Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德
与贡献 
     
   前言 
  绪论 
  五大神灵之圣歌
  引言 
  至上的宽恕
   至上的谦卑 
   至上的诚实 
  至上的纯洁 
  至上的善言 
   至上的自律
  至上的苦行 
  至上的舍弃 
  至上的情禁 
  至上的禁欲 
  结束语

TEN UNIVERSAL VIRTUES  十大美德 

9 SUPREME NON-ATTACHMENT

(Uttama Akinchanya Dharma)

1        至上的情禁

(Uttama Akinchanya Dharma)

 

He, who abandons the evil thought of attachment to worldly objects, can alone give up possessions.

Assuredly, the non-appearance of attachment and other passions in Ahimsa, and their appearance is 'Himsa'.

Na kinchan iti akinchana

能够抛弃对时间万物的爱恋思想的人,能够放弃世间的万物。

没有表现出热情以及其他的情感称为Ahimsa,表现出这种情感则称为Himsa

Na kinchan iti akinchana

 

Not to have the least (Parigraha) attachment is known as Akinchanya (non­attachment). The word 'akinchan' is derived from the word 'akinchan' by the addition of the suffix anr/shaynj. The word means to put a limit to ambitions, to put a check on desires.

Man is a social animal. Man makes many future plans while living amidst society and in the nation. These plans never come to an end; rather they go on multiplying one after the other. It has been said:

Api sankalpita kama, sambhvanti yatha yatha

Tatha mnushyanram, trishanr vishvam visarpati

毫无热情称为情禁。'akinchan一词源于'akinchan'加上词根anr/shayn。这个词的意思是,限制自己的野心,控制自己的欲望。

人类是一种社会动物。人们在社会与国家中会指定很多远期的计划。这些计划永远没有尽头,周而复始。有文为证:

Api sankalpita kama, sambhvanti yatha yatha

Tatha mnushyanram, trishanr vishvam visarpati

 

As soon as the hopes or ambitions of a man are fulfilled, instantly new ambitions take birth. His desires go on increasing; there is no full stop to them. Therefore, a man should observe the virtue of non-attachment by putting a limit to his ambitions. Acharya Kundkund Swamy has written in the holy book 'Samaysaar': 'Desires are limitless. Hopes live eternal in the heart of a man. There is no end to possessions (Parigraha). Still man is running a mad race after possessions and material objects day and night. Acharya Gun Bhadra Swamy has drawn a fine picture of the unending nature of ambitions of man in his sacred book 'Atmanushashan' in the following verse:

Ashagart pratipranri, yasmin vishvmnrupamamKsya kim kiydayiti, vritha vo vishayeshita-Atma A. Gunbhadra

只要人们满足的自己的野心,马上就会产生新的野心,人们的欲望会不断增长,没有尽头。因此,人们应当奉行情禁的美德以结束自己的野心。Acharya Kundkund Swamy'Samaysaar'一书中曾经写到,欲望是没有尽头的,希望永远都存在于人们的心中。占有欲是没有尽头的,而且人们不断的竞争对物质以及财富的占有。Acharya Gun Bhadra SwamyAtmanushashan一书中曾经生动地描述了人们无止境的野心。

Ashagart pratipranri, yasmin vishvmnrupamamKsya kim kiydayiti, vritha vo vishayeshita-Atma A. Gunbhadra

 

In the heart of every living being there exists a deep pit of hopes, in which the universe appears to be equivalent to an atom. Then for whom, what and how much scope there can be left inside this pit i.e., it can contain almost nothing else but hopes. Therefore, O noble souls! Futile is your ambition for those articles of enjoyments or pleasure giving objects. It means that thirst of desires of every living being has grown to the extent that even if he attains all the wealth of the whole world, his thirst of desires can never be quenched by any means. This ignorant creature has been wasting his precious lifetime in claiming such mortal and transitory objects, which are different from self as his own. The passions and sensuous pleasures, which are the outcome of object non-self, have made him blind. This blindness is more dreadful than blindness of eyes by birth. It has been said:  

Andhadyam mhanndho, vishyandhikritaikshnraChkshuandho na janati, vishyandho na kainchit-Atma A. Gunbhadr

I.e., This human being, who has lost his sense of wisdom and power of discrimination due to his over indulgence in lustful desires, is blinder than a worldly blind man. For a blind fails to see with his eyes only, but a man blinded by sensuous pleasures cannot grasp the real nature of things; neither by the senses nor by the mind. Therefore he has misconceived the non-self as the real self. So long as this living being does not forsake this sense of attachment, he will not realize the virtue of non-attachment. Acharya Aklanka Swamy has also affirmed this fact in 'Rajvartika' thus:

"Mamaidmitybhisandhinivritirakinchnyam"

I.e., To give up the belief that this thing belongs to me is the virtue of non-attachment.

在每个生命的内心深处都藏有深深地希望,在那里,宇宙就像一个原子。在人们内心的深处到底深深藏着那些东西呢,除了希望,什么都没有。因此,高贵的灵魂啊,对于这些物体以及欢愉的热望是毫无意义的。因为这意味着,即使得到了整个世界的财富,人们对于财富渴望的热情也不会被熄灭。无知的人们正在把自己宝贵的时间浪费在追逐这些平凡的、短暂的事物中,而这些东西同自我完全不同。热情以及感官的欢愉,是非我的表象,让人们边的盲目。这种盲目比天生的眼睛不可视物更加可怕。有文为证:

Andhadyam mhanndho, vishyandhikritaikshnraChkshuandho na janati, vishyandho na kainchit-Atma A. Gunbhadr

即,人们啊,由于过分地放纵自己的欲望,已经失去了智慧的感觉与能力,这样比盲人更加盲目。因为盲人只是眼睛看不见东西,但是由于感官诱惑而变得盲目的人们则不能够通过自己的感官以及思想来认识事物的本质。因此,他们会错误的理解自我与非我。只要人们不放弃这种感情,他就永远不会实现情禁。Acharya Aklanka Swamy'Rajvartika'一书中也确定了这种事实:

"Mamaidmitybhisandhinivritirakinchnyam"

即,放弃对事物的占有的想法就是情禁。

 

There was a forest. Daily some cowherds led the cows to graze in that pastureland. While grazing the cows one-day, they chanced to see ripe mangoes hanging from a tree. Their mouths watered on seeing the mangoes. When one of the cowherds cast a pebble at the mangoes, two mangoes fell down. He ate them and enjoyed the delicious fruits. The mangoes were really very sweet. This made another cowherd think -"Why to miss such tasty fruits? I shall also pluck a mango just now." So saying he picked up a pebble and struck at the mangoes. Instead, the stone piece struck the head of a saint meditating under the tree. His head was injured and started bleeding. This horrible sight terrified all the cowherds. Seeing tears flowing from the eyes of the saint, the cowherds approached him and spoke humbly -"O saint! We are guilty. You are all merciful. Please pardon us. We have inflicted severe injury and pain to you." The saint replied calmly, "I have suffered no pain." The cowherds again questioned, "if you have felt no pain, why tears are bursting from your eyes?" At this the saint replied, "Boys! When you cast pebbles at the mango tree, it gave you sweet and tasty mangoes. But now when your stone piece struck me, I have nothing to give you in return. That is why tears are flowing from my eyes." The cowherds paid homage to the saint lying at his feet and returned home. The instant that the feeling of compassion grows in human heart, is the beginning of religion.

曾经有一片森林,每天都有一些放牛的人来到草地上放牛。他们在放牛的时候,发现树上有一些成熟的芒果,看到这些,他们的口中充满了口水。一个放牛人用石头去丢这些芒果,两个芒果从树上掉落下来,他把它们吃掉了,感觉味道非常好。芒果的味道非常甜美。另外一个放牛人想,为什么要错过这么美味的事物呢?想到这里,他也捡起了一块石头去丢芒果。但是,这颗石头却击中了一个在树下沉思的圣人的脑袋,圣人的脑袋开始流血。这一恐怖的景象惊动了所有放牛的人。圣人的眼睛中开始流出泪水,放牛人走过来愧疚地说,圣人啊,我们有罪,您是宽容的,请原谅我们吧,我们给你带来了严重的伤害和痛苦。圣人冷静地回答,我没有受到任何痛苦啊。放牛的人就问到,如果你没有感觉到痛苦,你怎么会流泪呢?听到这些,圣人回答道,孩子们,当你们用石头丢芒果的时候,你们吃到了甜美的芒果,但是你们用石头丢我的时候,我却什么也无法给你们,这就是我流泪的原因。放牛人跪拜在圣人脚下向他表示敬意。人们心中怜悯的开始,就是宗教信仰的开始。

 

Attachment is of two kinds:

1        Internal Attachment -The feeling of love, hatred, affection and ill will for living beings; and wrong belief are internal attachments.

2        External Attachment -Greed for wealth and property is external attachment. Greed for worldly possessions (bahay parigrah) consists in desiring more than what is needed by an individual.

爱恋分为两类:

1            内心的爱恋 —— 对其他生灵的爱情、憎恨、喜爱以及恶念,错误的信念也属于内心的爱恋。

2            外部的爱恋 —— 对财富的贪恋属于外部的爱恋。对世间财物的爱恋就是渴望获得比自己正常所需更多的东西

 

Accumulation of even necessary articles in large numbers, expressing wonder at the prosperity of others, excessive greed and changing the proportions of existing possessions are all forms of Parigraha (worldly attachments). The virtue of non-attachment cannot be attained without discarding both types of Parigrahas (attachments). Only by discarding both, the soul can