Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德
与贡献 
     
   前言 
  绪论 
  五大神灵之圣歌
  引言 
  至上的宽恕
   至上的谦卑 
   至上的诚实 
  至上的纯洁 
  至上的善言 
   至上的自律
  至上的苦行 
  至上的舍弃 
  至上的情禁 
  至上的禁欲 
  结束语

TEN UNIVERSAL VIRTUES  十大美德 

Prologue   引言 

PARYUSHAN PARVA 

The Festival of Self-Uplift by the Holy Observation of Ten Universal

Virtues

通过虔诚的遵守十大美德来提升自我修行 

The Jain community like other communities throughout the world celebrates many social and religious functions annually.

耆那教和全世界其他宗教团体一样每年都为许多社会和宗教事务举行仪式。  

The superb Jain festival popularly known as ‘Paryushan Parva’ organized every year in the auspicious month ‘Bhadrapad’ of the Hindu calendar extends from the fifth day to fourteenth day of the bright fortnight.

众所周知的至上的耆那教盛典Paryushan Parva就举办于每年印度年历中的吉祥之月Bhadrapad从晴朗的两周中的第5天到第14天。 

The festival ordains the Jains to observe the ten universal supreme virtues in daily practical life.

盛典命令耆那教徒日常遵守十大美德。 

Besides assuring a blissful existence in this world and the other world for every living

being, it aims at the attainment of salvation - the supreme ideal for mundane soul.

除了确保世界众生的幸福生存之外,还旨在进行拯救——世俗灵魂解脱的最高目标 

The non-Jains also express high reverence for this Jain festival.

非耆那教徒也表达了对耆那教盛典的很高的崇敬。 

 All members of Jain community- high and low, young and old, and males and females, participate with full vigor and zeal in the various religious rituals and cultural programs.

所有耆那教成员,无论地位高低,老少,男女,都以全部的精力和热忱参与到各种宗教仪式和文化活动中来。 

They listen with rapt attention to the holy sermons of the saints and learned Jain scholars arranged during the ten-day festival.

在这十天的盛典中,他们全神贯注地听着圣明之人和知识渊博的耆那修道者安排的神圣的训诫。 

In these celebrations lie dormant the seeds of the well being, peace and

happiness of the common man.

在这些仪式中埋着人类幸福,和平,快乐的无名的种子。 

On the eve of this festival all activities, which add to social discord or bitterness are declared taboo from the temple pulpits.

在盛典的前夕,一切增加社会不安定与苦难的活动都从寺庙讲坛被宣告禁止。 

These celebrations harbinger social harmony and amity and preach the lofty Jain motto ‘Live and Let live’.

这些仪式预示着社会和谐,和睦,宣扬着崇高的耆那教教训生和放生 

The ‘Paryushan Parva’ celebrated annually for self-purification and uplift is meant to

adhere to the ten universal virtues in practical life; and leads us on the right path, far from

the mad strife for material prosperity, which ultimately leads us to our true destination i.e.,

salvation.

为自我纯化,自我提升的Paryushan Parva仪式每年举办一次,意义在于实际生活中坚持十大美德;引领我们行正道,远离为了物质繁荣的争斗,最终将引领我们走向真正的终点,即解脱。 

Two popular titles of this festival, viz. (i) Paryushan Parva and (ii) Dash Lakshan Parva are in vogue; but the mode of performance and aim of the festival is same.

这一盛典的两个称号,即Paryushan Parva Dash Lakshan Parva正广为流传,活动的模式和盛典的目的同样也广为传播。 

According to Sanskrit grammar the underlying idea of the festival and its interpretation is

given below:

根据Sanskrit语法,盛典的基本思想和它的说明叙述如下: 

“Parismantadushayante dhante karmani yasimannasau paryushnm” 

I.e., The celebration through which the karmic matter attached to the soul is totally burnt or vanquished (both internally and externally) is known Paryushan i.e., selfpurification.

即通过宗教仪式附着了灵魂因果报应事物被完全烧光或征服(内部和外部的)就是Paryushan即自律。 

Various meaningful and sublime titles have been assigned to this festival in different

Jain scripture; e.g.,

在不同的耆那教经文中,这一盛典被给予了各种意味深长和崇高的称号;例如, 

Parva Raj - The festival which carries a special and greater significance; its celebrations

spread over a longer duration and it is more soul-stirring than any other Jain festival.

富有特殊及更重大意义的盛典;它的宗教仪式比起其他耆那教盛典持续时间更长,更能够撞击灵魂。 

Maha Parva - It is an ancient and chief of all Jain festival.

它是所有耆那教盛典中最古老,最重要的盛典。 

Dash Lakshan Parva - The festival for the observance of ten universal virtues; viz.,

forgiveness, contentment, and celibacy, which aim at the uplift of the soul and are vividly

preached and practiced during the festival.

为奉行十大美德而举办的盛典;即宽恕,满足,独身,旨在盛典期间提升灵魂并生动宣扬和履行这些美德。 

Paryushan Parva - The festival through which an attempt is made to put an end to all

vices, passions and lustful desires in thought, speech and deeds.

通过盛典,尝试在思想,语言和行为上消除罪恶,情欲和贪念。 

Paryu-Prasa - The festival in which one meditates upon the inherent virtues of the soul in

thought, speech and action; or one attains peace of soul i.e., celestial peace.

在盛典上,沉思在思想、语言和行动上灵魂所固有的美德,实现灵魂的宁静,即神圣的宁静。 

Paryupshamn or Pajjusvana - The festival in which an attempt is made to obtain peace

discarding all passions and lustful desires through various means; and observe harmony in the soul through the study of scriptures.

在盛典上,通过各种方式尝试摆脱一切情欲和贪念来获得宁静;并通过学习经文以奉行灵魂上的宁静。 

Pajjushana - This word of Prakrit language carries the same meaning as explained in

Paryushan Parva.

Prakrit 这个词与Paryushan Parva有着同样的意思。

 

Samvatsari Parva - The festival which is celebrated annually to subdue all passions and

lustful desires. This title is popular to the Swaitamber sect of Jainism.

一年举办一次的盛典为了克服一切情欲和贪念。这个称号广泛流传于耆那主义的Swaitamber教派。

 

Paryushan Parva gives expression to the perfectly purified trait of the soul, through

which one gets rid of worldly discords and allurements and one gets fully absorbed in the

eternal truth on experiencing and realizing the true nature of soul.

Paryushan Parva 表达了灵魂完全纯洁的特点,通过它,可以避免世俗的不和谐和诱惑,可以在体验和认识灵魂的真实本质时被永恒的真理完全同化。

 

In other words we can say that the natural realization of the trio ‘the True, the Good and the Beautiful’ is fully possible only through Paryushan. In fact the other name of the Jainism, which is universal religion, is Paryushan.

换言之,我们可以说仅仅通过Paryushan 来认识真善美的本质是完全可能的。事实上,耆那主义这一大教派的另一个名字就是Paryushan

 

This festival puts an end to all evils in man; gives him realization of the eternal bliss, and spiritualism becomes alive by the celebration of this festival.

这个盛典结束了人类的一切罪恶,使人类认识了永恒的幸福,通过举办这一盛典,非物质主义开始活跃。

 

Since times immemorial the living beings have fallen prey to the bewitching worldly

allurements.

自从太古时代,人们就受到令人着迷的世俗的诱惑。

 

They are involved day and night in such a poisonous environment of lustful desires and sensuous pleasures that despite being cautioned time and again, they fail to rid themselves from the bondage of the net work of worldly illusions.

他们终日生活在贪念和感官愉悦的这样一个罪恶的环境中,尽管被屡屡告诫,他们还是被世俗的幻想之网而囚禁。

 

Jain Acaryas have, through their sermons and ideal moral code of conduct, inspired the mundane souls to keep aloof from the blemishes of the world, which breed nothing but sorrow and misery for the mankind.

通过他们的训诫和行为上标准的道德法规,耆那教Acaryas已经激发了世俗的灵魂远离世界的缺陷,这些缺陷只给人类带来了不幸和痛苦。

 

But the insatiable ambition of man for sensuous pleasures, material comforts and luxurious life has always allured him since antiquity. Consequently man has

bitterly failed to make distinction between self and non-self, and to understand the real

nature of soul.

但自从古代,人类对感官愉悦,物质享受和奢华生活的永不满足之心就一直被诱惑着。因此人类在区分自我和非我,在理解灵魂的真实本质上遭到惨败。

 

This festival has its own age-old history, but nothing definite can be said about its origin and since when it is being celebrated.

这一盛典具有悠久的历史,但没有明确资料证实它的起源及首次举办时间。

In fact, the celebration of this festival is beyond the scope of known history.

事实上,这项盛典的举办史已经超过了已知历史的范围。

 

The truth is that spiritual matters like self-purification and renunciation cannot be measured by Time scale.

像自我纯化和舍弃这样的非物质问题不能用时间的尺度来衡量,这是真理。

 

When the auspicious month of Bhadrapad comes every year, the whole Jain community celebrates this festival unitedly without any difference of high and low, rich and poor.

当每年的吉祥之月Bhadrapad 到来时,耆那教全体,不分地位高低、贫富,会共同举办这一盛典。

 

The Digambaras and the Swaitamberas, both sects of Jain community celebrate the self-uplifting festival with great enthusiasm.

 

Digambaras Swaitamberas这两个耆那教教派以极大的热情庆祝这个自我提升的盛典。

 

The fifth day of the bright fortnight of the holy month of ‘Bhadrapad’ is auspicious for both.

 

神圣之月Bhadrapad 的晴朗的两周中的第五天,对两个教派来说都是吉利的。

 

The Digambaras celebrate this festival annually for ten days, from the fifth day to the fourteenth day of the bright half of the month.

Digambaras 教派每年举办这个盛典为期十天,从晴朗的月中的第五天到第十四天。

 

Whereas the Swaitamberas celebrate it only for eight days, and the fifth day is the main day of their celebrations held under the title ‘Samvatsari Parva’.

Swaitamberas教派的仪式为期仅八天,仪式以Samvatsari Parva为称号举办,第五天是宗教仪式的重要活动日。

 

References about the celebrations of ‘Paryushan Parva’ or Dash Lakhan Parva are

available here and there in ancient literary books as well; which show that it has been a

popular festival since ages.

关于Paryushan Parva Dash Lakhan Parva 庆典仪式的参考内容在古书中随处可见,这表明在很久以前,这一盛典就广为流行。

 

The householders celebrate it jointly suspending all their business, agricultural and commercial activities for the time being.

百姓们为了这一时刻的到来,停下了一切事务,耕作和商业活动,联合举办这一盛典。

 

A fine description of the closing ceremony of this festival is available in the ‘Bhattarak’ era extending from 1350 AD to 1450 AD.

Bhattarak时代,公元1350年至1450年,有关于这一盛典的闭幕式的详尽描述。

 

In that age the house-holders got manuscript copies of the prominent holy books prepared by the scholars, and offered these to the ‘Bhattaraks’ and their disciples with due devotion at the end of ceremonies.

在那个时代,百姓们会得到由修道者撰写的优秀宗教书籍的手抄本,他们就把这些手抄本给Bhattaraks和他们那些有真正信仰的门徒们。

 

Even today ‘Dash Lakshan Parva’ is the most suitable occasion for giving donations and charities; and on the last day of the festival the house-holders observe full day fast and make every attempt to donate to religious and social institutions in cash or kind some thing within their capacity.

甚至今天Dash Lakshan Parva还是捐助和布施的最佳场合。在盛典的最后一天,百姓们一整天都奉行斋戒,努力尝试用现金资助宗教和社会组织或以其能力所及而布施。

Very often the Jain scholars viz. poets and writers get their literary works initiated during the festival days and thus pay their homage to this grand festival.

耆那教修道者,即诗人和作家经常在盛典日获得他们的文学作品,因此立誓效忠这个大盛典。

 

Jin Datt Charit’ is an epic poem of Hindi language. The author of this literary work,

the great poet Raj Singh finished this book on the holy day of 5th day, of the bright moon

of ‘Bhadrapad’ in Samvat 1354.

Jin Datt Charit》是北印度语的一部史诗。这部文学作品的作者,伟大诗人Raj Singh 1354Bhadrapad晴朗之月,宗教日的第五天,在Samvat 完成了这本书。

 

The learned poet Raj Singh chose this day for the initiation ceremony of his great book simply to immortalize the glory and significance of this day.

这个学识渊博的诗人Raj Singh选择这一天作为他巨作的发布式,主要是为了使这重要的一天永垂于史册。

 

The following verse of the poem throws ample light on the special significance

of ‘Dash Lakshan Parva’ in the 14th century.

下面的这个诗句是Dash Lakshan Parva14世纪所写下的,它表明了这个典礼的重要性。

 

‘Samvat terven chauvane bhadav shudi panchami guru dine’

 

· Jin Datt Charit

 

Similar to the modern age, the Dash Lakshan Parva was celebrated with great zeal and joy thousands of years ago as well; austerities viz. self-meditation, doing penance, fasting and study of holy scriptures were performed during that period.

与当今时代相同,数千年以前人们也以极大的热情和喜悦之情举办仪式Dash Lakshan Parva;在那期间进行苦修,即反思,苦行,斋戒及学习宗教经文。

 

The householders purged their soul by keeping fast on the last day of the ceremonies and celebrated the closing ceremony with great pomp and show. When the ten day celebration are over, this festival leaves behind deep impress on the mind and heart of every Jain - young and old.

百姓们在仪式的最后一天通过实行斋戒来净化他们的灵魂,并将闭幕式举办的盛况空前。当十天的仪式结束时,这个盛典给耆那教教徒们,无论老少的心中都留下了深刻的印象。

 

All Jains - Digambers and Swaitambers, will celebrate this sacred festival forever throughout India and abroad.

所有耆那教教徒,无论Digambers 还是Swaitambers 都将永远在印度国内外举办这一神圣的盛典。

 

The former appear to have the best pretensions to antiquity and cultural heritage and to have been most widely diffused; the later have only as yet been traced as far back as 5th century AD.

前者显现出对古代和文化遗产有着最好的主张,也普及得最广泛;后者则要追溯到公元5世纪。

 

The former are almost certainly the same as Nirgrantha, who are referred to in numerous passages of Buddhist Pal Pitakas and must therefore be as old as 6th century B.C. rather earlier.

前者无疑几乎与涉及众多Buddhist Pal Pitakas的文章的 Nirgrantha一样,要追溯到公元前6世纪甚至更早。

 

The Swaitamberas’ idea of exclusiveness appears to be one of recent growth. In fact, Jainism is a prehistoric religion propounded by the first Tirthankara Lord Aadi Nath. Upon all these grounds we think that the celebration of Paryushan Parva is a holy tradition coming down from the ancient past to the present times.

Swaitamberas独有的想法最近有了提高。事实上,耆那教是个很古老的宗教,由第一代Tirthankara圣主Aadi Nath提出。基于所有这些理由,我们认为Paryushan Parva的宗教仪式是有古代传到现在的一项宗教传统。

 

To sum up, Paryushan Parva is a grand Jain festival of self-introspection, self-enlightenment and self-achievement, which ultimately leads to the one and only one final goal, i.e., liberation or salvation.

总的来说,Paryushan Parva 是一项自我反省,自我启示,自我成就的一大耆那教盛典,它

终将带来一个,也是唯一的目标:解脱和拯救。

 

***********************************************************************

Do not minimize the value of ideals. They appeal to the imagination, stir the heart,

stimulate the noblest springs of action, but ideal and practical must be blended into one

harmonious whole. There must be no divorce between the real and ideal.

***********************************************************************

不要把最终目标的价值最小化,他们诉诸于想象,激荡心灵,激发最卓越的行动源泉。但是理想和实践必须融为和谐的整体。现实和理想是不可分离的。