the royal dancer sang the same song the next day as well, the king took off his earrings and presented them to her. The court dancer mistook the king's bounty. She began to sing the same song in the royal court and got one or the other present from the king daily. When the king was fed up with presenting her ornaments, one day in great rage he asked, "Why do you daily repeat the same song? Disclose everything if you want to do so. I have not done any improper act by eating a jack fruit while easing myself." Hearing this the court dancer was dumbfounded. From the above example it becomes amply clear that so long as the thorn of deceit exists in the heart of a person, he remains perturbed and loses the peace of mind.

有一天,一个国王坐在一棵菠萝蜜树下休息,成熟的果子从树上掉落,看到了这些水果,这个国王满口口水。他发现这是一个僻静的地方,他就拿起一个果子塞到了他的嘴中。但是,恐惧迅速占据了他的心灵,他担心别人会发现他的行为。当他平静之后,他就回到了他的宫殿。那天,当在宫殿中跳舞的时候,舞者就唱到:我要保守今天的秘密,我的国王。当国王听到这句话之后,他就开始怀疑自己今天的行为是否已经暴露。为了让这个舞者能够在所有人面前保守这个秘密,国王就解下了自己的项链送给了这个舞者。当第二天这个舞者又唱起了同样的歌,国王就解下了自己的耳环送给了她。这个舞者误解了国王的慷慨。她每天都在宫殿中唱起同样的歌,并且每天都在国王那里得到礼物。当国王已经不能够再忍受时,他愤怒地问到这个舞者:你为什么每天都唱这首歌?如果你想说出来就说出来吧,我所做的也就是偷吃了一个果子。听到这些,舞者愣在了一边。从上面的例子可以看出,只要人们心存欺诈,他就会感到不安并且失去理智。

 

If fire is kept wrapped in a piece of cloth, after having burnt the cloth it comes out taking a more fierce shape than before. Likewise, a deceitful deed cannot be concealed by any effort. Therefore, how does a deceitful deed benefit anybody? Not at all, if good fortune does not smile upon us, our faults are faults are but exposed despite our utmost effort to conceal them. But true it is that people do not regard a deceitful person guilty, even when his fault is exposed. It shows that there is no need for a virtuous person to be deceitful. Even wealth is obtained only by good luck and diligence. Thus, deceit gives rise to many evils in this world and spoils the charm of the other world, too.

如果在布里面包了一团火,当火烧透布的时候,它会变得更加猛烈。同样,一件欺诈的事情永远不可能被掩盖。因此,欺诈的事情如何能够使人人都受益呢?不仅如此,不管我们如何掩饰,我们的过失依然是过失。但是,人们往往不把一个撒谎的人当作犯罪,即使他的的谎言被暴露。这就说明了一个善良的人没有必要去撒谎,即使他只能通过好的运气和勤奋来获得财富。因此,欺诈会带来许多罪恶,并且破坏了世界的美好。

 

Not only mean persons, but sometimes-even persons of high status also indulge in deceitful deeds, which result in infinite bondage and ultimately lead to the worldly cycle of births and deaths. Nobody trusts a deceitful person. Highly virtuous people, who cross the river of deceit with the boat of honesty or straight-forwardness (Arjava Dharma) become victorious in life. On cheating his teacher Dronacharya by uttering the deceitful words 'kunjro na nara': Yudhister was filled with so great remorse that he concealed himself from the saintly persons. Thus, even great persons have suffered due to deceit. Knowing this fact deceit should be given up.

不单单是普通人,即使一些有地位的人也会常常做一些欺诈的事情,这就导致了无尽的束缚以及世间生死的轮回。没有人会去相信一个撒谎的人。高尚的人乘坐着诚实的小船度过欺诈之河,他们整个生命都是胜利的。Dronacharya撒谎来欺骗他的导师:Yudhister是如此的自责,以至于他对圣人进行欺瞒。因此,即使是伟大的人们也会因为欺诈而承受痛苦。知道这一点之后,人们就应当杜绝欺诈。

 

When Narayan Shri Krishna and Arjun stood face to face in the battlefield, seeing his kith and kin Arjun spoke, "They are my brethren. I shall not shoot arrows at them." Saying so he dropped the bow and arrows on the ground. On hearing the words of Arjun, Shri Krishna was perturbed and spoke, "O Arjun! No body will admit that you are kind­hearted. All will say that Arjun is a coward. So he fled away from the battle field out of fear." As soon as Arjun heard these words, he picked up the bow and started fighting. A fierce battle took place between the armies. When innumerous human beings were being killed in the battle, Abhimanyu also met the same fate. Shri Krishna was dumbfounded as to how he would console Kunti that they could not safeguard Abhimanyu. Henceforth, the Pandu family would come to end.

Narayan Shri KrishnaArjun在战场上面对面站着,看到了他们的亲戚和朋友,Arjun说到,他们是我的兄弟,我不能够向他们射箭。说完这些话,他就把弓和箭扔在了地上。听到了Arjun的这番话之后,Shri Krishna感到不安,说到:哦,Arjun!没有人会说你心地善良,他们反而会说你是个懦夫,会说你由于害怕而从战场上逃脱。当Arjun听到这番话之后,他就拾起了地上的箭开始战斗。战场上的双方展开了一场恶斗,无数的人都死在了战场上。Abhimanyu遭遇了同样的命运。自此之后,Pandu的家庭走向了衰落。

 

In fact, it is very easy to give rise to a war, but very difficult to bring it to a close. Likewise, it is easy to give rise to disputes between two societies, two nations, two religious groups, two communities, two politicians, and two brothers but it is a hard nut to crack to put an end to their quarrels. Narayan Shri Krishna was much worried, as a cease-fire could not be worked out between the two war groups of Pandav and Kauravas without the use of deceit. He said to Yudhister, "O Yudhister! If you say 'Ashwathama has been killed', the Kauravas will believe your words and take for granted the death Dronacharya's son Ashwthama and instantly the battle will come to an end." To this Yudhister replied, "Even if I loose everything, I will not tell a lie." An elephant named Ashwthama was killed just then. Then Yudhister thought, "There is no harm, if I speak the truth now." No sooner Yudhister utter the words 'Ashwathama hata' 'Ashwathama killed', and he was going to add 'gaj' -elephant than Shri Krishna sounded the conch shell. Those who were present in the battlefield could not understand if it was an elephant or a man that was killed. And in no time there was complete cease-fire. Thus, deceit was applied to put an end to the battle of Mahabharat. Indeed, Shri Krishna in this case applied the axiom, 'Everything is fair in Love and War'; which is irreligious.

事实上,平息一场战争远难于挑起一场战争。同样的,挑起两个社会,两个民族,两个宗教派别,两个社团或者两个兄弟之间的争斗很容易,然而弥合双方的分歧却十分困难。Narayan Shri Krishna十分焦虑,因为如果不使用欺诈的手段,战争双方很难停火。他对Yudhister一方说,哦,Yudhister,只要你说Ashwathama已经被杀死了,Kauravas就会相信你的话,这样战争很快就会结束了。听到这话,Yudhister说,即使我失去了所有的东西,我也不会说谎。然后,一头叫做Ashwathama的大象就被杀死了。这时,Yudhister想,如果我现在说出实情的话,不会有任何的伤害。于是,Yudhister说,'Ashwathama hata' 'Ashwathama killed'。这时,战场上的人们不清楚到底是大象还是人被杀死了。很快地,战争就结束了。这样,谎言就平息了一场战争。事实上,在这个例子中,Shri Krishna使用了一个公理,在战争与爱情中,任何事情都是平等的。

 

Likewise, men in general believe and act according to the saying, 'End justifies the means'. It is why professionals and common men use deceit in their daily routine. Some corrupt businessmen rob the consumers. Some treacherous lawyers exploit their clients. Some inhumane doctors make operation table bargains with the patients and some mean tutors mint money from their students by the use of deceit and fraud. Taking and giving bribes is also nothing but deceitful conduct and a punishable offense. Many times housewives also extort money from their husbands by deceit, or applying trick. The modern materialistic society may approve of such immoral conduct; but religion always insists on 'fair work and no foul play' under all odds.

同样的,人们通常相信所说的话而且言行一致。结果说明一切,这就是为什么职业人士以及普通人在日常生活中都回说谎的原因。腐败的商人掠夺顾客,狡诈的律师欺诈代理人,不人道的医生在手术台上同病人索要钱物,庸碌的家庭教师通过欺骗和欺诈来赚取学生的钱财。行贿和受贿同样都是欺诈的行为和应该受到惩罚的行为。许多时候,家庭主妇通过欺骗来骗取她们先生的钱财。当今的物质社会见证了太多的这样的不道德的行为,但是宗教却一直奉行勤勉的工作,不欺诈

 

It has been nicely said about hypocrisy: "The world is a place where humbug or hypocrisy cannot find much scope for a long time. The real nature of every man comes out prominent in due course."

The great poet Reidhu has described supreme uprightness thus:

Dhamhu varam lakhanru aju thir manru duriy vihandnru suhjanru

Tam ith ji kijeyi tampalijeyi tamnri sunrijeyi khrey janru

Jarisu nrijay chiti chintijyi tarisu anrhampunu bhasijyi

Kogyo punru tarisu suhsanchnru tan ajyu gunrmunrhu achynru

Maya salu mnrhu nrisarhu ajyu dhamu pavitru vyarhuChuuo tau mayaviyu nrirthu ajyu siv pur panthhu sathau

 

Jath kudil parimanru chijyi thim ajah dhamu ji sampajah

Dasanr nranr saruv akhandu param atindrya sukh krandu

Apim apu bhavhu tardu airisu chainr bhav pyandu

So punru ajyu dhamay namyi ajvainr beyiriy manru khumyi

Ajyu parmapu gye sankapu chimatu ji sasu abhu

Tam nriru jhayijyi sansu hijyi pavijyi jihin achal pau

曾经有人很确切的描述过虚伪:在这个世界上,欺骗与虚伪永远不会长时间的存在,时间长了人们的本性总会显现出来的。

伟大的诗人Reidhu曾经这样描写过至上的正直:

Dhamhu varam lakhanru aju thir manru duriy vihandnru suhjanru

Tam ith ji kijeyi tampalijeyi tamnri sunrijeyi khrey janru

Jarisu nrijay chiti chintijyi tarisu anrhampunu bhasijyi

Kogyo punru tarisu suhsanchnru tan ajyu gunrmunrhu achynru

Maya salu mnrhu nrisarhu ajyu dhamu pavitru vyarhuChuuo tau mayaviyu nrirthu ajyu siv pur panthhu sathau

Jath kudil parimanru chijyi thim ajah dhamu ji sampajah

Dasanr nranr saruv akhandu param atindrya sukh krandu

Apim apu bhavhu tardu airisu chainr bhav pyandu

So punru ajyu dhamay namyi ajvainr beyiriy manru khumyi

Ajyu parmapu gye sankapu chimatu ji sasu abhu

Tam nriru jhayijyi sansu hijyi pavijyi jihin achal pau

 

1        Uprightness (Arjava) is the superb religious virtue. It makes the mind stable, annihilates evil, gives birth to happiness and puts an end to sins. Hence, O holy souls! Follow this virtue of righteousness, practice over it and give ear to it.

2        Whatever thoughts arise in your mind, speak them out to others as such; and make efforts to make a similar type of action with body i.e., be honest in mind, speech and action. This is the eternal rule to usher in happiness.

3        This virtue of uprightness is acquired by giving up deceitful ideas. It is a sign of infinite belief and knowledge and is a storehouse of extreme non-sensual (celestial) happiness.

4        By uprooting the thorn of deceit from your inner self, meditate upon the holy virtue of uprightness; because all the vows, self-restraint and observance of holy rules by a deceitful person, are futile. Only the virtue of uprightness paves the path of salvation.

5        The virtue of uprightness itself takes the soul across the ocean of the universe; intense feelings of advanced spiritual development are obtained through the virtue of uprightness. Uprightness conquers the pride or vanity of the opponents.

6        The virtue of uprightness is the symbol of the divine; it is free from any pledge (sankalp); it is a living image of the lord; it is friendly to the soul; it is eternal and sign of fearlessness. The person, who meditates upon this virtue of uprightness, attains the imperishable state of salvation (Moksha).

1        正直(Arjava)是至上的美德。它能够使人的思想平和,消除罪恶,产生欢乐并结束罪孽。因此,神圣的灵魂啊!请你变得正直吧,不断地遵守它,奉行它。

2        不论你头脑中想到了什么,你就对别人说什么,并尽量使自己的行为符合自己所说的话,即思想诚实、语言诚实、行为诚实。这样做才能带来永恒的欢乐。

3        通过放弃欺诈的想法能够获得正直的美德。它是无尽的信仰和知识的标志,是非肉欲欢乐的源泉。

4        只有通过根除自我心中欺诈的根源,对正直的美德进行沉思,才能够走上解脱之路。一个不诚实的人所遵守的誓言、自律以及对圣规的遵守都是无意义的。

5        正直的美德能够带领灵魂穿越宇宙的海洋。通过正直的美德能够获得更高层次的精神进步。正直能够征服对手的傲慢与虚荣。

6        正直是神的标志,它不受所有誓言的约束,它是神灵鲜活的象征,它对人的心灵平和,它是永恒的,它是无畏的标志。能够对正直进行沉思的人就能够获得不朽的解脱。

 

Hence, O Mortal Man! Be upright, be upright and be upright in all thy daily dealings; and shun all deceit and fraud, for 'Honesty is the best policy'.

Many people think that honesty and integrity cannot possibly be maintained in this mundane world; but they do not know that without these, life is nothing but chaos.

In truth, honesty is a great asset in life. Even if you become a beggar, it will be your glory to think that you are an honest beggar. A clear conscience shines far more bright than a heap of gold coins -fresh from the mint, and is far more valuable than a whole mine of diamonds.

因此,不朽的人啊!做个正直的人吧,在日常的生活中做个正直的人吧,抛弃所有的欺骗与欺诈,因为诚实是最好的原则

   很多人们认为,在世俗的世界中,人们不能总是保持诚实,但是他们不清楚,如果没有诚实,世界就会变得混乱。

事实上,诚实是人们生活中最好的美德。即使是一位乞丐,人们也会尊敬他的诚实。光辉的思想比一堆金币更加光辉,比一座钻石山更加有价值。

 

The great poet sings:

'How happy is he born or taught

That serveth not another's will

Whose armor is his honest thought?

And simple truth his utmost skill!’

-Sir Henry Wotton

 

伟大的诗人吟唱:

他被生下或者受到教育时是多么的快乐啊!

什么在护卫着他诚实的思想啊!

简单的事实就是他最好的技能。