Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德
与贡献 
     
   前言 
  绪论 
  五大神灵之圣歌
  引言 
  至上的宽恕
   至上的谦卑 
   至上的诚实 
  至上的纯洁 
  至上的善言 
   至上的自律
  至上的苦行 
  至上的舍弃 
  至上的情禁 
  至上的禁欲 
  结束语

TEN UNIVERSAL VIRTUES  十大美德 

Epilogue 结语

KSHAMAVANI PARVA

Annual Forbearance Function 自制力周年典礼

The ten-day celebrations pertaining to the ten universal supreme virtues culminate in the practical observance of the Annual Forbearance function. During these celebrations every Jain daily devotes most of his time in prayer and worship getting rid of the mundane duties of practical life. The celebrations extend from the 5th day of the bright half of the holy month of 'Bhadrapad' to the 14th day, which is the last day and fast day.

十天关于十大美德的仪式在自制力周年典礼这个仪式上到达顶峰。在这些仪式中,每个耆那教徒花费大部分时间祈祷膜拜,祈求摆脱现实生活中的世俗责任。这些仪式由原本每半个圣月第五天的白昼演变为第十四天,而这一天也是忏悔日和斋戒日。

 

On this sacred day every member of Jain community approaches his or her kith and kin, neighbor, colleague and co-worker in office, business and industry irrespective of his/her caste, creed and clan. He/she begs pardon of them for all faults or mistakes committed knowingly or unknowingly. He or she confesses his/her errors and apologizes for these to every compatriot and every follower of his own religion or other religions. Thus he/she feels relieved of the heavy burden hanging on his/her head of the sins of previous years. Henceforth the person starts social life afresh living together in love and peace with all, following the noble principle of peaceful co-existence. In truth, on this auspicious day, the Jains dedicate themselves heart and soul to submit to their popular slogan 'Live and Let Live'. Thus, they give expression to their feeling that all creatures in the world are equal, endowed with the same soul and aspire for peace and happiness.

在这个神圣的日子里,每一个耆那教团的成员都要走近他的亲朋好友、邻居、办公室的同事、商人和工人,无论他们属于什么阶级、什么信仰、什么宗教。祈求这些人原谅他有心或者无心犯下的所有的错误。他将承认自己的错误并向这些自己的同胞和信仰相同或不同的人致歉。这样他才能面对过去这些年压在心中的沉重负担而感到轻松。从今以后,人们又重新在爱与和平的环境下一起生活,与之相伴的是和平共存的高尚法则。事实上,在这幸运的日子里,耆那教徒们奉献了自己的心和灵魂来服从他们生存并让别人生存的流行口号。因此,他们认为世界上所有的事物都是平等的,而这些都被赋予了同样的灵魂,他们立志捍卫和平与快乐。

 

Indeed, this annual function is not merely a traditional ritual, but also a first step on the path to attain liberation or salvation -the final goal of every man's life.

的确,这种周年典礼并不仅仅是一种传统仪式,它也是通往人生最高目标——解放和救赎道路上的第一阶段。

 

Its Significance 它的意义

Kshma bhushan gunri jan ka , man ka svasthya ka

I.e., Forgiveness is an ornament of the learned; it bestows charm to life and gives perfect health.

即:宽恕是博学的一种装饰,它为人生赋予魅力并带来完美的健康。

From the spiritual viewpoint forgiveness is regarded synonymous with sobriety, nobility and generosity. Forgiveness is supposed to be the first and foremost virtue of ascetics and scholars. In the holy books of all religions anger has been pronounced to be the root cause of all sins and the downfall of man. The persons given to anger are generally found unrighteous, tyrants, immoral, quarrelsome, murderous and depraved by nature. Anger has been looked down upon and forgiveness adorned by one and all. The great Acharyas have also said:

从精神上看,宽恕被看作清醒、高贵和宽大的同义词。宽恕被视为修行者和学者的第一也是最重要的美德。在所有宗教的圣书中,愤怒被视为所有罪孽和致人堕落的根源。愤怒的人往往会变得邪恶、残暴、不道德、争执、谋杀,而他的本性也会堕落。愤怒已经被轻视而宽恕则被大家所称道。伟大的Acharyas也曾说过:

Koho miti vinrasanram

I.e., Anger puts an end to friendship; or,

即:愤怒使友谊走到尽头。

Naranram krodhshchandala

I.e., People given to anger are the meanest persons.

即:愤怒之人就是低劣之人。

Various sermons, discourses, fables and legends all sing glories of forgiveness, which affords emotional sustenance, moral inspiration and mental power to a man.

各种布道、演说、寓言和神话都歌颂宽容的光辉,它给人以情感的支持、道德的灵感和智慧的力量。

Ksma Dharma kshma yagya, kshma vaida kshma shrutam

Ye aitdaivam janati sa sarva kshutrmhati

-Mahabharat 2nd parva

Adruha daivo vardyentai -Rigveda 5/68/4

I.e., The gods (or true friends), who do not indulge in revolt and create stir, alone raise us high in the world.

即:神(或真正的朋友们)不会沉溺于暴乱或制造混乱,只会将我们从世俗中提升出来。

Sugorvam ashryam dharni datai khanitarmapi dhuruvam, tatha Tama badhkanityam kshmsvasman -Kural Kavya Pari 16

Not only from the spiritual point of view, forgiveness has been regarded the basis of all types of penance and meditation, but in the material world also from the scientific and psychological viewpoint forgiveness has been called bestowal of bodily vitality. It is a panacea for all diseases and instrumental to mental development. Forgiveness helps not only in pacifying anger and making us religious minded by removing all sins, but is also capable in keeping us hale and hearty

不仅在精神层面上宽恕已经被看作是所有苦修和冥想的基础,而且在科学和心理学的物质层面上宽恕也已经被叫做机体活力的最好礼物。它是一切疾病的万能药,也是精神发展的指导。宽恕不仅仅帮助平复愤怒,使我们通过消除罪孽达到虔诚的思想,而且也具备使我们精力充沛的能力。

 

Scientists have also proved that a poisonous chemical fluid known as 'Adrenaline' automatically begins to be extracted from an angry man's bile duct, which effects his whole nervous system together with the veins and arteries. As a result of the extraction of this poisonous fluid, fatal and incurable diseases like muscular weakness, weaker memory, loss of appetite, generation of acidity and rise in blood pressure take birth in human body.

科学家也证实,一种已知的有毒化学液体肾上腺素能够不断地从一个愤怒的人的胆管中萃取出来,而这会影响他的整个神经系统以及静脉和动脉。而这有毒液体所造成的后果,就是使人体产生类似肌肉无力,记忆力衰退,食欲不振,胃酸过多和血压升高等严重而不可治愈的疾病。

 

Scientists are unanimous in their opinion that anger gives rise to many types of mental disorders. The psychiatrists state that cure of diseases like emotional tension, blood pressure, ulcer, TB, and mental madness is possible only by rooting out anger.

科学家们一致认为愤怒会产生多种精神混乱的情况。精神病学家声明治疗类似精神紧张、高血压、溃疡、疯癫等疾病的方面只有通过根除我们的愤怒。

 

Anger invites to untimely, premature old age. The ill feelings of anger, gloom, worry and hatred leave a deep effect on human body. In the state of rage, a chemical change takes place in a man's body, which obstructs blood supply to the face. As a result the facial skin turns either pale or extremely ruddy. An occasional outburst of anger creates wrinkles on the face. On the contrary the face looks full of luster and bloom in a peaceful and happy state of mind. Thus, anger causes not only physical loss but the internal system of the body also becomes deranged. Consequently, it leaves an adverse effect on the digestive system as well, and many heart troubles are born. In this way the vicious feeling of anger leaves a highly demolishing effect on the human body, mind, heart and soul. Therefore, not only from the point of view of heavenly bliss and a virtuous life, but also for worldly health and happiness, and to promote the feeling of universal brotherhood, anger must be discarded at all costs.

愤怒总是不合时宜而又非常幼稚的出现。愤怒、消极、担心、憎恨,这些恶感都对人体有很深的影响。愤怒的时候,人体内就产生化学反应,阻止血液流向面部。结果是脸部的皮肤变得不是苍白就是鲜红。一次愤怒的偶然爆发会在脸部产生皱纹。相反的,在平和愉快的情绪下脸部就会看上去饱满而灿烂。因此,愤怒不仅仅会产生有形损失,而且身体的内部系统也开始变得混乱。因此,愤怒对消化系统也会产生副作用,许多心脏问题也产生了。这样,愤怒的恶感就会对人的身体、头脑、精神、灵魂产生毁灭性的影响。因此,不仅仅是从神圣的福佑及高尚的人生这一点来看,也是为了世界的健康幸福和促进普遍的兄弟情谊,愤怒必须无条件的被丢弃。

 

Forgiveness (ksama) 宽恕

To celebrate forgiveness as a festival is a symbol of the growth of spiritual purity. It is said -'A forgiver sleeps soundly and peacefully; but the night of an unforgiving person passes in mental tension and uneasiness. It seems as if his bed was strew with thorns.' Forgiveness is not merely a matter of oratory, it is treasure of the inner soul as well. The sweet taste of sucrose can be felt only by the tongue. But the sweetness of forgiveness lies dormant in the inner self. Forgiveness breeds peace and harmony.

将宽恕作为一个节日来庆祝标志着精神纯洁的提高。有人说:一个宽恕者能够有非常平静良好的睡眠,而一个非宽恕者的夜晚将在精神的紧张和不安中度过。就像他的床上布满荆棘。宽恕并不是一种演讲的艺术,它也是内心灵魂的宝藏。蔗糖的甜味只能由舌头来品尝,但是宽恕的甜蜜潜藏在自己的心中。宽恕产生安定和谐。

 

The 24th Tirthanker, Lord Mahavira, states:

Khramami savjivanram, savai jiva khamantu mai

Miti mai savbhudaisu , vairam majham nr kainr vi

The beauty of a man's eyes lies not in 'kajul', but it lies in applying the (aniana) of friendship to our sight. '0 sarva asha mam mitram bhavantu -said the great Vedic sages ­May we attain friendship everywhere. The same feeling finds expression in a line of the verse 'mairi bhavna’ (My Ambition in life)­

一个人眼中的美好并不取决于“Kajul”,而是取决于我们眼中所传递的友谊。愿友谊无处不在。而相同的意思在'mairi bhavna’中也有所表达。

 

Metri bhav jagat mai maira sab jivon sai nit rahe

Indeed, friendship is the happy outcome of forgiveness, and the nectar of forgiveness lies at the root of noble virtues like gratitude, humility and friendship.

确实,友谊是由宽恕产生的快乐,宽恕的甘酿出自类似感激、谦卑和友谊这样神圣的美德。

 

Non-violence derives a new life from forgiveness. Forgiveness thy name is non-violence. The letter 'ksh' in the word 'Kshma' has a knot at its root. In Sanskrit language the word 'ma' means negation. Hence, the message of forgiveness is not to maintain in the mind any knot like the letter 'ksh'

非暴力源自宽恕的新生。宽恕啊,你的名字是非暴力。单词Kshma中的字母Ksh是它词根上的一个节。在梵语中Ma这个单词的意思是拒绝。因此,宽恕所传递的信息就像这个字母Ksh一样不在思想里留下任何心结。

 

Forgiveness does not denote cowardice rather it symbolizes bravery. The unwilling submissiveness shown by a weaker person is helplessness; it is called cowardice. But the forbearance shown by a valiant and brave person is true forgiveness. The former is surrender; the latter is victory. The former type of forgiveness is like that of a dead bodies wrapped in coffin, which is passive submission, not active self-willed pardon.

宽恕体现的不是懦弱而是勇敢。弱者体现的勉强的顺从是无助,这才是懦弱。但是及其勇敢者所表现出的忍耐是真正的宽恕。前者是放弃,而后者是胜利。前一种形式的宽恕好像棺材里的死尸,只能被动的屈服,不是积极主动的原谅。

 

Forgiveness is life. It is a normal process of peaceful co-existence in daily practical life. The rules of walking to the left on the road and stopping at the red signal which are strictly followed in big cities, denote forbearance for one another. Forgiveness puts a check on road accidents. It shows the right path of 'Live and Let Live' to one and all.

宽恕就是生活。它是实现安定共存生活的一个过程。行人走左边,看到红灯就必须停止是大城市里所必须遵循的交通规则,表明人与人之间相互的宽容。宽容制止了交通事故。它体现了实现生存并让别人生存的正确道路。

 

In the absence of forgiveness the wild axiom, 'The bigger fish swallows the smaller fish' will hold sway in the world. If the weaker and stronger beings coexist in human society, it is simply an outcome and unique gift of forgiveness alone.

在缺乏宽恕的野蛮公里中,大鱼吃小鱼使世界变得动荡。如果弱者和强者可以共存在人类社会,这只能是宽恕所带来的礼物。

 

Do not give mere vocal expression to this inherent virtue of soul through outbursts on loudspeakers by organizing grand functions in support of forgiveness simply for public show. Let forbearance become a practical aspect of your daily life bringing peace and harmony in human society. You will then realize that the good results which you cannot achieve by the use of brute force i.e., subduing an enemy by wielding the sword; the same thing you succeed in doing by the use of the invincible peaceful weapon of forgiveness. Forgiveness turns a foe into a friend forever. It is a common saying, 'The victories of peace are more renowned than the victories won by war.'

不要仅仅通过组织广大的人民集会和用语言来表达这种灵魂的美德。让为人类社会带来安定和平的宽容成为你日常生活的一个实际方面。你将意识到用强力所不能达到的美好结果即使用宝剑使敌人屈服,同样的结果可以通过运用不可抗拒的和平的宽恕的武器来达到。宽恕使得敌人变成永远的朋友。就像人们所说的:和平得来的胜利比战争得来的更为显赫。

 

The sword is a harbinger of enmity and bitterness. It is a weapon of violence. On the contrary, forgiveness is a blissful message of friendship and love. It is a part and parcel of non-violence. The sword creates discord, while forgiveness brings concord. Such is the unique power and miracle of spiritual force achieved through forgiveness.

刀剑预示着仇恨和痛苦。它是暴力的武器。相反的,宽容是友爱的福音。它是非暴力的重要组成部分。刀剑带来了不安定,而宽容带来和谐。宽容是一个多么独特的力量,通过它能够看到一个精神力量的奇迹。

 

Forgiveness reveals high morale. It is a jewel worn by noble souls. Forgiveness promotes the feeling of harmony and amity. Anger is subdued by forgiveness. The ill feeling of bitterness persists in the heart of a person devoid of forgiveness like non-washable marks carved on a stone slab. But forgiveness blots out bitterness from human heart like transitory ripples on water.

宽恕显示出高昂的斗志。它是高尚灵魂所佩戴的珠宝。宽恕增进和睦和友好的感情。愤怒被宽恕消解。一个全无宽恕之心的人心中痛苦固执的恶念就会像一个雕刻在石板之上不可洗刷的印记。但是宽恕能够从人心中清除痛苦就像水中暂时泛起的波纹。

 

Forgiveness is a virtue of humility. It is an ornament of social courtesy. Forgiveness is sinless. It is chaste. Forgiveness is woodland of peace, where perfect calm prevails and austerities are performed.

宽恕是一种谦虚的美德。它是一种社会礼仪的装饰。宽恕是无罪的。它纯洁而又朴素。宽恕是和平的绿地,在这里有理想中的平静和善行。

 

Forgiveness teaches us non-violence and through non-violence we should learn to practice forbearance. The axiom -'prasparograho’ can be proclaimed only by a devotee of non-violence, who is anti to the law of the jungle 'Tit for Tat'. The slogan 'Live and Let Live' is as much an expression of non-violence as that of forgiveness. Forgiveness aims at prolonged happiness and long life for others and freedom from mental tension for self.

宽恕教我们非暴力,而通过非暴力我们能够学会克制。格言“Prasparograho”只能够由一个非暴力的献身者来宣扬,而这个人反对弱肉强食、针锋相对。而生存并让别人生存的口号就像宽恕一样是一种非暴力的表达。宽恕的目的是延长快乐以及他人的长寿并使得自己从精神的紧张中得到自由。

 

Forgiveness and Forgiving

宽恕和忘却

 

The 'Paryushan Parva' -the observance of the ten universal supreme virtues -commences with the first virtue forgiveness. It culminates in the forgiving ceremony; as if forgiveness works as a coherent link between the beginning and the end of 'The Festival of Self-Uplift'. Water is to drink, not to fill pitchers. Its coolness is needed for the throat, not for the pond. Likewise, the soothing drink of forgiveness is meant for the soul. It is not a trick meant for social manipulation and exploitation of injured feelings. So far you have learnt lessons in forgiveness and cried slogans in support of forgiveness times without number. Now put to practice in daily existence, what you have learnt; so that the ever growing crowd of criminal cases in the law courts may lessen, and conferences preaching universal brotherhood may replace the army battalions posted on the borders.

“Paryushan Parva”是公认的十个普遍的最高美德,而它开始的第一美德就是宽恕。它也是在宽恕这一点上达到顶峰,好像宽恕就是在扮演自我提升的节日里从开始到结束的连接环节。水是用来喝的,不是用来装满水罐的。感受它的清凉需要喉咙,而不是池塘。同样的,宽容的慰籍对象主要是针对心灵。这不是针对社会处理和利用受伤情感的一种欺骗。迄今为止,你已经无数次的从宽容里学到真理以及从口号呼吁中获得对宽容的支持。现在,将你所学应用于每天的实践中吧,以便使因快速增长而至法庭拥挤的犯罪案件得以减少。宣扬普遍兄弟友爱的讲道会也许能够取代部署在边境的军队。

 

Only the enlightened souls can convey the message of forgiveness. The ill-bred wretched fellows whose hearts are palpitating with rancor fail to understand the significance of this celestial virtue. One given to forgiveness resides forever in the Garden of Eden, whereas a man bereft of the virtue of forgiveness always burns in the dry forest fire of ever simmering rage. In truth, 'Forgiveness' is a superb word found in' the spiritual dictionary of some highly cultured societies alone.

只有那些被启迪的心灵才能够传递宽容的信息。那些粗野可鄙的人们,他们的内心伴随着缺乏对上天所赐美德理解之恨而跳动。一个施与宽恕的人将永远居住在伊甸园,反之,一个丧失了宽恕美德的人将被那干燥森林中永远怒燃的大火灼烧。事实上,宽恕是一个极好的词语,它源自许多高度文明的独立社会的心灵词典。

 

Miriam savbhudaisu vairam majham nr kainr vi

Lord Mahavira preached and professed in black and white through the scriptures, the message of universal brotherhood. The prophet laid stress on the well being of all men, birds and beasts. The holy soul counseled mankind to sustain no ill will for any living being in thought, speech and action.

Mahavira通过圣经在白人和黑人中传道和表明一种普遍兄弟情谊的信息。先知强调一切人、鸟、兽的幸福。神圣的心灵劝说人类接受在思维、语言、行动中对一切事物都不要存恶意。 

The U.N.O. observes a day for universal brotherhood. Does it not signify that we live in an environment of racial hatred and territorial discord between nations throughout the year? The message of Jainism is that we should observe not days, but years and centuries of universal brotherhood and mutual love among all human beings i.e., practice forgiveness for all creatures including the 'mute' beings of the animal kingdom. To limit the feeling of fraternity, which is a perennial spring of humanity to certain days, is to limit the joys of human life.

  UNO.每天遵守普遍的兄弟情谊的准则。难道我们整年生活在一个种族间彼此仇恨,国家间领土不和的环境中是无关紧要的吗?而耆那教的教义是我们不仅应该每天遵守普遍的兄弟情谊,而且应该每年、每世纪都遵守普遍的兄弟情谊和全人类互爱的准则,也就是说,对所有事物实践宽容,包括动物王国里的无声者们。宽容对于人类来说是长久的春天,限制了它,也就限制了人类生命的快乐。 

Love begets love; hatred begets hatred. Friendship enhances fellow feeling. A true friend stands by his friend both in weal and woe. He shares both his joys and sorrows. Mutual distrust, ill will, jealousy, malice and bitterness today dominate the world. Terrorism has become the order of the day. By our sincere dedication to forbearance we should try to reverse the present barbaric social order of the world and turn the human society into a model homeland for all living beings -'Where the head is held high; where the mind is free.'

因爱生爱,因恨生恨。友情可以增进周遭人的感觉。真正的朋友是在你幸福或者落难时都支持你的人。他分享你的快乐和悲伤。互不信任、恶念、嫉妒、怨恨和悲痛如今占据了世界。恐怖主义如今也开始抬头。通过我们无私奉献而致之宽忍我们也许能够尝试改变这个世界野蛮的社会制度,并将人类社会变成一个适合所有人类的模范家园。——“哪里的人们将头颅高昂,哪里就有自由的思想。 

The panacea for all ills of mankind lies in the motto 'Forgive and Forget' i.e., disarmament, not in the arms race and accumulation of more and more deadly weapons or manufacturing atom bombs and hydrogen bombs, which can annihilate the whole mankind in the twinkling of an eye. If the whole world has to survive under one roof of the blue sky, it must get rid of the brute and mad craze for war and narrow nationalism.

解决人类一切诟病的万能药就在于忘却与原谅的格言,也就是裁军,而不是军备竞赛、越积越多的致命性武器、制造原子弹和氢弹,而这些只能在眨眼间毁灭整个人类。如果整个世界还能够在蓝天苍穹下生还,那么就一定可以消除残忍以及对战争和狭隘的民族主义的狂热。 

Ne hi verainr vera shamyati

I.e., Enmity cannot put an end to enmity. Violence cannot root out violence. Forgiveness is a cry of the day.

也就是说,憎恨不可能终止憎恨。暴力也不可能根除暴力。而宽忍是世界的呼唤。 

To sum up, the contrary of revenge is forgiveness, which makes a man brave, fearless, virtuous, courteous, happy and prosperous. It has been said:

总而言之,复仇的另一面是宽恕,而这能够使一个人勇敢、无畏、善良、有礼、快乐、积极。人们都说: 

Yadi kamysai satyam hridayen sugirvam

Karysthim samam sarvaivyvahar kshmame

I.e., If you want to win eternal glory, treat all with forgiveness.

即:如果你想得到永久的荣耀,就对每个人宽容些吧。 

Paksha vyo yathopari vyasm sharm yachhta-Rigveda

I.e., Just as the birds spread wings over their young ones to provide them safety and happiness, you should also rear in your heart the feeling of happiness, joy and affection for all men, birds and beasts.

即:就像鸟儿伸展翅膀覆盖在幼雏之上以保护它们的安全和快乐,你也应该在你的心中培养幸福、快乐之情和对人类、鸟类和猛兽的爱。 

Hence, O Mortal Man! Ask forgiveness, ask forgiveness and ask forgiveness from all with a feeling -'Welfare of all living beings, and peace and happiness for all creatures'. Forgiveness makes a man not only meek and tolerant in nature by overpowering wrath and purging the soul of all other passions, but it also works as a tonic to promote good physique and mental health.

哦,平凡的人啊。请求宽恕,请求宽恕,怀着一种为了所有人的福祉,为了所有生物的和平与快乐的感情向一切请求宽恕。宽容不仅能够使人在自然界中被狂暴力量击败时保持温顺和宽忍并涤荡自身被其他欲望充斥的心灵,而且宽容是促进好的身体和心理健康的良药。 

Dharmstshramytram karnrsydrog prshantai sehkaripuramBahye vidhanam pratipdyate ut, chikitstam sarvasihobhyatma 

I.e., Religion is an internal and main remedy to cure diseases. All external treatments are mere subsidiary causes. In short, 'To err is human, to forgive divine.'

即:宗教对于疗治疾病来说是内在和主要的。一切外部的治疗仅仅都是辅助性的。简言之,犯错是人,饶恕是神