Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德





Ever since I renounced home in November, 1988 and took celibacy vow at Ankloose in Maharashtra state; and thereafter Gandhar Acharya Shri Kunthu Sagar ji Maharaj initiated me as a nude Jain monk in February, 1989 at the holy mount Sri Sammed Sikharji, I always aspired to kindle the flame of eternal truth in man by creating a stir in his thought-realm.

自从我198811月脱离家庭,在Maharashtra州的 Ankloose做了独身誓言宣誓,此后Gandhar Acharya Shri Kunthu Sagar ji Maharaj19892月在参拜圣地Shri Sammed Shikherji时对我作为一名耆那教裸体派僧侣进行启蒙,我一直立志于通过对他的思想领域的冥思来点燃人类永恒真理的火焰。


It is my confirmed belief that by gradual change in ‘outlook’ on life i.e., the

tendency of looking to the needs of external body alone, the blessed souls, who ‘in-look’

i.e., look to the inner soul ultimately attain salvation one day.



Because so long as their inner soul slumbers and the body or the outer man awakes, they rejoice in material pursuits and sensuous pleasures. But when their inner soul awakens their bodily requirements go in deep slumber. In that state the soul alone exists but the physical body perishes.



In the absence of the body they get rid of the cycle of births and deaths; for when they become ‘independent’ i.e., depend on the inner or their real self, they become truly independent from carnal desires and physical objects and their spiritual existence alone subsists.



This book describes in detail the Ten Universal Virtues enumerated differently by renowned scholars in Jain scriptures. The ten virtues are:


‘Dharma, Seva, Kshanti, Mridutvmrijuta, ch Shotmath, Satyam

Akinchanyam, Brahm, tyagshch, tapashch, sanyamshcheti’


(Acharya Amritchandra, Sloka 208)


1. Uttama Kshama - Supreme Forgiveness (To observe tolerance whole-heartedly,

shunning anger.)

1. Uttama Kshama 无上的宽恕(奉行全心忍耐,避开愤怒。)


2. Mardava - Tenderness or Humility (To observe the virtue of humility subduing vanity

and passions.)

2. Mardava 慈悲为怀乐善好施(奉行谦卑的美德,克服虚荣与私情。)


3. Arjaya - Straight-forwardness or Honesty (To practice a deceit-free conduct in life by

vanquishing the passion of deception.)

3. Arjaya 心无杂念,诚实正直(抑制欺骗的情欲以做到一生举止诚实。)


4. Shaucha - Contentment or Purity (To keep the body, mind and speech pure by

discarding greed.

4. Shaucha 满足,纯洁(摆脱贪婪,保持身体,思想和言语的纯净。)


5. Satya - Truthfulness (To speak affectionate and just words with a holy intention

causing no injury to any living being.)

5. Satya 善言(谈吐真情流露禀着虔诚的意图措辞,不伤害众生。)


6. Sanyam - Self-restraint (To defend all living beings with utmost power in a

cosmopolitan spirit abstaining from all the pleasures provided by the five senses - touch,

taste, smell, sight, and hearing; and the sixth - mind.)

6. Sanyam 自我约束(用博大的灵魂以最大的力量保护众生,戒绝五官-触,尝,闻,看,听及第六感官-意欲带来的一切欢愉。)


7. Tapa - Penance or Austerities (To practice austerities putting a check on all worldly


7. Tapa 苦修(实施苦行以抵制一切言语上的诱惑。)


8. Tyaga - Renunciation (To give four fold charities - Ahara (food), Abhaya

(fearlessness), Aushadha (medicine), and Shastra Dana (distribution of Holy Scriptures),

and to patronize social and religious institutions for self and other uplifts.)

8. Tyaga 解脱(进行四重布施 - Ahara (食物), Abhaya(无畏), Aushadha (药物)以及Shastra Dana (分发宗教经文),庇护社会和宗教组织以达到自身和其他方面的道德提高。)


9. Akinchanya - Non-attachment (To enhance faith in the real self as against non-self

i.e., material objects; and to discard internal Parigraha viz. anger and pride; and external

Parigraha viz. accumulation of gold, diamonds, and royal treasures.)

9. Akinchanya 戒除爱恋(增强信念以真我克服非我,即物质;丢弃内部的Parigraha,即愤怒和傲慢;丢弃外部的Parigraha,即黄金,钻石及皇家宝物的积累。)


10. Brahmacarya - Chastity or celibacy (To observe the great vow of celibacy; to have

devotion for the inner soul and the omniscient Lord; to discard the carnal desires, vulgar

fashions, child and old-age marriages, dowry dominated marriages, polygamy, criminal

assault on ladies, use of foul and vulgar language.)

10. Brahmacarya 禁欲,独身(奉行独身誓言;为灵魂和万能的主献身;抛弃肉欲,世俗方式,孩子和多年的婚姻,支配婚姻的嫁妆,配偶,对女人的强暴,淫秽言语。)


These ten virtues have been divided in two parts on the basis of ‘Paryaya-Naya’ i.e., the model point of view, and ‘Dravya-Naya’ i.e., the substantial point of view; or in spiritual terminology ‘Vyavahara-Naya’ i.e., the practical point of view and ‘Nishchaya-Naya’ i.e., the realistic point of view. The householders are ordained for partial observation and the ascetics for absolute observation of these virtues.

基于Paryaya-Naya,即经验的观点和Dravya-Naya,即实际的观点,或用脱俗的术语Vyavahara-Naya,即实用的观点和 Nishchaya-Naya,现实的观点,这十大美德可分为两部分;上师对这些美德中不公平的评论委以圣职,苦行者对其中的绝对的评论委以圣职。 

From the above view points these ten virtues have been further classified into forty categories. The adjective ‘Supreme’ has been used with these ten virtues with three viewpoints:


(i)     Forgiveness given with perfect faith is called supreme forgiveness.


(ii)    Forgiveness given by an ascetic who observes the great vows is known as supreme forgiveness.


(ii)   Ordinarily the virtue of forgiveness has been assigned the first place among virtues and is regarded superb in the world; from this viewpoint also forgiveness is the supreme virtue.


Pertaining to the use of the adjective ‘Supreme’, the sermon of Acharya Uma Swamy

is also worth remembering:

关于形容词至上的的使用,Acharya Uma Swamy的训诫也是值得牢记在心的: 

‘Utamkshmamardvarjvshochstyanymtpstyagaiknynybrhmyrari Dharma’

(Tattvartha Sutra: Section IX, Sutra 6) 

There are other versions of ten virtues in Jain philosophy:


‘Athahimsa kasha Satyam, shuchi shradhendryasanyam,

Danmijaya tapodhyanam, dashakam dharmsadhnam’ 

It means religion has ten ways and means:



1. Ahimsa - Non-violence           非暴力


2. Kshma – Forgiveness            宽恕


3. Satya – Truthfulness             善言


4. Shuchitva – Purity               纯洁


5. Shradha – Faith                 信仰


6. Indriya Sanyam - Restraint on senses         感官约束


7. Dana – Charity                       博爱


8. Puja - Devotion or worship             虔诚


9. Tapa – Penance                      苦行


10. Dhayana – Meditation                冥思


‘Sanyam sunritshoch, brahmakichanta Tapa,

Kshanti mardvmrijuta, muktishch dashdha sa tu’


It means, this religion which preaches universal well-being is of ten kinds:



1. Sanyam - Self-restraint                   自律


2. Satya – Truthfulness                     善言


3. Pavitrata – Purity                        纯洁


4. Brahmacarya – Chastity                  禁欲


5. Akinchanya - Non-attachment             情戒


6. Tapa – Penance                         苦行


7. Shanty – Peace                          禅定


8. Vineysheelta – Humility                   谦卑


9. Nishkapat Vyavhar - Deception-free conduct   非欺骗行为


10. Mukti – Liberation                        解脱


‘Sevya kshantimrardvmarjvshoye ch sanyamtyago

Satyo tapo brahmakinchanyanilop dharmvidhi’

(Acharya Hemachandra: Yogashastra Prakash 4, Sloka 13)


It means religion consists of ten-fold currents:



1. Shanti – Peace                     禅定    


2. Narmarta – Humility                 谦卑    


3. Arjava - Non-deceitfulness            诚实    


4. Shaucha - Purity (in thought, speech and action)     纯洁(在思想,言语和行动上)  


5. Sanyam - Self-restraint               自律


6. Tyaga – Renunciation                 舍弃


7. Satya – Truthfulness                  善言


8. Tapa – Penance                      苦行


9. Brahmacarya – Chastity              禁欲


10. Akinchanya - Non-attachment        情禁


I hope that by a sincere attempt to follow and practice in daily life the ten universal virtues vividly explained in this book, every aspirant for eternal bliss will undergo a vast change in his life and will realize the real meaning and purpose of man’s existence in this world.



Muni Kam Kumar Nandi

Veer Nagar, Jain Bagh


Chaturmas - 1994