Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德
与贡献 
     
   前言 
  绪论 
  五大神灵之圣歌
  引言 
  至上的宽恕
   至上的谦卑 
   至上的诚实 
  至上的纯洁 
  至上的善言 
   至上的自律
  至上的苦行 
  至上的舍弃 
  至上的情禁 
  至上的禁欲 
  结束语

TEN UNIVERSAL VIRTUES  十大美德 

1 SUPREME FORGIVENESS

(Uttama Kshama Dharma)

无上的宽恕

(Uttama Kshama Dharma)

 

The word Kshama is derived from the root by the addition of the suffix ang and tap.

The word Kshama means patience, forbearance and pardon.

Kshama一词来源于tap之后加了后缀ang这个字根。Kshama一词意味着耐心,克制,宽容。

 

‘Kshama shatro ch mitre ch yatinamev bhushanam’ – Hito

 

To pardon an enemy or a friend both, is the jewel of Yetis.

宽恕朋友或敌人,是Yetis的宝贵之处。

 

‘Kshama virasey bhushanam’ - Forbearance is the ornament of the brave.

克制是勇者的饰物。

 

An eminent English poet writes:

有一首著名的英语诗歌写道:

 

O Man! forgive thy mortal foe

哦,人们!宽恕你致命的敌人吧

Do not give him blow for blow

不要为了打击而打击他

Forgive him seventy times and seven

宽恕他七十又七次

For all the souls in Heaven

因为天堂中所有的灵魂

Were both forgivers and forgiven.

都是宽恕和被宽恕者。

 

Uttama Kshama is the first Dharma out of the ten Dharma of Jains. Ordinarily it means not to cause misery to any living being, or not to get angry on any unpleasant and unwanted happening. Forbearance (Kshama) is the inherent virtue of soul. When the soul degrades from its real attributes to ill nature, such a soul is called attached (raagi) or full of malice - ill-will (dwaish), etc., because soul is simple and forgiving by nature. Rightly has it been said: ‘To err is human; to forgive divine’.

Uttama Kshama是耆那教十个Dharma中的第一个Dharma。通常,它意味着不对任何生灵造成不幸,不对任何不愉快和不好的事情生气。宽恕(Kshama)是灵魂固有的美德。当灵魂从它的本性降级到罪恶的特性时,这样一种灵魂被称为附着了(raagi)或充满了恶意——即罪恶的意图(dwaish),因为灵魂从本质来说是单纯和仁慈的。有句话说得好:人犯错,神宽恕。

 

Anger makes a man blind and maddens him, for ‘when eyes are blood shot, vision is limited’. Overpowered by anger, a man may commit anything right or wrong, and fails to make distinction between proper and improper, truth or untruth, and good or bad. In short, the Jain Acharyas have proclaimed anger as leading to degradation.

愤怒使人盲目和疯狂,因为当眼睛迸发冷酷时,视觉就受限了。被愤怒压倒的人有可能做出任何对或错的事,也不能区分适当与不当,真相或假相,好与坏。简言之,耆那教Acharyas宣称,愤怒是灵魂堕落的主要因素。

 

Discarding anger and getting stable in one’s real nature, is Kshama, Kshama is soul’s inherent wealth. Being endowed with this real wealth, this living being (jeeva) is called forbearing in disposition. Narendra, Devendra and Amrendra in this world (lok) and heaven (Parlok) worship a living being crowned with forgiveness after salvation. In Baras - Anupaikkha this very Kshama has been described as below:

Kshama就是抛弃愤怒,坚定人类的真实本性,是灵魂与生俱来的财富。被赋予了这种真实财富的生灵(jeeva)就性情来说被称为宽容。在现实世界(lok)和天堂(Parlok)中的Narendra, Devendra Amrendra尊重每一个被救助后得以宽恕的生灵。在Baras- Anupaikkha中,这样的Kshama被描述如下:

Kahupa tis puno, bahurangam jadi havedi sakhadam, kundi kinchivi koham, tas

Kshama hodi thamoti.

 

The conduct of a man, who does not get the least enraged even on finding obvious reasons for exciting anger, is in keeping with Uttama Kshama Dharma. To forgive one

with evil perception (Mithya-Drasthi), or him who utters unpleasant words and makes

efforts to cause anguish and torture without any reason, is the first category of Kshama.

To pardon one who nourishes thoughts of oppressing and killing with no reason is the

second category of Kshama. ‘Kshamti iti Kshama’ one who practices forgiveness

(Kshama) under all odds is entitled as possessor of the virtue of supreme forgiveness

(Uttama Kshama).

一个人甚至在找到激起愤怒的明显原因的情况下都没有丝毫愤怒,这个人的行为就是至上的宽恕。原谅那些有恶意(Mithya-Drasthi)或没有任何原因就说出恶语,造成别人痛苦的人是第一类宽恕。宽恕那些无故滋生压迫和残杀想法的人是第二类宽恕。那些在任何情况下都给予别人宽恕的人Kshamti iti Kshama被称为拥有至上的宽恕(Uttama Kshama)这一美德的人。

Krodhotpatinimita visimakroshadisambhave kalushyoparam Kshama.

 

Not to develop malice or ill-will despite confronting with unbearable causes of anger like defiance, chiding and bodily torture is Uttama Kshama. It has been well said; “The easiest and cheapest way of avenging an offence is to slight it, ignore it, forbear it, ‘forgive it, or, if possible, to forget it.”

至上的宽恕是指尽管面对引发愤怒的不堪忍受的原因,如违抗,责骂和身体折磨时,也不产生怨恨和恶意。有句话说得好:对触怒者最简单最廉价的报复方式就是轻视它,忽略它,容忍它,宽恕它,如果可能就忘掉它。

 

While describing the true nature of Kshama in his book ‘Sarvarth Siddhi’ Acharya

Pujya Pad Swamy has stated

Acharya Pujya Pad Swamy的《Sarvarth Siddhi》一书中,当描述到宽恕的本质时,他有这样的描述:

 

Shrirsithitihetumargarth parkulanyugachhti bhikshordushtjnakroshprhstavgyatadn

Shrir vyapadnadinan snnidhane kalushyanutpti kshma

 

Even when ill-natured persons heap abuses, ridicules, disgrace and beatings on the monks, who enter other regions to discover the cause of the real state of the body and

indulge in twisting and torturing their body, the non-appearance of ill-will in these monks’

minds is Kshama. This very thing has been said in this commenting remark of ‘Niam-

Saar’:

那些不顾身体扭曲,痛苦,进入其他地区探索身体真实状态诱因的僧侣们,甚至在被本质险恶的人谩骂,嘲弄,羞辱,敲打时,他们的思想中的邪恶意图都没有表现出来,这就是宽恕。这个事例在解释Niam-Saar时就说过:

Vadhe satmurtsya parambrahmrupni mamapkarhaniriti paramsamrasi vsthitirutmkshma

 

To remain stable in supreme equanimitous thoughts on getting threat of being killed by persons given to evil perception (Mithya-Drasthi) for no reason, considering oneself formless Parma Brahma is Uttama Kshama. The following example reveals this very thing.

在无故受到不怀好意之人谋杀的威胁时,以无上镇定的思想保持泰然,把自己视为无形的Parma Brahma 就是至上的宽恕。下面的例子就说明了这件事。

 

There was a saint named Aek Nath. He had a vow of bathing in the Ganga daily. His ideology of forgiveness and renunciation was highly talked of in the city. One Pathan alsoused to live in that city. Once he thought to test the saint. His house was on that very road by which the saint used to go for bathing in the Ganga. The next day when Aek Nath was returning after having a bath in the Ganga, the Pathan chewing a betel leaf, spit down from above his rooftop. Its shower fell on the body of Aek Nath also; hence the saint went back to have a bath in the Ganga again. This process was repeated a hundred times on that one day. Ultimately when the saint was returning after his one hundred and one time bath, the Pathan came down from his house top and falling down at his feet, started weeping and begging pardon, for his mischief and ill-doing. The saint said, “I am grateful to you for your good deed, because daily I used to bathe in the Ganga only once, but today I am lucky to bathe a hundred and one times due to you.” Great men have great thoughts. They never give up their celestial virtues. Saint Aek Nath, who belonged to this noble category, took this ill deed of the Pathan as a virtuous deed and pardoned him. On this earth there is no other greater virtue than Kshama. One, who is crowned with all the virtues, Kshama has been stated the embodiment of ascetics (Tapasvi); such as –

有一个名叫Aek Nath的圣人,他立誓每天在Ganga沐浴,他有关舍弃和宽恕的观念被这座城市的人们广为谈论。一个叫Pathan的人过去也住在这个城市。一次他想去考验一下这位圣人。他的房子刚好就在圣人前去Ganga沐浴的路旁。第二天,当 Aek NathGanga沐浴完返回时,Pathan从他家房顶上向下吐他正咀嚼的槟榔叶,刚好落在 Aek Nath的身上。因此圣人又回到Ganga沐浴。那天这一过程重复了一百次。最后当圣人在洗完第一百零一次回来时,Pathan从房顶上下来跪在他的脚下,一边哭泣一边为他的恶行企求宽恕。圣人说:我要感谢你做的好事,因为以前我每天只在Ganga沐浴一次,但今天我很幸运洗了一百零一次,这多亏了你。伟大的人有伟大的想法。他们从不放弃神圣的美德。圣人Aek Nath属于崇高的一类,他把Pathan的恶行看作善行并宽恕了他。在这个世界上,没有比Kshama更伟大的美德了。Kshama被称为修行者的化身。他被冠以一切美德,例如:

Kokilanam swarorupam, narirupam pativrata

Vidyarupam kuruparan, Kshama rupam tapasvinam

 

The emblem of a nightingale is her own melody; the emblem of a lady is her chastity, the emblem of the wretched is their ignorance and the emblem of ascetics is forgiveness. The following memorable words are worth noting: “Humanity is never more beautiful than when praying for forgiveness, or else forgiving another.”

优美的曲调是夜莺的象征,贞洁是女人的象征,他们的无知是悲哀的象征,宽恕是苦行者的象征。下面这句令人难忘的话值得一提:人性在祈求宽恕或宽恕其他人时是最美不过的。

 

Pt. Ashadharji has stated about Kshama:

关于Kshama Pt. Ashadharji 这样说道:

 

Ya kshamyati kshamopyasu pratikatum kritagasa

 

Kritagasam tamichhanti kshantipyushsanjush

 

The persons who observe Uttama Kshama towards those, who commit crimes against

them, even on being capable of quick retaliation, are regarded by saints drinking the nectar of forbearance (Kshama-amrit) to be the destroyers of sins.

一些人对那些做坏事反抗他们,甚至迅速报复他们的人奉行至上的宽恕,这些人在饮着宽容(Kshama-amrit)圣水的圣人们看来是罪恶的破坏者。

 

Noble persons think thus: “Though I have committed no crime against him, even then this man is showering his anger over me, abusing me; I am innocent. Considering this I must pardon him. He has accused me, yet no harm comes out of it to me. On the contrary I must take pity on him, in spite of his being angry; because this poor fellow is reaping sins by falsely accusing me. This sin will bring him innumerable sufferings. He has only abused me and not beaten. Even if he had beaten me, then it must be thought that he has not wounded me; on being wounded it must be thought that he has not parted body from life; even if he had parted body, then one must understand that he has not harmed my Kshama virtue. One who thinks in this or bears the miseries befallen on him with forbearance (Kshama), no troubles and misfortunes will visit him again. ‘Just as at the time of repaying debts one has to return the money of the money lender; similarly I had committed sins in my previous birth and now I am reaping their fruits in the form of sorrow, which is proper. If I suffer it with a spirit of forbearance, I shall become happy on getting rid of the debt of my sins.’ Thinking this no anger should be displayed.

因此,崇高的人们想:虽然我没有对他做坏事,尽管这样,这个人还对我生气,侮辱我,我没有什么损失,考虑到这个,我必须宽恕他。他指责我,但对我没有造成什么伤害。相反我该同情他,尽管他生气。因为这个可怜的家伙由于错误地指责我正制造着罪恶。这罪恶将给他带来无尽的苦难。而且他只指责了我并没有打我,即使他打了我,我肯定想他没有打伤我,即使他打伤我 ,我肯定想,他没把我的生命和身体分开,即使分开了,我也必须理解为他没有伤害我宽恕的美德。倘若谁这么想,并以宽恕之心(Kshama)容忍一切降临的苦难,他将再也没有麻烦和不幸。就像在还债之时必须将钱还给债主一样,同样,我前生犯下的罪孽,今生将吞下痛苦之果。如果我以宽恕精神面对它,我将因摆脱罪孽之债而变得快乐。想到这就不会有愤怒了。

 

A being gifted with forbearance (Kshama) never feels the prick of sorrow. Abuse him, as much as you can, have ill will against him as much as you like, even then he does not give up his Kshama virtue. In this respect the following remark of a great scholar is noteworthy: “If you are wronged, be bravely revenged. Slight it, and the work is begun; forgive it and it is finished. He is below himself who is not above injury.”

一个被赋予了宽恕(Kshama)的人永远不会感到悲伤之痛。尽可能多地指责他,以恶意相对,尽管这样也不丢弃宽恕的美德,从这方面来说,下面的名言就值得一提了:如果你被误解,被放肆地报复。轻视它,是履行美德的开始,宽恕它,才完成了美德。这样,他就不会再受到伤害。

 

Once it so happened that when saint Tuka Ram had distributed all his belongings amongst the poor, one day the state of starvation arose in his home. His wife said, “What are you doing sitting idle here? Go and fetch a bundle of sugarcanes from the fields. We shall be able to pass the day anyhow by sucking them. Consequently, when Tuka Ram set out for home with a bundle of sugarcanes from the field; on the way beggars enveloped him and begged for sugarcanes. ” Tuka Ram gave one sugarcane each to every beggar. When he reached home, only one sugarcane was left with him. Seeing one sugarcane the hungry wife was enraged. She snatched the sugarcane from Tuka Ram’s hands and started beating him with it. As a result, the sugarcane broke down into two equal parts. Now her anger subsided. In spite of getting beatings from his wife, the calm and forgiving Tuka Ram spoke with a smile. “What a good wife! You have divided the sugarcane in two equal pieces. You suck one and I will suck the other.”

曾经发生了这样一件事:当圣人Tuka Ram将他所有的财产都分给穷人后,一天他家出现了饥荒,他妻子说:你还闲坐在这干什么?去田里取几捆甘蔗来,我们只能靠吸甘蔗汁度日了。 因此Tuka Ram打算从田里带一捆甘蔗回家。在回家的路上,乞丐们围住他向他讨甘蔗,Tuka Ram给了每个乞讨者一根甘蔗。当他到家时,只剩下一根甘蔗了。看到这唯一的一根甘蔗,饥饿的妻子发怒了。她从Tuka Ram手中一把夺过甘蔗打向他。结果,甘蔗被打成了两半。这时她的气才消了。尽管遭到了妻子的打,从容而宽容的Tuka Ram笑着说道:多好的妻子啊,你把甘蔗刚好打成了均等的两半,你吃一个,我吃另一个。

 

Seeing the infinite ocean of forgiveness and love in the midst of furiously raging fire of anger, tears rolled down from the eyes of the lady. Tuka Ram wiped off her tears with the fold of his turban, fed her whole of the sugarcane after peeling it. Howsoever cruel and angry a being may be, he becomes calm in the presence of a forgiver. Jain Acharyas have termed anger as the greatest enemy of human beings. If this enemy (anger) takes possession of a living being, it ruins all his virtues. It has been rightly said:

在猛烈的怒火中,看到了宽恕的浩瀚海洋,眼泪从妻子的眼中滑落下来,Tuka Ram用叠好的头巾擦干了她的泪,并把整个甘蔗削皮后喂她。无论别人怎么残酷或愤怒,他总以一个宽恕者的姿态保持冷静。耆那教Acharyas称愤怒为人类最大的敌人。如果这个敌人(愤怒)控制了一个人,他将侵蚀他的一切美德。人们常说:

 

Krodho he shatru prathamo naranam, dehsthito dehvinashnae

Yatha stith kashtgato hi vahi, sa aiv vahivardahte ch kashtam

 

Anger concealed in the body of a man becomes the cause of his own ruin, just as fire hidden in wood destroys itself. Likewise anger on getting enraged kills the angered one. In this universe there is no such devil as will devour his mother. But this devil anger first eats up that very heart which breeds it as a mother and later on it eats up others as well. On suppressing anger and enriching the soul through religion in the garb of Kshama is to ensure the path of Moksha i.e., salvation. It must be the goal of every living being. It alone is blissful.

藏在一个人心中的愤怒将变成自我灭亡的原因,就像藏在木头中的火会将木头烧掉一样。同样,被激起的愤怒会杀死那个生气的人。世界上没有哪个恶魔会吞食他的母亲,但愤怒这个恶魔首先吞食了如母亲般哺育它的心灵,随后吞掉其他一切。通过以宽恕修饰起来的宗教来抑制愤怒,丰富灵魂,是走向Moksha,即解脱之路的保证。这是每一个生灵的目标,是幸福的。

 

Krodhanalsmutpano mahadaha shaririram

Nirdahati tapovritam, dharm dwepaynadiwat

 

The heating effect of the fire of anger ruins penance. It becomes the cause of a man’s self-destruction, as that of Muni Depayan.

怒火的热效应摧毁了修行。它成为了一个人自我毁灭的原因,就像Muni Depayan

 

In Soratha land there is a famous city named Dwarka, which had been rendered highly sacred by the birth of His Holiness Lord Nemi Nath, worshipped in all the three worlds. The rulers of that city were the ninth Narayana, Shri Krishna, and Balbhadra - sons of Vasudeva and cousins of Neminatha. One day Narayana and Balbhadra visited the religious conference (Samavsharan) of Lord Nemi Nath to pay their homage to the Lord. They were overwhelmed at heart on seeing the Lord. Their voice was exalted. Their whole body was thrilled, tears of joy burst out of their eyes. They paid due homage at the lotus feet of the Lord with great reverence and listened to His holy sermon sitting in the enclosure assigned to human beings. Balbhadra asked the Lord, “O Lord! How long will this Dwarka City founded under the holy guidance of Vasudeva and its wealth exist?”

Soratha国,有一个著名的城市叫Dwarka,由于崇高圣人Nemi Nath的出生被给予了高度的崇奉,在三个世界被参拜。这座城市的统治者是第九代Narayana, Shri KrishnaBalbhadra – Vasudeva的儿子和Neminatha的堂兄弟。一天,Narayana Balbhadra去参加圣主Nemi Nath的宗教会议(Samavsharan),以尽对圣主的忠心。一看见圣主他们的内心就被震撼了。他们的声音都变得崇敬了。整个身体也在发抖。喜悦的泪水从他们的眼中涌出。他们对着圣主的莲花足以极大的崇敬表示了效忠之情,并坐在指定给凡人的场地聆听经文。Balbhadra问圣主:哦,圣主!在Vasudeva圣明引导下,Dwarka城能建立多久,它的财富又能拥有多久?

 

The Lord replied, “After twelve years Dwarka will be burnt to ashes. Intoxicated by drinking the Yaduvanshis will cause terrible calamity to Depayan Muni; as a result, on getting enraged Depayan Muni will become the cause for the destruction of Dwarka.” On hearing this prediction from the holy mouth of the world teacher (Jagat Guru), Balbhadra came to Dwarka and got all the wine pots thrown in the forest of the Girnar Mountain. Depayan also went away to some other place leaving Dwarka. But who can shut out fate? Despite making numerous efforts, the words of Lord Jinendra cannot be proved wrong or falsified. A little time prior to the completion of twelve years Depayan Muni had the misconception that twelve years had lapsed. Therefore, he returned to Dwarka and sat down in meditation near the Girnar Mountain. At that very time, the Yaduvanshi Princes were returning after merry-making in the Girnar Mountain. Due to scorching summer heat, rendered restless with thirst they started searching for water all around. Meanwhile, they glanced water of the rainy season collected in a pond. Seeing this, the thirsty Princes began to drink the pond water. After some time they got intoxicated and started running and frisking to and fro. for the water in the pond was mixed with wine thrown by Balbhadra. While they were strolling they caught sight of the meditating Muni. Seeing him their anger knew no bounds for any reason, as if butter had been poured into fire. They started talking among themselves, “Oh! He is that very Depayan due to whom Dwarka will be burnt to ashes one day. He is a devil.” Saying this, they started hurling stones on him. Taking it a calamity befallen on him, the holy saint sat unperturbed in a calm posture. Later on when the royal princes started causing still greater torture, the holy saint lost his temper. Sparks of anger started emitting from his eyes. When Balbhadra got this information, he at once rushed to Depayan Muni and apologized. But the anger of the Muni could not be subsided. Overpowered by unbearable anger, the Muni died with a malicious feeling and was reborn as Vayanter Deva as a result his penance. Recollecting this incident of his previous birth through ill-begotten knowledge (Ku-vadhi Gyan), he put Dwarka city aflame out of anger and due to fierce flames Dwarka city was burnt to ashes.

圣主答道:十二年后,Dwarka将焚为灰烬。由于饮水中毒,Yaduvanshi将给Depayan Muni带来可怕的灾难。最后动怒的Depayan Muni将成为Dwarka毁灭的原因。听了来自这位上师(Jagat Guru)的神圣之口的预测。Balbhadra来到Dwarka,并将所有的酒罐扔进了Girnar 山的树林中,Depayan Muni也离开Dwarka去了别的地方。但谁能锁住自己的命运呢?尽管做了许多努力,圣主Jinendra还是没能被证明是错的或是骗人的。在十二年快结束时,Depayan Muni误以为十二年已经过去了。因此,他回到Dwarka,在Girnar 山附近打坐冥想。就在这时,Yaduvanshi王子从Girnar 山度假出来。由于夏季的酷热和在饥渴和劳累中煎熬,他们开始四处找水。此时,他们瞥见了雨季集在池中的水。看见水,渴坏了的王子喝起了池水。过了一段时间,他们就醉了,开始乱跑乱跳。因为池水中混入了被Balbhadra丢掉的酒,就在他们四处乱跑时,他们看见了在冥思的Muni,一见他,他们的愤怒无故冒出来了,就像泼入火中的黄油。他们开始谈论起来:哦,他就是那个Depayan Muni,因为他Dwarka有一天会烧为灰烬,他是恶魔。说着,他们开始向他扔石头,承受这降临的灾难,圣人以平静的心境坐着,不受干扰。随后王子又对他施加了更大的折磨,圣人失去了耐心,怒火从他眼中迸发出来。当Balbhadra得知后立即跑向Muni道歉,但Muni的愤怒并未减退,难以抵制不堪忍受的愤怒,Muni带着邪恶的感觉死去。作为修行的成果,Muni重生为Vayanter Deva,掌握了引发罪恶的技艺,重拾前世的事情,他出于愤怒向Dwarka放了火,由于火势猛烈,Dwarka被烧为了灰烬。

 

From the above example it is established that the person who indulges in anger destroys himself and others as well. Therefore, it is wise to keep away from anger or shun anger. Anger instigates bitterness, shatters friendship, disfigures our composure, converts wisdom into folly and destroys fame and glory. This anger is a mental excitement. As soon as one gets excited, one becomes bereft of right thoughts due to which the power of reasoning and thinking is lost. Therefore, to live as a human being, it is essential for a man to be forbearing. No enemy can win over the man who is armed with the weapon offorbearance. If someone inflicts pain to a person practicing forbearance, in the end he suffers defeat.

从上面的例子可以看出,纵容怒火的人既伤害自己也伤害他人。因此,远离愤怒是明智的,愤怒激起痛苦,破坏友情,打破平静,把智慧变成愚蠢,玷污名誉。愤怒是精神上的激动。一旦一个人变得激动,由于失去推理和思考的能力,他会丧生正确的想法。因此,作为一个人活着,容忍十分重要,没有一个敌人会战胜用宽恕作为武器武装起来的人。如果谁让履行宽恕的人痛苦,最终他将被击败。

 

A wealthy person named Daya Chand used to live in Ujjain City. He was forbearing, benevolent and a very light hearted man. His wife was named Akshama, but she was Akshama by name only. There was not even a bit of forbearance (Kshama) in her heart. In truth, she was a highly callous and ill-tempered lady. Right from dawn to dusk it was her inevitable routine to quarrel with every member of her family. She used to speak ill of her parent-in-laws in presence of her husband Daya Chand, and would say, “I will not live with your mother as she abuses and insults me.” Addressing her the learned and well bread Daya Chand said, “My parents are your parents as well; serving them is your uppermost duty. The anger of elderly persons subsides on remaining humble. All become subordinate to a humble person. Everyone can be overpowered through forbearance (Kshama) and politeness. Therefore, be forgiving and justify your name Akshama.” On hearing these words of advice from her husband, the fire of anger of Akshma got all the more inflamed. She started hurling filthy abuses on her husband too. But the forgiving Seth did not utter a single word. At mid-day when Seth Daya Chand came home for meals, his wife started murmuring in anger. Daya Chand took meals calmly and then set out for his shop. As soon as he came down from his house and began to walk on the road, the wife Sethani threw garbage over him from above. Going upstairs, the Seth said to his wife with usual smile, “Oh, dear! Daily you simply thundered but today you have rained as well.” Seeing the calm and quiet nature of her husband, her anger vanished and lying down at his feet she apologized for her fault. This example shows that an angry person can be made calm, polite and full of reverence only by the weapon of forgiveness (Kshama). Therefore, one is duty bound, to try to befriend an angry man or an enemy with love rather than being angryon him.

一个名叫Daya Chand 的富人过去住在Ujjain。他是个宽容、仁慈怀有明亮之心的人。他的妻子名叫Akshama,但这只是她的名字,在她的心中没有丝毫的宽容(Kshama)。事实上,她是个心肠很硬的女人,从早到晚,她免不了要做的就是和家庭中的每一个成员吵架。她常在她丈夫Daya Chand面前说公婆的坏话,她会说:我不会和你妈妈一起生活,因为她责骂侮辱我。学识渊博,收入不菲的Daya Chand对妻子说:我的父母就是你的父母。侍奉他们是你最主要的责任,只要保持顺从,老人的气就消了。所有人都服从谦虚的人,任何人都无法抵抗宽容和礼貌。因此,宽容吧,证实你的名字Akshama听完丈夫的这些建议,Akshama的怒火全部被点燃了。她又对她的丈夫恶言责骂,但宽容的Seth没有一说句话。当Seth Daya Chand 中午回家吃饭时,他的妻子又生气地抱怨。Daya Chand平静地吃完饭准备去他的商店。他刚走下楼到了街上,他的妻子就在楼上向他扔了垃圾。走上楼去,他用往日的微笑对妻子说:哦,亲爱的!你每天只打雷,但今天你也下雨了。看着冷静的丈夫,她的气消了。跪在他的脚边为她的过失道歉,这个例子表明愤怒者只有通过宽恕(Kshama)这一武器使他冷静,礼貌,充满敬意。因此,我们有责任去友善面对发怒的人或敌人,而不是愤怒地对他们。

 

The ornament of a man is his nature; the ornament of nature is virtue; the ornament of virtue is knowledge, the ornament of knowledge is forgiveness (Kshama). It has been said,

美化自己是人的本质,美化了的本性是美德;美化了的美德是知识,美化了的知识是宽恕(Kshama)。人们常说:

 

Narasyabharan rupam, rupasyabharan guna,

 

Gunrsyabharan gyanam, gyanasyabharan Kshama

 

Whenever the saints endowed with forbearance perform repentance (pratikraman) and meditation (Samayika), they read the following couplet:

任何时候,当怀有宽恕之德的圣人们在顿悟(pratikraman)和冥想(Samayika)时,他们都会念下面的话:

 

Khamami savjivarnam, save jiva khamantu me

 

miti me sav bhuteshu, veram majham rn kernvi

 

The saints beg pardon of all living beings right from the one sensed (Aikendriya) i.e. having only one sense of touch, to the five sensed beings (Panchindriya), and pray, “All

living beings may forgive me; I should cherish friendly feelings for all; I bear no ill-will for

anyone.” The example of Kamatha and Marubhuti is well known in this context.

圣人们祈求一切生灵,从第一感官(Aikendriya),即只有触觉到五官 (Panchindriya)的宽恕,祈祷:众生会宽恕我,我应对一切怀有友善,不对任何人抱有恶意。 文中KamathaMarubhuti的例子就很著名。

 

Kamatha and Marabhuti both were brothers. One day Kamatha had sexual intercourse with Marubhuti’s wife in his absence. As a result the king exiled Kamatha from his Kingdom. Kamatha reached the hermitage of a sinful ascetic and started performing vicious penance. When Marbhuti, out of love for his brother, went to bring Kamatha back, the wretched fellow hurled a stone slab on his brother Marubhuti; consequently he died then and there and was reborn as an elephant. In the long run the elephant observed Anuvratas under the influence of the preachments of a religious teacher. Meanwhile, the spirit of Kamatha after death was reborn as a dragon and bit the elephant out of ill will of his previous birth. Likewise, up to ten births Kamatha’s spirit suffered the many-fold miseries of hell (nark) by nourishing uncalled for enmity with Marubhuti and by bringing tortures on him; but the spirit (Jeeva) of Marubhuti went on forgiving the spirit of Kamatha. Therefore, due to his forgiveness (Kshama) he was blessed to become Lord Parashvnath. In the end the spirit (Jeeva) of Kamatha came to the holy feet of Lord Parashvnath and asked for his forgiveness shedding all his bitterness and ill will towards him.

 

KamathaMarabhuti是兄弟,一天KamathaMarabhuti外出时与他的妻子通奸。结果,国王将Kamatha驱逐出他的国土。Kamatha来到了修行罪孽的隐居地开始修行。当Marabhuti出于对兄弟的爱,去把他带回来时,这个可恶的家伙向他的兄弟Marabhuti掷了石板。结果他死了并转世成了一只大象。长久以来,这只象在上师讲道的影响下奉行Anuvratas。同时

Kamatha的灵魂在他死后转世成了一条龙,出于前世的罪恶意图咬了这只象。同样,重生了十次的Kamatha的灵魂由于怀有对Marabhuti的敌意并给他带来了痛苦,遭受了地狱里的多重苦难。但Marabhuti的灵魂(Jeeva)仍宽恕着Kamatha的灵魂。因此,由于他的宽容(Kshama).他被祝福成为圣主Parashvnath。最后,Kamatha的灵魂(Jeeva)来到圣主Parashvnath的神圣脚旁请求宽恕以摆脱他所有的痛苦和对圣主的罪意。

 

While describing the virtue of supreme forgiveness, the great poet Reidhu writes:

当描述至上的宽恕这一美德时,伟大诗人Reidhu写道:

 

Utam karam tili yeh sari, utam kham jammi dahitari

 

Utam karam ryantriya-dhari, utam kham dugayi duh hari

 

Utam karam gun sehyari, utam khand munhivind payari

 

Utam karam bahuyan chintamani, utam khand sampjan thir mani

 

Utam karam mhnij syal janri, utam khand michhat tamo manri

 

Jahim asmtham dosu khamijayi, jahim asamathahm rn u rusijayi

 

Jahim akosanr vayanr sahijayi, jahim par dos nrjanri bhasijyi

 

Jahim cheyanrgunr chitdharijayi, tahim uttamkaram jjinekehjeyi

 

Iye utam karam juy nrr sur karag nruy kevalnranru lehvithuru

 

Huye siddnrirnjnru bhavduh bhajnru aganriyrisi pundgavjchiru

 

1. Supreme forgiveness is pertinent in all the three worlds. It helps to sail across the ocean of birth and death; it enables us to be endowed with the three jewels i.e., Right Belief, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct and safeguards us from a miserable plight.

至上的宽恕在三大世界是相互关联的。它帮助我们在生与死的海洋中航行,使我们被赠予了三大宝物,即正确的信仰,正确的知识和正确的行为,保护我们远离苦境。

 

2. Supreme forgiveness contributes to horde of virtues; it is dear to the nude Jain monks. Supreme forgiveness is like the crown jewel (Chintamani) for the learned scholars. Only persons with stable minds can acquire the virtue of supreme forgiveness.

至上的宽恕促进了大量的美德;它对耆那教的僧侣们很宝贵。至上的宽恕就像为博学的修行者准备的王冠上的珠宝,只有具有坚定意志的人才能获得至上的宽恕这一美德。

 

3. Supreme forgiveness is held in high veneration by all great men. Forgiveness works like a dazzling jewel to dispel the darkness of wrong belief. The faults of the helpless persons are pardoned by a forgiver and he does not get enraged with them. Freedom from the growth of evil passions in the mind is forgiveness.

至上的宽恕被所有圣人高度崇拜。宽恕就像一颗灿烂的宝石能驱散错误信念的黑暗。宽恕之人赦免无助之人的过失,也不对他们发怒。免除意念中罪恶情绪滋生的就是宽恕。

 

4. The persons, who without finding fault with others bear patiently the harsh words of the rogues, accepting them as the outcome of the evil actions of their previous births. They experience their own celestial virtues and are deeply engrossed in their selfrealization have been termed by Lord Jinendra as gifted with supreme forgiveness.

一些人,没有从耐心忍受恶汉的刺耳言语的其他人口中挑出毛病,把这些看作是他们前世恶行的结果。他们体验他们自己的美德,并深切地注意自我认识,这个被耆那教圣主称为至上的宽恕的赠予。

 

5. Thus the persons gifted with supreme forgiveness, worshipped by Gods (Devas) and Vidyadharas (Divine beings skilled in various arts and sciences); and the innumerable holy saints who vanquish all worldly miseries on attaining the eternal omniscience and getting rid of the blemishes of karma have become enlightened souls (Siddha). I bow with reverence a thousand times at the holy feet of those supreme saints who are gifted with the virtue of forgiveness.

这样,被赠予了至上的宽恕,被神灵(Devas) Vidyadharas(擅长各种艺术和科学的神灵)爱慕的人们,以及无数的圣人就变成了开明的灵魂(Siddha)。这些圣人征服了所有的世间痛苦只为达到永恒的神圣,摆脱因果报应的束缚。我数千次怀着崇敬之情向那些具有宽恕美德的至上的圣人鞠躬。

 

It has been said

人们常说:

 

Kshama kharang kare yaseya durjana kim karishayti

 

Atrinre patito vahri swaymevopashamyati

 

What harm can an ill-natured person do to one who holds the dagger of forgiveness in his hand? For ultimately one day fire is automatically extinguished on a grassless, barren ground.

本性险恶的人会对手中持有宽恕这一利剑的人做出什么伤害呢?最终有一天,火会在没有草的贫瘠的地上自动熄灭。

 

To sum up, “It is good to have a giant’s power, but bad to use it like a giant.”

总之:有巨大的能力是好事,但像巨人那样用这能力就不好了。

 

Only devil mind will try to follow this rule of the jungle;

只有思想恶劣的人才会试图采用下面的竞争规则。 

‘Shathe shatayam samacharet’ 

‘Tit for tat -

You killed my dog,

I killed your cat.’

 

针锋相对(以牙还牙)——

你杀了我的狗,

我就杀掉你的猫。” 

There is a wise and saintly saying; ‘Revenge is a wild justice’. Hence, O Mortal Man! Pardon! Pardon! Pardon all thy oppressors and enemies.

有一句至理名言:报复是野蛮的公正。因此,哦,人啊!宽恕!宽恕!宽恕一切你们的压迫者和敌人吧。 

O aspirants for mental peace! Always remember:

哦,渴望精神的宁静!总记得: 

Mere vanity is sufficient to bring downfall,

一丝虚荣引来堕落 

Mere passions are sufficient for bondage of soul,

一股激情囚禁灵魂, 

Hence I counsel you to shun these,

因此,我告诫你远离它们, 

Forgiveness alone is enough to attain Godhood.

只有宽恕足以达到神灵之境界。