Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德
与贡献 
     
   前言 
  绪论 
  五大神灵之圣歌
  引言 
  至上的宽恕
   至上的谦卑 
   至上的诚实 
  至上的纯洁 
  至上的善言 
   至上的自律
  至上的苦行 
  至上的舍弃 
  至上的情禁 
  至上的禁欲 
  结束语

TEN UNIVERSAL VIRTUES  十大美德 

8 SUPREME RENUNCIATION(Uttama Tyaga Dharma)

至上的放弃(Uttama Tyaga Dharma)

 

'Renunciation of all possessions is Ahimsa; and appropriation of all possessions is Himsa'

The word 'tyag' is derived from the root 'tyaj' by the addition of the suffix 'gham'. The word renunciation means to cast aside, to give up, to get rid of, to discard and to leave.

Some wise men have said: 'In this world it is not what we take up but what we give up, that makes us rich.'

同所有的财产脱离关系称为Ahimsa;挪用所有的财产称为Himsa

'tyag'源于'tyaj'一词加上词根'gham'。放弃一词的意思就是丢在一边,摆脱,摒弃和离开。

有些智慧的人曾经说过,在这个世界中,并不是因为我们得到了什么东西,而是因为我们失去了什么东西,使得我们变得富有。

 

Renunciation has been assigned a great significance in the path of salvation propounded by the omniscient Lord Jinendra. Therefore, for householders renunciation implies charities; and for the ascetics it signifies the vow of 'Pratigraha' i.e., abstention from greed of worldly possessions and the virtue of freedom from attachments. One who cherishes the feeling of renunciation without letting one's energies lie dormant, paves the way to attainment of 'Tirthankar Prakriti' i.e., the state of final liberation or salvation. "Vyutsarjanam vyutsrgstyaga" means renunciation. To acknowledge the non-self as different from self and then to become non-attached to all worldly objects or to discard the non-self is renunciation.

Vrishtrbina kuto maigha, kav sasyam bijvartam

Jivanam ch bina tyagat, sukhmupadyate kuta

I.e., How can rainfall be possible without clouds? How can corn grow without sowing seeds? Likewise, how can the living beings attain bliss without renunciation?

无所不知的Jinendra说,放弃在解脱的道路上具有极大的重要性。因此,对于信徒们来说,放弃意味着怜悯,对于苦行者来说,放弃就意味着脱离对世间万物的贪婪。一个珍惜放弃这种美德的人不会浪费自己的能量,能够获得最终的解脱。"Vyutsarjanam vyutsrgstyaga"的意思就是放弃。放弃就是承认自我与非我的差别,摒弃非我而断绝与世间万物的爱恋。

Vrishtrbina kuto maigha, kav sasyam bijvartam

Jivanam ch bina tyagat, sukhmupadyate kuta

即,没有云朵的话怎么会下雨呢,不播种的话禾苗怎么能够生长呢?同样地,如果不放弃的话怎么能够得到福祉呢。

 

Every living creature is aspirant for happiness. This happiness is an outcome of renunciation. When a thing is fully and whole-heartedly given in charity to others, it is called renunciation. If someone desires a return in exchange for a thing donated or wants to get it back after once giving it to others as charity; or donates something to others after getting his name inscribed on it, it is not called renunciation. Only that can be called as giving, which is given to the poor. All other giving is of the nature of barter.

每个生灵都渴望欢乐。这种欢乐就是放弃的成果。当人们全心全意地向他人施舍的时候,这就称为一种放弃。如果人们在捐赠与施舍的时候希望得到回报,或者在捐赠时为了博得一个好的名声,这就不能够称为一种放弃。只有向穷人施舍才能够称为放弃。其他所有的赠与只是一种交易。

 

Renunciation lends greatness to a man. Lord Bahubali followed the path of renunciation and attained his cherished goal. He conquered the kingdom of the sovereign king Bharat and returned it to him thereafter without a hitch. How great was the feeling of renunciation in his outlook on life! He was the noble soul, who laid down the foundation of this grand Indian tradition of returning a kingdom after once conquering it; which has become an immortal heritage of Indian culture to the coming generations. Lord Ram also won over Lanka after defeating Ravan, and then he renounced it by crowning Vibhishan the king of Lanka. In the modern age also we see that our worthy Prime Minister of India, Late Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri won the war against Pakistan but soon after returned the vast territory of Pakistan conquered by our jawans. Likewise, in Bangla-Pakistan war, Bangladesh triumphed as a result of the open support and huge military aid of India; but Shrimati Indira Gandhi handed over Bangladesh to her people. First, to conquer and then to return the conquered land to her people has been the noble tradition of this land; for we are the staunch followers of the religion of renunciation. Rightly has it been said; "A generous mind never enjoys its possessions so much as when others are made partakers of them."

放弃使人们伟大。Bahubali遵循至上的放弃,并最终实现了他的目标。他征服了Bharat的王国,但是后来又毫无仇恨的还给了他。他的这种放弃的思想在生命中是多么的伟大啊。他是一个高贵的灵魂,他开创了征服别人的王国却又交还给对方的先例,这成为代代流传的印度文化的遗产。Ram在打败了Ravan之后,成功的征服了Lanka,但是他又通过把王位传给Vibhishan而放弃了这个国家。在当今的社会中,我们看到我们高贵的总理Late Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri,在赢得了对巴基斯坦的战争后,又马上把占领的土地归还了巴基斯坦。同样地,在对孟加拉的战争中,甘地又把孟加拉交还给了那里的人们。首先,征服土地后再把土地归还是印度的传统美德,因为我们是放弃这种美德的继承者。就像有的话曾经说过一样:当人们还在留恋世俗的时候,慷慨的思想从来不会沉溺于世间的外物。

 

We can conquer the world through love, friendship and a spirit of renunciation. We cannot subdue the free spirit of nation merely by the force of arms. The military strength or power of weapons may give temporary defeat to an enemy nation but cannot vanquish her free spirit or win heart of people except with love and affection as the Holy Buddha did by preaching Buddhism in Shri Lanka, Burma and Japan. In the book 'Early History of Vaishali' an eminent historian of Europe has written that Lord Mahavira was born in a Kshatrya clan, whose people were always at war with one another fighting with swords. Lord Mahavira preached to them -'Do not tease and torture even the smallest creature like an ant; rather give love and protection to it'. In the modern age one man is bent upon torturing and killing another man, instead of giving him fraternal love and affection. Should we call him humane? All of us have to develop the outlook of Lord Mahavira. Renunciation is a must to become great like Mahavira. In 'Baras Anupekha' Acharya Kundkund Swami has defined the supreme virtue of renunciation as below:

Nrichaigatiam bhavi, moh cheunr sachdvaishu

Jo tas havai chayago idi bhanridam jinrvarimdaihim

我们能够通过爱、友谊以及放弃的精神来征服世界。我们不可能只是通过武力来征服世界。军队与武器只能暂时地击败敌国,却不能够征服他们自由的心灵或者赢得人民的心,而佛祖在斯里兰卡、缅甸以及日本通过传播佛教,向人们宣扬爱,却能赢得人们的心。在’Vaishali的早期历史'一书中,一位欧洲伟大的历史学家写到,Mahavira 生于Kshatrya部落,这个部落的人们经常同他人发生战争。Mahavira对他们说,不要向生物挑衅以及折磨,即使那是一只蚂蚁,而是应当广施博爱和保护他们。当代的人们会折磨并杀害另外的人们,而不是给予他们芬芳的博爱与保护。我们应当称呼他们为人类吗?所有的人们都应当具有Mahavira的思想。放弃是人们解脱道路上必需的一环。在'Baras Anupekha'一书中,Acharya Kundkund Swami这样来定义放弃这种至上的美德:

Nrichaigatiam bhavi, moh cheunr sachdvaishu

Jo tas havai chayago idi bhanridam jinrvarimdaihim

 

Lord Jinendra has stated, "A living being, who discarding attachment to things, non­self maintains an indifferent outlook for physical body and worldly pleasures, is endowed with the virtue of renunciation." A man cannot obtain peace and happiness by accumulating material things like wealth and property, nor do these things enhance his prestige; rather their renunciation adds to his prestige and honor, and he achieves peace and happiness.

Jinendra曾经说过,能够摒弃对事物的爱恋,能够平静的看待自己的身体和世间的欢愉,就具有了放弃的美德。如果积累金钱和财富,并不能够让人们获得和平与欢乐,这些也不能够提高人们的威严;放弃的美德却能够增加人们的尊严以及荣誉,使人们平和与欢乐。

 

There lived a very wealthy householder in a city; but he was greedy by nature. He neither took nice food nor put on nice clothes, nor gave money in charity for religious deeds and other noble causes. His chief aim in life was to accumulate money by saving every penny day and night. What to say of seeing his face, people disliked even to hear his name in the morning. The scriptures say, "namatikripanrsya cha", i.e., the name of a miser is not worth speaking. Such people are condemned and disdained wherever they go. After all who can show respect to such selfish men? In the modern times we daily come across so many affluent persons, who hesitate to donate even a penny for religious functions and for a good cause, but are forced to pay huge amount of money as taxes. They are aversive to give donation to every category of charity-seekers viz. superb, medium and lower type. On the contrary such people try to win false prestige and glory by arranging garden parties in honor of high government officers, and feeding the gentry on the eve of wedding receptions. But this greedy rich person was a perfect devil. What to speak of giving donation to social institutions, he did not give even a tip of twenty-five paisa to a peon. If sometimes a hungry beggar knocked at his door asking for food, he would shut the door in his face and make a pretext of sickness but never offered him food. The Tamil scholar Ka Naa Subramanyam rightly says:

"The fullness of the life of the house-holder is achieved when he feeds those, who come hungry to him. Indeed he, that shares his food with the hungry, will never go hungry at any time. Those who fast in penance endure hunger; to do away with hunger in others is better than fasting in penance."

曾经在城中住着一位非常富有的信徒,但他却非常的贪婪。他既不吃好的食物穿好的衣服,也不向慈善事业以及其他高尚的事业捐赠。他人生最大的目标就是不断地攒钱。人们在早上都不愿听到他的名字,更不用说看到他的面孔了。经文中说过,守财奴的名字不值得提起。无论他们走到哪里,都将受到谴责和轻视,有谁会尊敬这种自私的人呢?在当代的社会中我们经常会遇到这样的人,他们经常会因为向慈善或者神圣的事业捐助而犹豫不决,但是他们却不得不上缴高额的税款。他们吝啬于付出各种类型的捐赠。相反地,他们经常错误的来修建花园或者举办奢华的婚礼,认为这样能够提高他们的声望。这种贪婪的富人才是真正的魔鬼。他们吝啬于给自己雇用的工人发工资,就更不用说向社会捐赠了。如果有饥饿的人敲他家的门向他讨要食物,他会露出一张脸来装出一付生病的样子,而拒绝提供食物。学者Ka Naa Subramanyam曾经说过:

只有信徒向那些饥饿的人拿出食物的时候,他的生命才变得完整。事实上,同饥饿的人分享食物,就永远不会饥饿。那些由于在修行中把食物分发给他人而挨饿的人要优于那些单纯在修行中禁食的人。

 

Therefore, both the king and the masses showed no veneration to this greedy rich man. Still he was a God-fearing man and had high faith in prayer and worship. Turning the beads and chanting verses from the 'Ramayan', he would walk in heavy rainfall or pitch darkness even to a distant place to listen to the holy sermons of sages and priests. But the temple priest who delivered the holy sermons never extended him any welcome, and would not give him a seat of honor close by him. He used to get a back seat in a corner on the temple mat; because all knew that he would not offer even a single penny to the learned priest as gift.

因此,国王和普通的市民都不尊重这个贪婪的人。但是,他是一个尊敬神灵的人,并会祈祷和拜神。他会在大雨和黑暗中不断前行,只是为了去聆听圣人和牧师的教诲。但是,寺院中的牧师从来不会对他表示出欢迎,更不会给他一个好的座位。他经常不得不坐在寺院的角落里,因为人们知道他从来不会给牧师一点点钱作为礼物。

 

But God knows how one-day good sense prevailed on him. When all the blemishes of his soul were washed away by the shower of religious hymns. What good effect of the pious deeds of his previous births prompted him? At the end of the sermon when all the devotees had made their offerings to the holy priest, the rich miser took out a bundle wrapped in a piece of dirty cloth from under his armpit and offered several dazzling silver coins to the priest as gift. The whole gathering and the priest himself were taken aback by his action. Voices poured from all directions that no one knows when the almighty may bring a change in outlook and a staunch miser may become extremely generous. When the miser began to return to his former seat devoid of all sense of vanity and with bowed head, the priest holding him by the hand gave him an honorable seat on the costly carpet. No sooner did the rich man take his seat, than he spoke, "O Holy Priest! Money enjoys a great value and wins prestige in the world. Till yesterday I was a neglected person and you gave me a lower seat at a distance; but why all this honor and welcome today?" On hearing these words of praise for riches, the priest spoke, "O Seth! You are mistaken. Even yesterday you were rich, but did not enjoy social prestige. This reverence is for renunciation, not for riches." "Dhanam tygain shobhatay". Riches win glory by renouncing them. None can win fame and prestige by accumulating money like a honeybee, which collects honey in the beehive. Only when we utilize money like a bee, which collects honey in the beehive. Only when we utilize money for personal uplift or social well being by donating it to social and religious institutions like schools, hospitals, Dharamshalas and temples, that it wins us name, fame and glory. Riches, which are not utilized for noble cause, are worthless like dust. A rich man always lives in tension. Fear of thieves, robbers and income tax raids, haunts his mind forever. Riches come to a man by good luck and sincere, earnest labor and if used judiciously for a right cause, they bring him mental peace and happiness. Squandering money on trifles e.g., sensuous pleasures or vices like gambling, drinking and prostitution is the misappropriation of riches and it is a heinous crime as well as a sin.

但是,神灵知道总有一天他会有一种好的感觉,这就在他的灵魂被宗教的圣歌彻底洗刷干净的时候。他前世的善行将会给他带来怎样的善报来呢?当布教结束之后,所有的信徒都向牧师献上自己的礼物,这个吝啬鬼就把他腋下夹着的一块破布中拿出几枚银币送给了牧师。所有的人们和牧师都很震惊,人们十分惊讶,他们不知道是什么改变了这顽固的吝啬鬼的想法,让他变得这样慷慨。当这个吝啬鬼转过身去准备坐在自己以前的位置上时,牧师抓住了他的手臂,并让他做到了一个位置好而且十分昂贵的垫子上。当这个人一坐到自己的位子上,他就说,神圣的牧师啊,钱很有价值,并能够赢得尊重。昨天我还是一个不重要的人,你们让我坐在很远的位子上,但是今天为什么这么尊重我呢?听到他的这番赞扬财富的话,牧师说,你错了,昨天你很富有,却没有社会尊严。你今天所得到的尊重是因为你的放弃,而不是因为你的富有。只有放弃了财富才能够赢得尊重。没有人能够通过不断的积累财富而赢得社会的尊重。只有我们把这些财富用于提升自我或者捐赠给社会或者是宗教机构,如学校、医院、寺院等,才能够给我们赢得名誉与荣耀。不用于高尚事业的财富,就像灰尘一样没有价值。一个富有的人经常在紧张中度日,他们担心被偷、被抢或者税率的提高。只有通过勤劳的劳动以及把财富用于高尚的事业,财富和好的运气就会不断到来,并给人们带来平和与欢乐。他金钱浪费在琐事上,例如赌博、饮酒以及嫖娼等方面,就是错误的使用了财富,同样也是犯下了罪孽。

 

The supreme virtue of renunciation is a part and parcel of religion. The two are indivisible. We cannot separate renunciation from religion and soul. One should renounce worldly possessions devotedly within one's power, "shaktistyaga". Trees renounce fruits and keep us alive. The mountains cast away stones and pebbles, which we use for construction works; and from which statues and idols are carved out. Renunciation is regarded as a superb type of virtue. It is helpful in the attainment of liberation or salvation i.e., it is a cause and means to liberation.

这种放弃的美德是宗教的一部分。我们不能够分离放弃、宗教以及灵魂。人们应当毫不犹豫地放弃世间的万物。树木放弃了果实,自己就可以存活下来。高山放弃了石头,这样我们就可以来进行建造工作或者用来雕刻。放弃是一种最高层次的美德,它有助于人们获得解脱。

 

The Jain prophets endowed with a humanitarian outlook recommend that if a person ever happens to earn more than his requirements, he must give away his money in Dana (charities). The best forms of charities prescribed by religion are four:

i) Ahara Dana -giving food to the hungry and poor;

ii) Abhaya Dana -Saving the lives of living beings in danger;

iii) Aushadha or Bhaishajya Dana -distribution of medicines;

iv) Gyana or Shastra Dana -Spreading knowledge.

These charities are called the 'Chaturvidha Dana' -the four-fold gifts by Jain religion; and it has been enjoined on the householders that they should make special efforts to give these charities to the needy, irrespective of caste and creed. Even now, in all parts of India, the Jains have rigorously maintained the tradition by giving freely 'Chaturvidha Dana' -four fold gifts.

耆那教提倡人们应当具有一种人道的思想,当他挣到的钱多于他所需的话,他就应当把这些钱捐助给慈善事业。在宗教中,慈善有四种形式:

1        Ahara Dana ——给穷人和饥饿的人食物

2        Abhaya Dan ——挽救处于危险中的人们的生命

3        Aushadha or Bhaishajya Dana ——分发药材

4        Gyana or Shastra Dana ——传播知识

这些慈善就是耆那教的四重礼物。信徒们已经相信,他们应当努力地资助那些需要帮助的人,不管他们的社会等级或者所信仰的宗教。即使是现在,在整个印度,耆那教也一直保持着乐善好施的传统。

 

Even though one has husbanded all one's wealth, one will be without support in the long run, if one has not given a part of his wealth in charity. Giving in charity is perhaps one of the commonest of moral advocacy's under any religious system; the Hindu, the Buddhist, the Christian and the Islamic along with the Jains prescribe it as one of the right ways of conduct. Renunciation provides us nothing but more and more happiness. Renunciation vanquishes all vices of a man. It spreads one's shining glory all around. Religion advocates renunciation, not indulgence in worldly allurements.

"Gyanat tyaga, tyagat shanti"

即使一个人积攒了所有的财富却没有布施的话,他以后就会变得无助。在任何的宗教中,布施或许是一种最普通的提高人们道德的行为。佛教、基督教以及耆那教都把布施作为一种正确的行为。放弃只会给我们带来越来越多的欢乐。放弃能够征服人类所有的弱点,他将四处散布人类的荣耀。宗教要求人们放弃,而不是沉溺于世间的欢愉。

"Gyanat tyaga, tyagat shanti"

 

According to the above statement charities given wisely only after careful thought are called true renunciation. One gets peace only by such type of renunciation. Hence, before giving charities generously, it is most essential that a man should ponder well over the pros and cons of what he intends to give in charity and to whom he intends to give. Donations given after proper thought under no momentary emotional urge born out of a feeling of compassion aroused by an imposter saint or an idler i.e., a work shirking person who wants to extort money under some false pretext, are termed renunciation. Contribution of funds to political parties or giving alms to beggars, who misuse in drinks and intoxicants is in no way donation or charity; rather it is squandering of money. Beware, it is better not to be charitable at all than to give charity to an undeserving person.

根据上面的话,只有经过谨慎思考后的布施才能够称为真正的放弃。只有这样的放弃之后人们才能变得平和。因此,在布施之前,人们应当谨慎而又仔细的考虑他要向谁布施,如何布施。只有经过适当考虑后的布施,而不是由于一时冲动而做出的布施才能够称为放弃。向政党捐款或者向乞丐施舍让他去酗酒就不能够称为捐赠或者慈善,而只能称为滥用钱财。请注意,与其把钱施舍给不应当给之人还不如不去施舍。

 

Renunciation affords peace. It is a psychological truth. Only a large-hearted and liberal-minded person can give donation. The more a donor renounces worldly possessions, the greater is the number of ripples of happiness that rise in his heart. Therefore, it is essential for the lucky affluent persons to constantly follow the practice of giving charities forever in life. If rain, water in a river goes on accumulating and there is no outlet i.e., the river does not supply water to the fields and oceans; it will be flooded. Its water overflowing both its banks will create havoc all around resulting in the ruin of crops and vast costly properties and many innocent lives will meet untimely death. The sun has been illuminating the whole world ever since the earth came into existence by casting its innumerous dazzling rays which give both light and warmth to one and all. If the sun does not shed its luminous rays, no living creature, no vegetation and no plant will survive on earth. Likewise, if out of a feeling of selfishness a man adopts the tendency of accumulating wealth, the financial disparities in the world will go on increasing and create an economic crisis, which may result in bloodshed. Hence, such a worshipper of Mammon will be called a traitor and a bloodsucker of the poor. A well known statesman has said, "sehbhogyamidam rajyam" -the amenities of the royal treasure must be enjoyed united by all through a proper division of wealth.

放弃带来平和,毫无疑问,这是一个真理。只有心胸宽广的人和解脱的人才回去捐赠。捐赠的越多,心中的欢乐也就越多。因此,对于一个幸运的、富裕的人来说,他一生就应当不断地捐赠。如果下雨,河流中的水就会慢慢积累起来,如果没有出口的话,这就会变成洪水。洪水一旦肆虐,河堤就会坍塌,洪水就会毁坏庄稼,损害大量的财物,许多无辜的生命就会死去。太阳发出温暖的光芒照耀着大地,如果太阳把它的光芒隐藏起来,地球上的生物、蔬菜以及植物就不能够存活。同样地,如果人们出于自私的想法来积累财富的话,世界上穷苦的人就会越来越多,造成经济的危机以及大规模的流血。因此,这种积累财富的行为就是一种背叛、一种剥削穷人的行为。一个杰出的政治家曾经说过,只有通过合理的分配财富,才能够使人们共同感觉到财富所带来的快乐。

 

When tasty fruits ripen on trees, they drop them on the ground below without greed or sense of possessions. How great is the debt of trees on man! Likewise, a man wins glory and dignity only when he distributes among the needy the huge wealth accumulated by him. So long as the clouds hold water, they look dark in appearance; but as soon as they start raining i.e., renounce water drop by drop, they begin to look snow white. Similarly, till a man accumulates worldly possessions his inner soul blackened with anger like passions seems a burden to him. But no sooner the same man starts giving in charity his vast wealth accumulated by fair means or foul, than his inner feels relieved of a burden; for it results in the purification of his thoughts.

当美味的果实从树上成熟的时候,它们毫无留恋的落在地上。树的这种行为是多么伟大啊!同样地,当一个人把他所积攒的大量的财富分发给其他需要的人的时候,他就会赢得荣耀与尊敬。只要云中还有水,那么它就是黑暗的,但是当开始下雨之后,放弃了水滴,它们就看起来洁白无瑕。同样地,当人们积攒财富的时候,他内心的灵魂就会被愤怒所困扰,给他造成负担。但是当他把自己的财富分发给他人的时候,他内心的负担就会被缓解,给人们的思想带来纯洁。

 

The message of the founder of Jainism Lord Adinath is, "Either be an ascetic or a cultivator." This axiom signifies both renunciation and indulgence. Only those who have amassed great fortunes can give charities. There can be no renunciation without possessions to be given up. Those indulged in collecting more and more material possessions should follow the ideal path of cultivators who grow more and more to feed themselves and their fellow beings; or those who have faith in true renunciation should follow suit to ascetics. No doubt out of these two paths latter type of renunciation is regarded better. Those who disdain worldly riches and cast them away without hitch are held in high veneration; those who are busy day and night in earning and spending lay waste their powers in accumulating articles of sensuous pleasures. Self-uplift is possible only through renunciation not through indulgence.

耆那教的创始人Adinath曾经说过,要么禁欲,要么培养自己的欲望。这句真理强调了放弃与放纵的意义。只有那些拥有大量财富的人才能够布施。没有财产的话就谈不上放弃。那些沉溺于放纵自己聚敛财富的人要么使他们自己或者追随他们的人过得更好,或者是已经抱有放弃这些财产的思想。毫无疑问,后者的这种放弃的思想更好一些。那些能够毫不眷恋的抛弃财富的人应当得到更高的尊敬。自我提升只可能通过放弃实现,而不能通过放纵实现。

 

While defining the supreme virtue of renunciation, the great poet Reidhu writes:

Chau vi dhamangau tam ji amangau nristriye bhatriye janrhuPatham supvitham tav gunr jutham pargyi sambalu tam munrhu

Chae avgunr ganru ji uhtyi, chae nrimal kiti pavhayiChae veyrith panrmeyi paye, chae bhog bhomi suh jae

Chae vihijeyi nrich ji binrye, suh veynryi bhasaipinru panraiAbhaydanru dijeyi pehilaru, jimi nrasyi parbhav dudhyaru

Sathdanru bijyu punr kijyi, nrimal nranru jainr pavijyiOsahu dijyi roe vinrasanru, keh vinr paichyi bahi pyasanru

Aharay dhanrridhi pavthyi, chaubihu chau ji aihu pavthauAhva duth viapaham chae, chau ji aihu munrhu samvaen

Duhiyeh dijyi danru kijayi manru ji gunriynrahamDeh bhaviyi abhang dansanru chintijyi manrham

1        Renunciation is a part and parcel of religion. As a rule the two are inseparable. A perfectly purified soul dedicated to the virtue of penance should practice with full devotion the supreme virtue of renunciation within his capacity. That paves the way to the attainment of a superior state of existence in the next birth.

2        A horde of vices is driven away by renunciation; it spreads the shining glory and fame of a person; consequently an enemy surrenders and falls down at his feet. One gets the bliss of happy land of Eldorado through renunciation.

3        A man devoted to renunciation should regularly give charity humbly and affectionately using auspicious words. First of all he should give 'abhay daan' i.e., save the lives of all living beings in danger; doing so vanquishes the miseries related to the other world.

4        Besides, one should give 'Shastra Dana' as well i.e., he should distribute among the people sacred books and scriptures, which impart and spread religious knowledge. He should make free distribution of medicines also which cure living beings of all bodily diseases, and destroy all physical ailments root and branch.

5        Giving food to the Hungary and the poor i.e., 'ahar daan' brings peace and prosperity in its return. As a rule these are four types of charities (four-fold renunciation) practiced from times immemorial. In other words putting an end to vicious thoughts practices renunciation. In short, the virtue of renunciation consists in doing all this.

6        We should give alms to the miserable and show reverence to the talented and virtuous persons. We should cherish the sole feeling of mercy and meditate in our mind for the attainment of Perfect Faith.

在定义至上的放弃这种美德的时候,伟大的诗人Reidhu写到:

1        放弃是宗教的一部分,二者密不可分。进行苦修的纯洁的灵魂应当在其能力限度内进行完全的放弃。这将带领人们走向重生。

2        放弃能够消除恶习,它能够传播荣耀与名誉,敌人将会在它的脚下投降。人们通过放弃能够得到福祉。

3        遵行放弃美德的人们应当定期地进行布施,并说一些吉祥的话。首先他应当挽救处于危险中的人们的生命,以消除其他世界中的痛苦。

4        除此之外,人们也应当布施书籍以及经文典籍,这将有助于知识的传播。他还应当布施药品来治疗人们的疾病。

5        分发食物给饥饿和贫穷的人。奉行四种慈善,结束自己罪恶的想法。总而言之,上述所有的这些都构成了放弃的美德。

6        我们应当放弃痛苦,尊重那些智慧以及善良的人们。我们应当珍惜慈善的情感并且对我们的思想进行沉思已获得完美的信仰。

 

Hence, O Mortal Man! Practice renunciation, practice renunciation and practice renunciation throughout your life; for wise men say: "The more you covet, the more you lose; and the more you give up, the more you merit."

Indeed, 'To renounce all sense of possession with regard to wealth is a very difficult vow."

To sum up, 'Riches have wings and they flee us leaving us in the lurch.'

Therefore, it is wise to renounce riches and all other possessions voluntarily and give charities; otherwise when misfortune robs us of all our wealth and prosperity we shall be left penniless waiting and cursing our destiny.

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Various clouds overcast the vast skyBut only a few rain.

Multicolor flowers bloom in a gardenBut only a few have smell.

Innumerable human beings exist on earthBut only a few are humane.

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因此道德的人啊:一生修行,修行,修行;因为智者说:你越贪婪,你失去的就越多;你放弃的越多,你得到的也越多。

确实:放弃一切与拥有财富有关的感觉是一个十分难的誓言。

总之财富长着翅膀满载危难之时他们会逃离我们。

自愿的放弃财富和其他一切财产,施以仁慈是明智的,否则当厄运掠夺走我们的一切财富和繁荣时,我们将只剩下一贫如洗的等待和诅咒我们的命运。

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多变的云朵遮挡了广阔的天空,

但仅有一些雨

多彩的花朵在园中绽放

但仅有一些花香

无数的灵魂存活在地球上,

但仅有一些是慈爱的。

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