Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德
与贡献 
     
   前言 
  绪论 
  五大神灵之圣歌
  引言 
  至上的宽恕
   至上的谦卑 
   至上的诚实 
  至上的纯洁 
  至上的善言 
   至上的自律
  至上的苦行 
  至上的舍弃 
  至上的情禁 
  至上的禁欲 
  结束语

TEN UNIVERSAL VIRTUES  十大美德 

4 SUPREME CONTENTMENT OR PURITY

至上的满足或纯洁

(Uttama Shaucha Dharma)

 

'Contentment is Happiness.'

   满足就是快乐

 

The word 'Shauch' is a compound word derived by adding the suffix 'anr' with the word 'shuchi' to mean 'shucherbhav shauchanam'. It means sacredness, cleanliness, to be pure, to be clean, to be spotless and to be non-greedy.

'Shauch'一词是个复合词,它是由后缀'anr'和词根'shuchi'组成的,它的意思是'shucherbhav shauchanam'。它的意思是庄严、洁净、纯洁、无暇以及不贪婪。

 

The humanitarian approach to lessen the miseries of living beings is included in the abstention from greed of worldly possessions. Contentment aims at putting a limit on the worldly possessions by individuals according to their needs and desires.

人道主义者通过控制贪婪的欲望来减轻生灵的痛苦。满足就是指人类的个体根据自己的需要和欲望来限制自己对外物占有的欲望。

 

Stating the characteristics of the virtue of supreme contentment in 'Sarvartha Siddhi’, Acharya Pujya Pad Swamy writes: 'lobhprkaranramuparam shaucham'-To discard different types of greed is contentment.

Kankhabhavnrivitim kicha veragbhavnrajutoJo vatdi parammunri tas du dhamo havai saucham

'Sarvartha Siddhi’一书中,Acharya Pujya Pad Swamy这样来描述至上的满足的特点'lobhprkaranramuparam shaucham',放弃各种各样的贪婪就是满足。

Kankhabhavnrivitim kicha veragbhavnrajutoJo vatdi parammunri tas du dhamo havai saucham

 

The Supreme saint who conducts himself suppressing all desires and possesses the thoughts of renunciation is endowed with the virtue of contentment. In 'Bhagwati Aradhana' the erudite Acharya Shivery expresses his invaluable thoughts:

'Dravayshu mamaidam bhavmulo vyasanopanipat sakal iti tat parityago laghvam'.

能够抑制自己所有的欲望并且具有解脱的思想的至上的神具有满足的美德。在'Bhagwati Aradhana'一书中,博学的Acharya Shivery这样来描述他的思想:

'Dravayshu mamaidam bhavmulo vyasanopanipat sakal iti tat parityago laghvam'.

 

Such ambitious thoughts as 'objects like riches and wife belong to me' lead a man to numerous troubles. To do away with this feeling of attachment for worldly objects from heart is abstention or contentment. To be too greedy is disastrous. The soul becomes impure due to greed.

这种野心勃勃的想法财富与妻子都是属于我的,会给人们带来很多麻烦。能够让人们远离这种对世俗事物的眷恋的只有节制或者满足。过于贪婪是灾难性的,由于贪婪,灵魂变得不再纯洁。

 

Once a Seth (a wealthy man) had been pondering for long that he would feed a Brahman at his home, if he could find one who ate a little food. Although the Seth was master of great property and was very wealthy, yet due to being extremely greedy and a miser of the meanest nature he went on searching for such a Brahman. As the Seth was known for harnessing such narrow ideas, the villagers knew very well that the Seth was greedy to the core of his heart.

有一次,Seth(一个富有的人)思考了很长时间,如果他能够找到一个只吃很少食物的婆罗门的话,他就在家里供养一个婆罗门,由于他过于贪心、吝啬,他就开始去寻找这样的婆罗门。由于Seth一直受到这样一种想法的束缚,人们就非常了解他内心的贪婪。

 

One day the Seth chanced to come in contact with a village Brahman. During discourse the Seth asked him, "How much do you eat?" The Brahman replied about an oz. at a time." Hearing this the Seth instantly invited the Brahman to take meals at his home the next day. The Seth said to him, "O Brahman! Tomorrow I shall go out of station to make some bargains. Come to my house and take meals." The Brahman said, "Very well! May you be prosperous! We always eat your food." Going home the Seth gave this information to his wife the Sethani; and instructed her saying, "I have extended invitation for tomorrow's meals to a Brahman. As tomorrow I shall go out for business transactions, give the Brahman to eat whatever he demands." In fact, the Seth was fully convinced that the diet of the Brahman was only one oz., why will he ask for more then?

一天,Seth恰巧碰到了一个婆罗门,他就问这个婆罗门:你每天吃多少食物?一次一盎司,婆罗门答道。听到这话,Seth马上就邀请这个婆罗门第二天到他家里作客。Seth对他说,婆罗门啊,明天到我家来吃饭吧。婆罗门答道,非常好,祝你发达,我们会经常去的。回到家里,Seth对他的妻子Sethani说了这件事情,并对他妻子说,我已经邀请婆罗门明天来我们家吃饭,但是明天我要出去做生意,你就让这个婆罗门尽管吃。实际上,Seth认为,这个婆罗门只能够吃一盎司的饭,不会吃掉太多。

 

The next day the Seth went away on his business tour. The Brahman came at his home in his absence and blessed the mistress of the house (Sethani). The lady was not greedy. She was a very generous, saintly, chaste and pious lady devoted to the Brahmans. She asked, "Well Panditji! Tell me, what are your requirements?" The Pandit said, "Five quintal wheat flour, one quintal butter, two quintal vegetables, one quintal sugar, five kg. Salt and two kg. Spices are my needs for home." The Sethani arranged everything according to the demands of holy Brahman. After all these food articles were dispatched to his home, the Brahman said to the Sethani, "Now hastily serve the food to me as my growing appetite is troubling me." The lady at once served the food and fed the Brahman to his fill. After taking food Panditji spoke, "O Gentle Lady! If I get one hundred guineas (gold coins) as my dinner gift, I shall bless you and return home." The lady willingly offered him one hundred guineas. Then the Brahman blessed her and left for home.

第二天,Seth出去做生意。婆罗门来的时候他已经出去了,这个婆罗门向女主人表达了祝福。Sethani并不是一个贪婪的人,她对婆罗门十分慷慨、圣洁、朴素、虔诚。她问道,Panditji,你想吃些什么?婆罗门答道,五担面粉,一担黄油,一担白糖,七公斤盐巴,我的家里还需要一些香料。Sethani满足了这个婆罗门所有的要求。当所有的这些食物送到了婆罗门家里之后,这个婆罗门对Sethani说,现在你马上把这些食物喂给我,我已经非常饿了。Sethani马上就把这些食物喂给了这个婆罗门,并一直把他喂饱。这时,这个婆罗门说,这位慷慨的主妇啊,如果我能拿到100个金币作为我的晚餐礼物的话,我就会祝福你并且回家。这个主妇欣然给了他100个金币,他祝福了这个主妇,然后就回家了。

 

On reaching home, the Brahman lay down in bed covering him with a sheet of cloth. He instructed his wife that if the Seth comes here, start weeping and tell him, "Panditji is laid up with serious illness ever since he has returned after taking meals at your home. The worst thing is that there is no hope of his survival. God knows, what you have fed him?" In the evening when the whole day starved Seth came home from his business tour, he asked his wife, "Did the holy Brahman come here and take his food?" The Sethani said, "Yes, he did come and asked for some food stuff for his home, which I supplied to him. Later on he ate down all the five kg. Purees prepared for him and then taking one hundred guineas as customary gift given to Brahmans after meals, he went away." Hearing this the Seth became unconscious.

当回到家之后,这个婆罗门躺在床上并在身上盖了一块布。他对他的妻子说,如果Seth来了之后,立刻就开始哭泣,并对他说,Panditji从你家回来之后就开始生病。更为可怕的是他已经没有生存的希望了,天知道,他在你家吃了什么东西。这天晚上,当Seth做完生意回家的时候,他问他的妻子,这个婆罗门是否到他家来吃饭?Sethani答到,是的,他来吃过饭,而且还给他的家里带回了一些东西。他吃光了我们准备的5公斤的浓汤,临走时又带走了100金币。听到这些,Seth马上昏了过去。

 

After sometime when the Seth recovered, he at once reached the Brahman's house. The wife of the Brahman sat at the door. The Seth inquired of her, "Where is the Brahman?" Hearing these words of the Seth, the Brahmini began to weep bitterly and spoke, "Ever since he has returned after taking meals at your home, that he is unwell. God knows what has happened to him. He is seriously ill. There is no hope of his survival even. None can say what harmful thing you fed him along with the food?" The Seth was terrified and began to apologize to the Brahmini saying, "Don't weep. Take these two hundred rupees and get the Brahman properly treated; but do not tell any body that the Brahman had taken meals at my house." Thus the greedy Seth returned home dumbfounded. The Seth had to part with a great amount of wealth for his petty greed and had to undergo mental torture as well. Indeed, there is no lack of such greedy persons in this world. They are known as great sinners as well. Due to a little greed, sometimes they lose their precious life too. It is well said:

Makhi bethi shehd par, rahi phank phelae

Hath male aur sir dhune, lalach buri balae

I.e., A fly sat on honey, waves its wings, repents and tosses its head to and fro to come out of it, but in vain. In truth avarice is the root of all evils.

Seth苏醒过来之后,他马上去了婆罗门的家。婆罗门的妻子坐在门口。当Seth询问他,婆罗门在哪里?听到这话后,婆罗门的妻子马上开始哭泣,并且说到,当他从你家吃完饭回来之后,他就感觉不舒服,天知道发生了什么事情。他病得很厉害,他很可能要死去了。天晓得他在你家吃了什么东西。Seth听了这些话之后十分害怕,并且开始向婆罗门的妻子道歉,不要哭了,请收下这200卢比好好的给婆罗门办理后事,不要告诉任何人婆罗门在我家吃过饭。然后,Seth就迷迷糊糊的回到了家。贪婪的Seth为了自己的贪婪付出了一大笔财富并且承受了精神上的折磨。事实上,世界上还有很多这样贪婪的人。他们同样也是制造罪孽的人。由于丝毫的贪婪,有时他们甚至会失去宝贵的生命。有文为证:

Makhi bethi shehd par, rahi phank phelae

Hath male aur sir dhune, lalach buri balae

粘在蜜糖上的苍蝇,挥动着它的翅膀想从上面逃脱,却白费力气。事实上,贪婪是所有罪恶的源泉。

 

The Crown person of mankind, Lord Ram had to lose his beloved wife Sita out of her greed for the golden deer. If a wise person is possessed even with the least of greed, he also is sure to dwindle from the right path. Ram was an extraordinary superman, yet as a result of greed his wisdom was spoiled. Very often adversity and allurement for others' shake even the right persons from their noble path. Hence, Sir Edwin Arnold says:

'Give freely and receive, but take from none

By greed or force or fraud what is his own.'

It has been said:

Asambhavam haimmrigsya jnm tathapi lulubhai mrigaye

Paraye samapanvipatikale dhiopi punsan malina bhavanti

人类中的王者Ram,由于他对金鹿的贪婪,失去了他深爱的妻子Sita。如果一个人心中哪怕是怀有一丝贪婪的话,他都回从正确的道路上迷失。Ram是个伟大的人,但是由于他的贪婪,他丧失了他的智慧。通常,逆境以及对外物的贪念会使人们从正确的修行道路上迷失。因此,Edwin Arnold说过:

如果一个人不贪婪的话,

他就会广泛的给与却不索求。

有文为证:

Asambhavam haimmrigsya jnm tathapi lulubhai mrigaye

Paraye samapanvipatikale dhiopi punsan malina bhavanti

 

Just as color gives out its full luster only on a neat and clean sheet of canvas; likewise virtues like contentment enter only a clean, pure and upright mind. Only when the impurity of greed is washed away by way of holy living, purity may come to the forefront. From the above it becomes clear that 'Cleanliness is next to Godliness'. According to one view point cleanliness is of two types -external and internal; but according to another viewpoint it is of three types -bodily, mental and pertaining to speech. All these are supplementary and complementary to one another. Even in the absence of one of these, the work cannot be accomplished or perfect purity cannot be achieved.

就像颜色只是在一块干净的帆布上才能显现他所有的光泽,同样地,只有纯洁的、正直的人才能具备满足的美德。当通过修行把不纯洁以及贪婪洗刷掉的时候,纯洁就会自然显现在面前。从上面这些可以看出,纯洁同圣洁是联系在一起的。一种观点认为,纯洁分为内心的和外在的;另外一种认为纯洁分为身体上的、精神上的和语言上的,所有这些都是相辅相成的,缺少任何一种都不能够称为真正意义上的纯洁。

 

If someone says that external i.e., bodily cleanliness is the real cleanliness, the question arises as to why the water animals like frogs and fish that always live in ponds, rivers and seas cannot acquire the virtue of purity. Water path has been assigned the fifth place among baths. There are four other baths in addition to it. The water bath accompanied by those four baths is the real bath. This is the only means of self-purification i.e., soul purification. Internal cleanliness cannot be attained by mere making the body clean through water bath or by arraying the body with ornaments and wearing neat and clean or costly costumes. In the absence of internal cleanliness, all other sources of cleanliness are futile.

如果有人说,外部的纯洁是真正的纯洁,那么问题就出现了。水中的生物,像鱼、青蛙之类永远得不到真正的纯洁。水是五种清洁的方式之一,还有其他四种清洁的方式。这五种清洁的方式综合起来才是自我净化的唯一途径灵魂的纯洁。只有身体上的洁净或者在身上佩戴饰物或者穿着干净或昂贵的衣服不能够获得内心的纯洁。没有内心的纯洁,所有其他的纯洁都是没有意义的。

 

One day all the five Pandav came to Narayan Lord Shri Krishna and requested him to accompany them on a pilgrimage. Shri Krishna declined to do so for some unknown reason. Then the Pandav urged him to send his some representative to keep company with them. The Lord refused for this as well. The Pandav again appealed, "At least give us something, which we may take on pilgrimage with us and bathing which we may again hand it over to you on our return." On the repeated requests of Pandav, Shri Krishna picked up a gourd lying near by and gave it to the Pandav. The Pandav placed the pieces of gourd into their mouths, they all started vomiting with signs of distress on their faces. One by one they began to complain "I am feeling stomach ache; I am feeling headache; I am feeling giddy" and so on. Seeing all this Lord Shri Krishna asked them, "Well brothers! Why this distress on your faces?" All replied, "The gourd pieces taste very bitter." Then Narayan Shri Krishna replied with a smile, "See, even after a thousand baths, the gourd has not shed its bitterness and acrid taste. Likewise, no good comes out of simply having an outward bath. Internal cleanliness is essential along with external cleanliness." It has been said in the 'Mahabharat':

Atma nadi sanyamtoypurna, satyvha shiltata dyarmi

Tatravagahm kuru Panduputra, Na varina shudhyati chantratma

I.e., O Pandav! This soul is a stream full of water of self-restraint, truth is its current, chastity is its bank and mercy and compassion are its waves. The inner self becomes clean and pure only by bathing in this stream of soul, not by bathing in water.

一天,五位Pandav来请求Shri Krishna陪同他们一起去朝圣,Shri Krishna毫无理由的拒绝了他们。然后,一位Pandav请求Shri Krishna派一个代表跟随他们一起去,他也拒绝了。在Pandav的再三请求下,Shri Krishna捡起了旁边的一个葫芦递给他们。Pandav把葫芦弄碎塞入他们自己的口中,他们马上脸上就表现出想要呕吐的神情,他们开始抱怨,我开始感觉胃痛,我开始感觉头痛,我感觉眩晕等等之类的话。看到这些,Shri Krishna问他们,你们的脸上为什么呈现了痛苦的表情?Pandav回答到,葫芦的碎片尝起来很苦。Shri Krishna笑笑说,即使洗过无数遍,葫芦还是会尝起来又苦又辣。同样地,只是对外部身体的洗浴不会有好的结果。对于外在的纯洁来说,内心的纯洁是必须的。在Mahabharat'中曾经说到过:

Atma nadi sanyamtoypurna, satyvha shiltata dyarmi

Tatravagahm kuru Panduputra, Na varina shudhyati chantratma

即,哦,Pandav,灵魂就是一条满载自律之水的河流,诚实在里面流动着,纯洁是它的两岸,怜悯与同情是它的波浪。只有灵魂的纯洁才能够使人们内心纯洁。

 

While laying stress on the significance of internal purity Maharishi Vyas has also said, "Be he a house-holder or a renounced soul; be he a scholar of the Vedas or the Shrimad Bhagwat Geeta, internal purity is essential for all." Thus not only external cleanliness but internal purity is also a must for perfect cleanliness. They both are complementary to each other.

当谈到内心纯洁的重要性的时候,Maharishi Vyas说到,不论他是一个拥有很多财富的人还是一个身无长物的人,抑或是一个学者,内心的纯洁是至关重要的。因此,外在的整洁同内心的纯洁都是纯洁必不可少的因素,二者是相辅相成的。

 

It has been clearly stated in the 'Niyam Saar' -'If there exists even an atom of passions like greed, vanity and conceit in the internal soul, there can be no purity; such a Man there is a bit of poison equivalent even to a small mustard seed in a nectar like delicious ladoo, is the ladoo edible? No, the ladoo remains inedible, as eating it is an invitation to death. Even an atom of poison in the ladoo will also prove fatal. Likewise, even the smallest worldly possession is harmful for the virtue of purity and contentment. Therefore, it is necessary to give up both external and internal possessions to acquire the two types of purity -external and internal. Thus, perfect purity of soul is possible by discarding not only external possessions, but internal possessions also. If purity could be obtained merely by giving up external possessions, why then the birds and animals, which have no external possessions, do not obtain purity? It shows that besides renouncing external possessions, it is necessary to give up internal possessions viz. anger, vanity and greed as well. Only then the virtue of supreme purity 'Shaucha' can be obtained."

'Niyam Saar'中曾经清楚地描述过,如果内心存在一丝贪婪、虚荣或者欺诈,那内心就不会纯洁,那么人们就不会具有正确的信仰。这样的人就像美味中加进了一点毒药一样,这样的美味就完全无法食用了,因为食用这样的美味就相当于死亡。同样,即使一丝世俗的情感也会妨碍纯洁与满足的美德。因此,人们应当放弃自己内心以及外在的情感来达到内心与外在的纯洁。只有两方面都没有情感,人们才能达到纯洁,不然的话,鸟类和走兽为什么不能够达到纯洁呢?这就说明了,除了放弃外在的情感,人们还应当放弃内心的情感,例如愤怒、虚荣以及贪婪等。只有这样才能够实现至上的纯洁。

 

Anything kept in a clean utensil or container can be preserved fully pure for long, if all the rules of food preservation are observed. But a thing kept in a dirty or impure pot gets a clean utensil to maintain its sweetness and properties. Milk kept only in such clean pot, can be preserved well, otherwise it turns sour. Likewise, a worthy person devoid of wrong belief, worldly attachments, malice, ill-will and greed is sure to be crowned with the virtue of supreme purity, or only then the virtue of supreme purity can be obtained or possessed. It is also necessary to keep the mind neat and clean i.e., perfectly pure to attain this virtue. If the mind is pure, the spiritual qualities acquired by it will also be grand, sacred and lofty.

Untam Manama yasya, tasya bhagiam samuntam

如果存放得当的话,保存在干净器皿或者容器中的东西能够存放很长时间。在一个干净罐子中保存的牛奶能够保存较长的时间,如果放在一个脏的罐子中,它很快就会变质。同样,一个摆脱了错误的信念、世俗的爱恋、怨恨、邪恶的念头以及贪婪的人就能够具有至上的纯洁,只有这样的人才能够得到至上的纯洁。人们同样应当保持自己的思想纯洁,如果思想纯洁,人们的精神就会变得伟大、庄严、崇高。

Untam Manama yasya, tasya bhagiam samuntam

 

He, whose mind is noble, pure, sublime, neat and clean, is blessed with a grand, lofty, holy and pure destiny too. In the absence of the purity of mind, one cannot enjoy good luck. Without raising the destiny to lofty heights, the mind cannot be holy. Someone has rightly said:

Man barhe, dhan barhe, dhane barhi man barhi jae

Man barte sab barhat he barhat barhat barhi jae

Man ghate dhan ghate dhan ghate man ghati jae

Man grate sab ghatat hae, ghatat ghatat ghati jae

一个具有崇高、纯洁、高贵思想的人就能够被赋予伟大与神圣的命运。如果没有纯洁的思想,人们就不会得到好运气。如果人们的命运达不到一定神圣的高度,思想就不会崇高。有人曾经很好地说过:

Man barhe, dhan barhe, dhane barhi man barhi jae

Man barte sab barhat he barhat barhat barhi jae

Man ghate dhan ghate dhan ghate man ghati jae

Man grate sab ghatat hae, ghatat ghatat ghati jae

 

Only when the mind is pure, a man can dedicate his mental energies to the acquisition of wealth and other worldly possessions. If the mind is impure, all our energies go on trifles. In the absence of mental purity, the holy sermons of Lord Jinendra cannot touch, appeal and influence our mind and stay there for long. Then we can neither meditate upon nor cherish the memory of the omniscient Lord Jinendra, nor sing hymns in praise of His celestial virtues.

只有思想纯洁了,人们才能正视对财产的获得以及世俗的感情。如果思想不纯洁,人们就会被琐事烦扰。没有纯洁的思想,人们就不能够认识Jinendra的教义,而且他的教义也不会吸引我们以及长时间影响我们。这样,我们就既不会冥思或者珍视Jinendra的教义,也不会唱圣歌来赞美他的美德。

 

A king very often visited a saint to seek his blessings. He would always pray to him only to give him some holy sermon. The saint paid no attention to his frequent requests. One day the king made a forceful appeal to the saint. At length the saint was appeased and said to the king, "Tomorrow I shall visit your royal palace and deliver my sermon there." The king was overjoyed and again insisted that the saint should oblige him by taking his meals too in the royal palace. The saint readily consented to it. The saint readily taking his begging bowl. The king had devotedly got prepared various types of delicacies and dainty dishes for the saint. At first the king wished to serve to the saint kheer, a preparation of inside the bowl and drew back his hand without serving the kheer into the bowl. At this the saint stood up and got ready to go back. The king was terrified, as the saint had neither taken meals nor delivered sermon. The perturbed king said, "O holy saint! You neither took meals nor delivered a sermon as per your promise; still you are going back home leaving us in the lurch." The saint promptly replied, "I have delivered my sermon, which you have failed to grasp." The king stood dumbfounded. Then the saint asked the perplexed king, "Why did you not serve the kheer into my bowl?" The king said, "Holy Sir! Dust particles and pebbles were lying in your bowl. I did not serve the kheer into the bowl, lest my nectar like sweet and tasty kheer should get spoiled." The saint said, "I had also to teach you this lesson that your mind is full of filth and dirt in the shape of evil passions like anger, vanity, arrogance and greed. Until and unless your mind on being relieved of these state of mind my sermon will also be futile and go waste."

的请求。一天,国王强烈的请求圣人去他的皇宫,圣人欣然接受了邀请。国王十分高兴,并强烈请求圣人务必在他的皇宫进餐,圣人也欣然答应了。第二天,圣人带着他化缘钵去了皇宫,国王全心全意地准备了许多美味可口的食物。开始,国王希望给圣人炼乳吃,国王准备了炼乳却没有把它放在碗里。看到这些,圣人站起来就要回去。国王十分害怕,因为圣人既没有吃饭也没有布教。于是国王说,哦,你既没有吃饭也没有布教,然后把我们很无助地留在这里吗?圣人马上回答到,我已经布教了,但你没有领悟到。国王呆呆地站在那里。于是圣人就问国王,你为什么不把炼乳放在我的碗里?国王说到,你的碗里有脏东西和石头,因此我没有把炼乳盛在你的碗里,这样我的坛子中的炼乳就不会变质。圣人说到,我要教给你的就是,你的思想已经充满了愤怒、虚荣、傲慢以及贪婪。如果你的思想是如此的不纯洁,我如何将我的教义传授给你呢?如果传授给你的话,我的教义也会变得琐碎无用。

 

By and by as a living being goes on discarding evil passions like greed, anger and vanity he marches on ahead in the direction of uplifting his soul and attains perfect purity of soul. We should aim at achieving purity of soul. Besides discarding the evil passion of Acharya Shivarya has also emphasized the need of discarding greed;

Lobhe keyai atho, nr hohi purisas aparhibhogasya

Akevi havdi lobhai, athi padibhogvam tas

当人们逐渐放弃了贪婪、愤怒以及虚荣等邪恶的情感后,他就开始向着升华、净化自己灵魂的方向前进。我们最终的的目标就是灵魂的纯洁。除了要放弃邪恶的情感之外,Acharya Shivarya还强调到人们要放弃贪婪:

Lobhe keyai atho, nr hohi purisas aparhibhogasya

Akevi havdi lobhai, athi padibhogvam tas

 

Despite being greedy a man bereft of good luck cannot possess wealth. On the contrary a man on whom fortune smiles can have boundless wealth without craving for it. Therefore, greed for money is in no way helpful in the acquisition of wealth, rather good luck helps it. Realizing this truth we should try to get rid of greed. The question arises, 'How should we put an end to the predominating feeling of greed?' This question has been answered by Acharya Kundkund Swamy in 'Kartikeyanupreksha' thus:

Sam santosh jalainr jo dhovadi tiv loh mal punjamBhoynr gidhi vihinro tas saucham have vimlam

I.e., He who washes away the fifth of ambitions and greed with the water of the feeling of equanimity and contentment, does not run after worldly enjoyments attains the unblemished virtue of supreme purity.

一个贪婪的人会被剥夺了拥有财富的好运气,相反地,如果不苛求财富的话反而会拥有无尽的财富。因此,无论从哪方面来说,贪婪的人都不会得到财富。认识到这一点后,人们就应当摆脱贪婪的束缚。

Ambitions of man are infinite. Ambitions grow eternal in the mind of man. Even if a man goes on getting all things that he aspires for, his ambitions know no end; rather they go on multiplying. Some saintly person has rightly remarked; 'Every fulfilled desire leaves a bitter taste in the mouth before it is fully satiated.'

Itchati shatisahastram sahastri lakshmihatai

lakshadhipastha rajiyam rajyasth swargmihate

I.e., He who owns one hundred rupees aspires to obtain one thousand rupees; one who possesses one thousand rupees aspires to be a multimillionaire. A multi-millionaire cherishes the ambition to obtain a kingdom and a king desires to be the sovereign ruler of the kingdom of heaven. Thus, a man's ambitions are always on the increase. This thing has been made clear below:

"If somebody were to give the whole earth to one man, even then the man will not be satisfied; a greedy person is extremely difficult to be satisfied."

Lobhat krodh prabhavti, lobhat kam prajaytai

Lobhatmohach nashch lobh papasya karanam

I.e., Anger destroys love, pride puts an end to modesty, and deceit removes friends, while greed destroys everything.

人们的野心是没有尽头的。人们内心都有野心。即使一个人得到了他所想要的一切东西,他还是有野心。有些智慧的人曾经说过:所有的愿望在完全满足之前都会让人们口中感到苦涩。

Itchati shatisahastram sahastri lakshmihatai

lakshadhipastha rajiyam rajyasth swargmihate

即一个拥有一百卢比的人希望得到一千卢比,一个拥有一千卢比的人希望成为百万富翁,一个百万富翁希望能够统治一个国家。因此,人们的野心总是在不断增长。下面这段话就说得很清楚。

   即,即使把整个世界给一些人,他们仍然会不满意,一个贪婪的人总是难以满足。

Lobhat krodh prabhavti, lobhat kam prajaytai

Lobhatmohach nashch lobh papasya karanam

即,愤怒摧毁爱情,傲慢摧毁谦逊,欺骗摧毁友谊,贪婪则摧毁一切。

 

There was a very miserly Brahman named Kankbhat. Once he went to take a holy dip in the Ganga. He was taking dips in the holy Ganga time and again. While bathing there, some persons informed him that his one-paisa coin had fallen into the river. So he started making his best efforts, the Brahman could not find the coin. So he spoke, "Well, O mother Ganga! I offer this coin to you."

曾经有个非常吝啬的婆罗门叫做Kankbhat。一次他去恒河沐浴,当他沐浴的时候,有人告诉他,他有一派萨的硬币掉进了河水,他就开始努力的寻找,但是却没有找到。于是他说,哦,恒河母亲啊,我把这枚硬币献给你。

At that time the Brahman was on his way to Southern India on a business tour. There one day he received the message of his mother's sad demise. The Brahman was extremely miser. He thought that if he went back to his village to perform his mother's funeral rites, it would be very expensive. But he had great regard and affection for his mother. So he decided to buy a coconut at that very place and perform his dead mother's last rituals. With this idea in his mind he went to the market place to buy a coconut. He stepped into a shop. He inquired of the shopkeeper the price of a coconut. The shopkeeper replied that a coconut would cost him fifty paisa. Kankbhat said, "Brother! Reduce the price a little." But the shopkeeper declined to do so. Kankbhat marched ahead. Another shopkeeper demanded forty paisas as price for a similar coconut. Kankbhat did not buy the coconut from that shop, too. Thus making inquiries from shop to shop he reached a wholesale coconut store. Kankbhat asked the salesman of the store the price of one coconut. The sales man replied, "Two paisa." At this Kankbhat said, "Well, gentleman"! I hail from a far off place. Please allow me some discount and sell me a coconut for one paisa." At this the owner of the shop said, "We are traders. How can we sell you a coconut below the price we paid for it? If you want to buy a coconut for one paisa, go to a coconut field. There you will get it for one paisa."

当时Kankbhat正在去印度南部做生意的路上。一天他收到了自己母亲死亡的消息。他想到,如果他回去参加母亲葬礼的话会花费非常大,但是他又非常尊敬和深爱自己的母亲。于是,他每到一个地方就买一个椰子来做他母亲的葬礼。想到这,他就去市场买椰子。当他问道一个商贩椰子价格的时候,商贩答道,一个椰子要花50派萨。Kankbhat说,稍微少一些吧,却被商贩拒绝了。Kankbhat继续向前走,发现另外一个商贩只需要40派萨就能买到一个类似的椰子。Kankbhat也没有买椰子,他把整个市场椰子的价格问了一遍,最后来到了一个批发椰子的地方。他问道椰子的价格,摊主回答道,2派萨。Kankbhat就说,我来自一个很远的地方,请再给我便宜一些吧,一个派萨怎么样?摊主说,我们是做生意的,怎么能做赔本的生意呢?如果你想用一个派萨买一个椰子的话,你就去椰子园吧。

 

Hence Kankbhat marched forward in search of a coconut field. After travelling a short distance, he came across a farmer. He enquired him the price of a coconut. The peasant answered, "The price is one paisa." By this time the greed of the Brahman was roused all the more and he said, "Well brother! I come from a distance place. Please give me a coconut free of cost." Being enraged the farmer spoke, "If you want to get a coconut cost free, go to the forest and pluck with your own hands as many cost-free coconuts as you like from the trees, which belong to none." Being overjoyed Kankbhat proceeded towards the forest. In the forest he saw trees overloaded with coconuts. Seeing them he was overwhelmed with joy. But he did not know how to climb a coconut tree. Anyhow he climbed upon a tree. The problem was how he should pluck coconuts now. He did not know plucking of coconuts from the tree as well. When he tried to pull the bunch of coconuts from the tree, in this process his foot slipped from the stem of the tree and he hung in the middle holding the branch in his hand. No sooner did he peep downward, than he saw a deep well nearby. He wailed, "Alas! Now I shall meet untimely death." He was greatly terrified.

于是Kankbhat就向前走去寻找椰子园。走了一小段路之后,他遇到了一个农民,并向他询问椰子的价格。农民答到,一个派萨。这时贪婪的Kankbhat十分兴奋,他说,我是从很远里面自己砍椰子去吧。听到这话后,兴奋得Kankbhat径直走向森林。在森林中,Kankbhat看到了结满了椰子的树。尽管他不知道如何爬树,但他最终还是爬上了这棵椰子树,并好不容易从树上摘下了椰子。这时他的脚不小心从树干上滑落下来,并用手抓住了树枝悬挂在半空中。很快,他又开始向下掉落,这时他看到了旁边的一口深井,他哀号到,我要摔死了!

 

A man on camel back was passing by that way just then. Kambhat prayed to the camel rider, "Brother! Save my life." It was a golden opportunity for the camel driver to fish in others' troubled waters. So he asked, "Well! Tell me what will you pay me for saving your life?" Kambhat replied, "I have five hundred rupees in my pocket, I shall give them to you." The camel rider was overjoyed. He brought the camel close to the tree and making the camel stand under it, himself he stood on the camel back. As soon as he caught hold of the legs of Kankbhat to give him support, the camel slipped away from under him and fled. Now two persons were suspended from the tree instead of one.

这时,一个人骑着骆驼经过。Kankbhat骑骆驼的人说,请救我一命吧。这对骑骆驼的人正是一个漫天要价的好机会,于是他说,我救了你之后,你用什么来报答我呢?Kankbhat答到,我会把我口袋中的500卢比都给你。这个骑骆驼的人十分高兴。于是他站在骆驼的背上,准备把Kankbhat救下来。正在他刚刚抓住Kankbhat的脚的时候,骆驼突然跑开了,于是这两个人都被悬挂在半空中。

 

Meanwhile, the king's elephant driver, riding his elephant was passing from that side. Seeing the two men hanging from the tree, he began to laugh. The two persons hanging from the tree appealed to him to rescue them. The elephant driver was also overpowered by greed. He also asked "What will you pay me for saving you?" Kambhat promised to pay him five hundred rupees; and the camel driver also agreed to reward him with one thousand rupees. The elephant driver was thrilled. He made the elephant stand under the tree and hardly had he caught hold of the legs of the lower person taking right position on his elephant, the elephant also fled away being perplexed. Now three persons were swinging from one and the same twig of the tree.

这时,国王的驯象师骑着大象路过。他看到两个人悬挂在半空中,大笑起来。这两个人请求驯象师把他们救下来。驯象师也是一个贪婪的人,他问到,我救了你们之后,你们用什么来报答我呢?Kankbhat答应支付他500卢比,骑骆驼的人答应支付他1000卢比。驯象师站在大象的背上,准备抓住骑骆驼人的脚把他们救下来,当他抓住骑骆驼人的脚的时候,大象突然跑开了。这样,三个人就都挂在了树枝上。

 

By this time Kankbhat was dead tired of hanging so long. Ultimately he spoke, "My hands are fully unnerved; now my grip of the tree twig is getting loose." Being terrified the two lower persons said, "Oh brother! Do not do so; otherwise all of us will be killed." At this Kankbhat said, "Previously you had claimed money from me to save my life. Now it is my turn. Tell me, what both of you will pay me for it; otherwise I shall leave hold of the tree just now." One of them said, "I shall pay you five hundred rupees," and the second man offered him one thousand rupees. Kamkbhat rejoiced; for he thought, "How fine! I shall get cost free coconuts besides a good amount of money." Indeed, it was a gala day for him. While he was thus fully absorbed in his wishful thinking and greedy thoughts, he lost his grip of the twig and instantly all the three fell into the deep well below. The three met their doom due to excess of greed. Likewise, daily the creatures in all the three worlds are meeting their sad and untimely demise being overpowered with endless greed.

这时,Kankbhat已经再也坚持不住了。最后他说,我的手抓不住了,我要松手了。听到这话后,下面的两个人说,不要啊,不然我们会死的。这时,Kankbhat说到,开始你们向我要钱才救我,现在轮到我想你们要钱了。告诉我,你们都要给我多少钱,不然我就要松手了。一个人说,我要付给你500卢比,第二个人说,我要付给你1000卢比。Kankbhat想,这是多么好的一天啊,我既得到了免费的椰子,又挣了一笔钱。当他沉浸在他的这种想法中时,他突然没有抓紧树干,他们三个一起掉入了井底。这三个人由于贪婪,得到了他们应有的结果。同样地,世界上的万物由于他们无止境的贪婪,都会得到悲惨的结果。

 

Rightly has it been said:

"Greed is the root cause of all crimes and sins." Alas! To what a miserable plight greed leads a man. The evil passion of greed degrades a man so low that he does not hesitate to take off ornaments from the dead bodies of women floating on floodwater. He steals the luggage of persons killed in a train accident or air crash; and loots the goods of earthquake victims under the pretext of doing relief work. Indeed greed knows no end. Given below are the noble words of a great scholar:

"Contentment is the cheapest, safest and surest remedy for all troubles that may possibly come upon man. Want of it, only augments, intensifies and prolongs the pain, and sometimes perpetuates it."

有文章曾经说过:

贪婪是所有罪恶以及罪孽的根源。那么,贪婪会给人们带来多么痛苦的结果啊。贪婪使人们品德变得堕落,他们甚至会毫不犹豫的拾取女人尸体上的饰品。它会诱惑人们盗取在事故中失事的人们的行李,抢夺在地震中遇难人们的财产。事实上,贪婪没有结果。下面是一个伟大的学者的话:

满足是解决人们所遇到困难的最简单、安全、有效的方法。欲望只会扩大、增强、延长人们的痛苦,甚至使痛苦伴随人们一生。

 

There lived a Seth named Sagar Dutt in Kampila city. Although the Seth, who lit the fuel of his heart's ambitions with the fire of deep rooted greed, had inherited ten million gold coins (guineas) from ancestors besides his self earned five million guineas, yet he was extremely greedy. What to speak of the preparation of dainty dishes and sweet meats like ladoos even vegetables were never cooked in his house. He always thought if vegetables were to be cooked, money would have to be spent on oil, chilies and spices, and more foodstuffs would be consumed on its getting tasty. Not only this, he also did not go to anybody's house to take meals or attend a feast. First, because he believed that the tongue becomes addicted to juicy and delicious foods on taking food at others' house; secondly, one day in exchange he will also have to invite the person for meals at his home.

Kampila城住着一个叫Sagar Dutt的人,在他的内心深处充满了贪婪的想法。他已经挣到了五百万的金币,并又从上辈人那里得到了一千万金币的遗产,但是他还是非常贪婪。他甚至每天都不吃蔬菜,因为他认为烹饪蔬菜会消耗油、辣椒和调料,而且如果烹饪的可口的话,以后还要消耗更多的蔬菜。不仅如此,他还从不去别人家吃饭或者参加宴会。首先,他认为,如果去别人家吃饭的话,他的舌头会沉溺于各种美味的食物;另外,如果去别人家赴宴的话,他还要回请别人。

 

He would not let even members of his family to take food to their fill. He always told his attendants that a wise man should not waste money on buying oil, ghee, butter, salt, etc., from the market. After once buying the above articles, he should return them to the shopkeeper under the pretext that these were not of the standard quality and the oil stuck to the container should serve his purpose. Besides, he professed that it was foolish to buy perfumed oil to make the body fragrant. On the contrary, one should pass one's hands over the head of the rich men's children for this purpose, so that his own body may also get perfumed with the oil applied in their hair.

他甚至不允许他的家庭成员吃饱饭。他经常告诉他的仆人,聪明的人不应当把钱花费在购买油类、酥油、黄油以及盐等方面。一旦购买了上述的物品,他就会以这些物品质量不好或者盛油容器的形状不能令人满意等原因把这些物品再退回去。另外,他还认为购买香水的行为也是愚蠢的。相反地,他认为人们应当把自己的手放在富家小孩子的头上,这样人们就能够借助他们头上的香味使自己变香。

 

Very often while roaming about he passed through the locality of the oil crushers and enter their houses in order to realize interest on the loaned money. He would pick up from there a piece of oil cake-saying that the oil cake was exhaling a very sweet smell. Therefore, on returning home he would eat boiled rice along with the spiced water and smell the oil cake in between. After taking meals he used to chew the bark of the Peepal tree for mouth wash.

他经常去榨油工人的家,并走进他们家了解借贷的利率。他还会拿起油饼并说油饼散发出非常诱人的香味。这样,当他回家的时候,他就可以吃着白米饭,并且就着加香料的水和油饼的香味。吃过这样的饭之后,他通常会咀嚼树皮来洗刷牙齿。

 

Once it rained cats and dogs in the city continuously for seven days. The rivers were flooded. Water and only water was seen everywhere in the city. A cold breeze was blowing. The people did not dare to come out of their houses. But at night the greedy Seth Sagar Datt went on the riverbank putting on a loincloth. He jumped into the flooded river and started taking out the fuel wood floating on the floodwater. The king's palace stood on the riverbank. There was lightening and thunder in the sky. In the flash of lightening through the palace window the queen saw Sagar Datt gathering fuel wood and thought in her mind that undoubtedly the poor fellow must be extremely poor. She determined to urge the king to render him monetary help. Consequently, at a proper time the queen said to the king, "O King! You are the savior of your subjects and defender of the poor. An extremely poor person lives in your city. Please help him."

一次,城里连续几天都下着瓢泼大雨,河水暴涨,城中到处都被水淹了,洪水过后,天气开始变冷,人们都不敢走出自己的房子。但是到了晚上,贪婪的Sagar Datt扎着腰带来到河边,他跳入河水并且开始收集漂在河上的木材。国王的宫殿就坐落在河岸上,天空中雷电交加。皇后通过窗户看到了Sagar Datt,她认为Sagar Datt一定非常贫困,于是她就希望国王给Sagar Datt一些帮助。一天,皇后对国王说,国王啊,您是万物的救世主,是穷人的保护神,在您的城市中有一个十分贫穷的人,请您帮助他!

 

At the appeal of the queen the king sent for the man and spoke to him, "O distressed fellow! It seems that you are a pauper like a church mouse. Therefore, I want to help you. Tell me, what do you need?" To this Sagar Datt replied, "I need a bullock." The king said, "There are so many bullocks in my cattle-shed. Take away anyone you choose." Accordingly on going through the bullocks in the king's cattle-shed, Sagar Dutt came back and spoke, "O king! I need a bullock resembling the bullock in my home. Your cattle-shed has not even a single bullock to match the one present at my house." Then the king said, "Bring your bullock and show me its specialty." Seth Sagar Dutt said, "Your majesty! My bullock never goes out of the door." Hearing this king's astonishment knew no bounds. At length the king said, All right, I shall myself pay a visit to your house to see your bullock." These words of the king perplexed Sagar Dutt. He could not utter a word; rather his heart began to throb with the fear that the next day the king would pay a visit to his house and come to know about his boundless wealth. If out of greed the king by chance demanded a little of his vast wealth from him, what would he do then? On returning home he suffered from fever.

听到了皇后的请求,国王就找来Sagar Datt,并对他说,可怜的人啊,看起来你是穷苦潦倒,因此,我想帮助你。告诉我,你需要一些什么东西?Sagar Datt回答,我想要一头小牛。国王说,在我的牧场里有很多小牛,你随意去选一头吧。当去了国王的牧场之后,Sagar Datt对国王说,国王啊,我需要一头跟我现在的小牛长得像的小牛,在你的牧场里我没有找到。国王说,把你的小牛带来,我看看它有什么特别之处。Sagar Datt答到,我的小牛在我的家里从来不出门。听到这话后,国王说,那好吧,我会亲自到你家去看看你的小牛。国王的这番话让Sagar Datt左右为难,他一句话也说不出来。如果第二天国王去他家的话,就会发现他拥有无数的财富,如果国王向他要一点金钱的话,他该怎么办呢?回到家之后,Sagar Datt就开始发烧了。

 

The next day the king went to Sagar Datt's house accompanied by his queen. Seeing his boundless wealth, elephants and horses the king was bewitched. He began to think at heart, "Alas! In spite of possessing so much of wealth, this greedy person is undergoing through so many tortures. Cursed be this greed." The wife and sons of Sagar Datt said to him, "The king and the queen have made our house pure by their presence. We should entertain them and extend them proper and grand reception according to their high status. Hence, dear father! Offer this plate full of jewels and pearls to the king."

第二天,国王同王后来到Sagar Datt的家。看到了Sagar Datt无数的财富、大象以及马匹,国王迷惑不已。他心中暗想,这人拥有这么多的财富,却因为贪婪给自己带来那么多的折磨,他的贪婪应当受到诅咒。Sagar Datt的妻子和儿子对Sagar Datt说,国王的到来使我们家蓬荜生辉,我们应当款待国王和王后。因此,爸爸啊,拿一些宝石和珍珠献给国王吧。

 

On much insistence by his kith and kin, when Sagar Dutt picked up the plate full of pearls and diamonds, his hands began to waver. The king was also filled with remorse seeing the insatiable greed of the Seth despite possessing such a vast wealth. Therefore, he returned without accepting any present from the Seth. After sometime the greedy Seth breathed his last and after death was reborn in his own house as a snake. It sat coiling the boundless riches in the home. Seeing the snake in the treasure house, his sons sent for a snake charmer who brutally catching hold of the snake took it out of the home. Thereafter, being dead the snake took birth in hell.

在妻子和儿子的一再请求下,Sagar Datt终于拿出了一盘珍珠和钻石献给了国王。看到Sagar Datt的贪婪,国王也十分怜悯他。因此,国王拒绝了Sagar Datt的礼物。过了一段时间,Sagar Datt死掉了,他转生成他房子中的一条蛇。他盘曲地坐在房子中无尽的财富旁边,她的儿子请来一个巫女把他从房子中残忍的带走。从那以后,这条蛇也死掉了并转生到了地狱。

 

Hence, one should never indulge in excessive greed for wealth and prosperity; otherwise one has to bear a miserable plight like that of Sagar Datt. Beware, "O Greed, what great crimes and sins have not been committed in thy name by persons overpowered by thee." There is another example to prove the moral debasement caused by greed:

After completing his ten years educational study course at Banaras, a returned to his home city. His father was a renowned landlord and a highly dignified person. He exerted a great influence in the locality. The city people were overjoyed at his son's return after becoming highly learned and educated. They extended proper welcome to him and put him several searching questions about life. He gave quite satisfactory replies to all the questions. His scholarship left a deep impression on all the people. But all of a sudden a man questioned him, " Panditji, please tell me who is the perpetuator of sin?" Panditji was perturbed on hearing this quite simple question. When the people received no satisfactory answer from Panditji, the man said, "Panditji, you have come back after ten year long study at Banaras, but you failed to answer my simple question. You have wasted the money of your father." The helpless Pandit stared blank in the face of the man.

因此,人们不应当对财富以及富贵过度的贪求,否则,就会承受像Sagar Datt一样的痛苦。贪婪啊,多么强大的诱惑力啊,有多少罪恶和罪孽都是它们带来的。这里还有一个讲述由于贪婪导致人们精神堕落的例子。

当在巴纳拉斯完成了十年的学习之后,一个梵学家回到了自己的家,他的父亲是一个有名的地主,拥有极高的声望,在当地有着很大的影响力。全城的人们都因为梵学家的到来而欢欣鼓舞。他们欢迎梵学家并且向他询问一些关于人生的问题。梵学家给了所有人令他们满意的答案,他的学识给人们留下了深刻的印象。突然,有一个人向他发问,询问罪恶的根源是什么。听到这个难以回答的问题后,梵学家感到些许不安。这个人没有在梵学家那里得到满意的答案,于是他说,你在巴纳里斯学习了十年,却不能够回答我这么简单的问题,你浪费了你父亲的钱。梵学家面无表情的看着这个人。

Panditji returned home with a heavy heart. He could not sleep at night. He pondered deeply in his mind, "Today I have suffered great disgrace; how should I show my face in the city now. It will be proper for me to go back to Banaras and find solution to this question." Lo! At dawn Panditji left home and set out for Kashi (Banaras). While he was on his way to Banaras on foot the evening fell. He took shelter on a platform in front of a well-built house in a village. After supper he spread his bedding on the platform and lay down there. Due to great fatigue he succumbed to sound sleep as soon as he lay down. He did not wake up and lay there for a long time even after sunrise in the morning.

The house, on the platform of which Panditji slept belonged to a prostitute. When the prostitute came downstairs in the morning, she saw the hale and hearty handsome young man sleeping on the platform. She was bewitched and dumbfounded. She woke him up and asked, "Who are you? Where do you hail from? What is your destination and what for are you going there?" Panditji replied, "I come from Samtapur and am on my way to Kashi." At this the prostitute spoke, "Sir, you told me everything but I got no reply as to why you are going to Kashi? Please tell me." Panditji said, "O Gentle lady! Don't ask this question to me. I am pained at heart by this." When the prostitute again insisted, Panditji said, "Now listen, I stayed and studied at Kashi for ten years. After completing my education, I came back home. As soon as I returned to the city, the people gave me a grand reception. Unfortunately that very day during a question-answer program the people put to me a question, "What is the root cause of sin?" I failed to answer this question. My heart was filled with remorse. This is why I am returning to Kashi for further study."

梵学家心情沉重的回到家,一夜没有睡觉。他一直在思考,我今天受到了极大的侮辱,以后我怎么能够在城中露面呢?我应当回到巴纳拉斯找到这个问题的答案。于是他又离开了家去巴纳拉斯。一个晚上,他走在去巴纳拉斯的路上,他在一个村子里建得很好的房子前面的平台露宿。在晚饭之后,他在平台上铺床并且躺在那儿。由于十分疲惫,他一躺下就睡着了,一直到太阳升起的时候,他都没有睡醒。

这个梵学家所睡的平台属于一个妓女,当这个妓女出门的时候,发现这个健壮的、帅气的年轻男子睡在平台上。她被梵学家迷住了,于是她叫醒梵学家并问他,你是谁,你从哪儿来,你要去哪儿,你为什么去那儿。梵学家回答道,我来自Samtapur,要去巴纳拉斯。妓女又说,你还没有回答我所有的问题呢。梵学家说,请你不要问我这个问题,关于这一点我心里非常难受。妓女一再坚持要知道答案,梵学家就告诉她,我在巴纳拉斯已经待了十年,在完成我的学业回家的时候,人们都很欢迎我。不幸的是,有人问我罪恶的根源是什么,我回答不出这个问题,心中十分懊悔,因此我准备重新回去学习。

 

The prostitute was very wise. She said, "Panditji, today I am lucky to entertain a learned guest like you at my house. Please go ahead only after taking mid-day meals at my house today. I shall prepare food for you with my own hands. Till then please take bath and say your morning prayers and perform worship." Hearing this Panditji was in a fix. After a short pause Panditji asked the prostitute, "Who are you and what is your profession?"

这个妓女十分聪明,她说,我今天很高兴能招待你这样的贵客,请你在我这里吃午饭吧,我会亲手为你准备的,然后洗浴一下并且进行早上的祷告吧。听到这话,梵学家思考了一会儿,他问这个妓女,你是谁,你是做什么的?

 

Prostitute -I am a human being. I earn my bread and butter through prostitution.Panditji -Curse it. O God! What a great sinner I am! I have slept in the house of an unholyprostitute. I will have to repent for this sin.Prostitute -O dignified Brahman! I am also a human being like you. You consider memean and hateful only for being a prostitute. Once I was also a young damsel of adignified family, but the oppressions of your human society have forced me to resort to this sinful life. Today you are my guest, I shall not let you go without taking meals.Panditji -O wretched lady! What do you say? I am a holy Brahman -a Pandit. How can Itake meals at your house? Prostitute -No, No, Panditji! Meals you must take at my house. See there is a well in the compound of my house. Draw the water and prepare food yourself and then take meals.You are a Brahman, so after meals I shall give you a present of five hundred rupees as well.

妓女说,我是一个人,我通过卖淫来谋生。梵学家说,天哪,我犯下了一个多么大的罪孽啊,我在一个如此不洁的地方睡觉,我要为此忏悔。妓女说,我跟你是同样的人类,你认为做妓女是低劣和卑贱的。我曾经也是一个高贵家庭里的姑娘,但是正是人类的社会把我逼上了卖淫这条罪恶的道路。今天你是我的客人,我要请你吃了饭才让你走。梵学家说,可恶的女人,你在说什么,我是一个高贵的婆罗门,我绝对不会在你这里吃饭。妓女说,你必须在我这里吃饭,看到我房子前面的那口井了吗,把水提上来,然后自己做饭吃饭吧。你是一个婆罗门,因此饭后我还会给你500卢比作为礼物。

 

As soon as Panditji came to know about a present of five hundred rupees, he was overpowered with greed. He at once got ready to prepare the food himself. When the prostitute saw that the food was ready, she came down and prayed to Panditji with folded hands -"O supreme Panditji! I have committed great sins in my life. I pray to you to purify me as well."

当梵学家听到500卢比的礼物后,他就被贪婪之心所控制。他自己做了饭。当妓女看到他已经准备好饭之后,她就双手合十向婆罗门祈祷,至上的婆罗门啊,我犯下了极大的罪孽,我请求你让我纯洁吧。

 

Panditji -How is that possible? Prostitute -If you accept two morsels of food from my hands, I shall be purified.Panditji -Curse it. Why do you say this? How can I, a Brahman, eat two morsels from thehands of a prostitute? Prostitute -Panditji, Please be merciful and do so. I shall offer you five hundred rupeesmore. At least accept one morsel from my hands and make me chaste.

Panditji agreed to take food from the hands of the prostitute out of greed for money. As soon as she brought her hand forward with a morsel to feed it to Panditji, the prostitute at once dropped the morsel on the ground and slapped the Brahman severely in the face saying, "O fool! You are going to Kashi to solve a quite simple problem. I have answered your question. The greed with which you easily got ready to give up your religious faith and vows has overpowered you and is the root cause of all sins."

梵学家说,这怎么可能呢?妓女说,如果你能够吃我递给你的两口食物,我就会纯洁了。婆罗门说,这绝对不可能,我是个婆罗门,怎么能吃妓女递给我的食物呢?妓女说,请你可怜可怜我吧,我会给你500卢比,你至少吃一口我递过来的食物吧,这样我就会变得纯洁了。

   由于贪婪,梵学家答应了吃一口妓女递过来的食物。当这个妓女把食物递过来喂给梵学家的时候,她突然扔掉了食物并且猛拍了这个梵学家的脸,说到,你要去巴纳拉斯寻求问题的答案,我已经回答了你的问题,贪婪能够很容易的让你放弃你的信仰,这正是所有罪孽的根源。

 

Someone has rightly observed:

"Faith is like a bird, that sings when the at dawn is still engulfed in darkness." On receiving a satisfactory solution for his problem from the prostitute, Panditji returned home.

From the above example we learn that the more greedy a person is, the more disgrace he has to suffer. To be over-greedy is a sin; greed is regarded as the root cause of sin. Hence, in order to attain the virtue of supreme contentment every living soul should discard the vicious tendency of greed and tread the path of religion.

有人曾经说过:

信仰就像一只小鸟,即使在黑暗中也会不停的歌唱。在妓女那里得到了满意的答案,梵学家回到了家中。

从上面的例子我们可以看到,人越贪婪,他就要承受越大的耻辱。过于贪婪是一种罪孽,贪婪是所有罪孽的源泉。因此为了达到至上的满足,人们的灵魂应当摒弃贪婪并沿着信仰的道路一直走下去。

 

The great poet Reidhu has described the virtue of supreme contentment or purity (Uttama Shaucha) thus:

Sauch ji dhamangu tam ji amagaun bhinrganu uvaugmuJarmarnr vinrasanru tijagpyasnru jhaijyi ah visi ji dhu

Dham sauchu hoi manr sudhiyai, dham sauchu venr dhanr gidhienDham sauchu kasaai ahavain, dham sauchu nr lippi pavain

Dham sauchu lohu vajantau dham sauchu sutab pahi jantauDham sauhuvanbh vay dharnri, dham sauchu meydath nrarnri

Dham sauchu jinraim manrai, dham sauchu sagunr anrumanraiDham sauchu sal key chae, dham sauchu ji nrimalbhae

1        The virtue of contentment is a part and parcel of religion; it is enthusiastic; it excels materialism; it gives utility to life; it relieves one from old age and death; it enlightens all the three worlds and is eternal. Pay heed to it day in and day out.

2        The virtue of contentment can be acquired through the purity of mind; it is acquired through purification by the treasure of truth speaking. This virtue is attained by subduing the evil passions and a man endowed with this virtue does not indulge in sinful deeds.

3        The virtue of contentment lays stress on abstention from greed; it leads one on the path of supreme austerity; this virtue is attained by observing celibacy; and this virtue of contentment is attained by discarding the eight types of arrogance or vanity.

4        The virtue of contentment is instilled in men by the study of holy scriptures; it is attained by getting rid of the three thorns i.e., ambitions, deception, and wrong belief; and finally this virtue is attained by maintaining purity in thoughts.

伟大的诗人Reidhu曾经这样描述至上的满足:

Sauch ji dhamangu tam ji amagaun bhinrganu uvaugmuJarmarnr vinrasanru tijagpyasnru jhaijyi ah visi ji dhu

Dham sauchu hoi manr sudhiyai, dham sauchu venr dhanr gidhienDham sauchu kasaai ahavain, dham sauchu nr lippi pavain

Dham sauchu lohu vajantau dham sauchu sutab pahi jantauDham sauhuvanbh vay dharnri, dham sauchu meydath nrarnri

Dham sauchu jinraim manrai, dham sauchu sagunr anrumanraiDham sauchu sal key chae, dham sauchu ji nrimalbhae

1                    满足是信仰中不可缺少的一部分,它是具有生命力的,它超过了物质主义,它使人们远离了衰老和死亡,它点亮了三重世界,是不朽的。人们应当谨记它。

2                    人们通过纯洁的思想能够得到满足;通过善言人们能够得到纯洁,这种美德能够通过征服自己罪恶的情感,具有这种美德的人们就不会做出罪恶的事情。

3                    满足的美德强调人们要控制贪婪之心,它带领人们走上至上的苦修之路,通过独身生活能够获得这种美德,这种满足的美德能够通过抛弃八种傲慢与虚荣来获得。

4                    通过学习经文典籍,人们满足的美德能够得到升华,人们能够通过摆脱野心、欺骗以及错误的信念来获得这种美德,最终,人们要通过保持思想的纯洁来获得这种美德。

 

Hence, O Mortal Man! Be contented, be contented and be contented throughout thy life from cradle to the grave; for according to a French saying:

'Grande fortune, grande servitude' i.e., great wealth, great slavery.

因此,人们啊,满足吧,从摇篮到墓穴的整个过程都变得满足吧,一个法国的谚语是这样说的:

财富越多,苦难越多。

 

To sum up, 'The pleasure of possessing little is far more enjoyable than the prospect of getting much hereafter. The little you have, if properly used, will bring you more than you can expect or have the power to enjoy. Ambition ruins a man; contentment secures him the peace and happiness of heaven.'

总之,拥有少量财富的欢乐远远超过了得到大量财富的欢乐。你拥有的越少,如果能够合理的使用,就会带给你越多的欢乐。野心毁灭人类,满足给人们带来和平与欢乐。

 

In fact, all our existence and happiness in life depends on our mental attitude. Human mind is the supreme power that governs all our actions. Only a calm and contented mind will lead us to a blissful life. The great English poet Oliver Goldsmith after his long tour of five European countries in search of peace and happiness came to the conclusion:

Vain! Very Vain! My weary search to find

That bliss, which centers in the mind.

From 'Traveler' by Oliver Goldsmith

事实上,我们所有的存在与欢乐都取决于我们的精神态度。人们的思想控制人们的行为。只有冷静与满足的思想才能够给人们再来福祉。伟大的英国诗人奥列弗.戈德史密斯在游访了5个欧洲国家寻访和平与欢乐之后,得到了这样的结论:

   虚荣,极度的虚荣,我不断的发现

   这深深进入了人们的思想中

   来自奥列弗.戈德史密斯游记

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Whatever is pure is refreshing. Purity imparts freshness of vigor to both the body and the mind.

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纯洁使人们的身体以及思想充满活力。

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