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Jain World
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SamanSuttam

6. Karmasutra

PRECEPTS ON KARMS 关于因果报应

Jo jena pagarenam, bhavo niyao tamannaha fo tu.

Mannati kereti vadati va, vippariyaso bhave eso. (56)

If a thing is possessed of a certain definite form, then to consider it otherwise, to act as if it were otherwise, or to describe as otherwise is pervertion. (56)

如果某个事物具有特定的形式,那么按照与其相反的角度对其进行思考,或者假装其是另外一种情况或者将其描述成另外一种情况,对其都是一种歪曲。

 

Jam jam samayam jivo avisai jena jena bhavena.

So tammi-tammi samae, suhasuham bandhae kammam. (57)

Whenever a soul experiences this or that mental state at that very time it gets bound by a corresponding good or evil karmas. (57)

当一个灵魂经历不同的精神状态时,在这时,他就同一种善良的或者罪恶的因果报应相联系。

 

Kayasa vayasa matte, vitte giddhe ya itthisu.

Duhao malam samcinai, sisunagu vva mattiyam. (58)

Whoever is careless about his physical activities and speech and covetous of wealth and woman. accumulates Karmic dirt of attachment and aversion just as an earth-worm accumulates mud by both way (i. e., internally and externally). (58)

一个忽略身体和语言上的修炼,并且贪恋财富以及女人,将会积攒孽报,就像蚯蚓积攒泥土一样(内部以及外部)。

 

Na tassa dukkham vibhayamti naio, na mittavagga na suya na bandhava.

Ekko sayam paccanuhoi dukkham, kattarameva anujai kammam. (59)

As Karmas pursue the doer, the doer must suffer misery all alone and neither his castemen, nor friends, nor sons, nor brothers can share his misery. (59)

因果报应只与本人有关,他只能独自承受痛苦,他的同僚、朋友、儿子或者兄弟都不能够替他分担他的痛苦。

 

Kammam cinanti savasa, tassudayammi u paravvasa homti.

Rukkham duruhai savaso, vigalai sa paravvaso tatto. (60)

Just as a person is free while climbing a tree but once he starts falling then he has no power to check it. Smimilarly a living being is free in accumulating the Karmas but once accumulated it is beyond his power to control their fruition. (60)

就像一个人在爬树时是不受约束的,但是一旦他从树上开始下落时,他就没有办法来阻止。同样,生者可以随意的积攒他的业报,但是一旦他积攒完后,他就没有办法去控制他的业报所造成的后果。

 

Kammavasa khalu jiva, jivavasam kahimci kammaim.

Katthai dhanio balavam, dharanio katthai balavam. (61)

At sometimes (i.e., at the time of fruition) the living beings are controlled by Karmans while at other times (i. e., at the time of doing) the Karmans are controlled by them, just as at the time of lending the money the creditor is in a stronger position, while at the time of returning it, a debtor is in a stronger position. (61)

有时(例如当业报已积攒完成时)人们受到因果业报的控制,但在其它的时候(例如在积攒业报的过程中)人们则控制自己的业报;就像在债务关系中,当把钱借给别人的时候,债主出于一个主动的地位,而当还债的时候,借债人则出于一个主动的地位。

 

Kammattanena ekkam, davvam bhavo tti hodi duviham tu.

Poggalapindo dhavvam, tassatti bhavakammam tu. (62)

Karma as such is of one type. But it is of two kinds also, dravyakarma and bhavakarma.

The dravyakarma is a mass of physical particles and the inherent capacity of it is bhavakarma (and this capacity is originated from the attachment and aversion of the self). (62)

这类因果报应可分为两种,dravyakarma bhavakarmaDravyakarma遍布于身体的各个部分,它天生的能力就是bhavakarma(这种能力源于对自身的爱恋与厌恶)

 

Jo indiyadivijai, bhaviya uvaogamappagam jhadi.

Kammehim so na ranjadi, kiha tam pana anucaranti. (63)

He who has gained victory over his senses and meditates on the very nature of soul, is not bound by Karmas; how can the prana which is made of Karmic matter follow such a being? (That is his soul gets freedom from transmigration). (63)

一个战胜了他的感观的人并且冥思自己的灵魂,将不会受到因果报应得束缚,他的灵魂将会在轮回中解脱。

 

Nanassavaranijjam, damsanavaranam taha.

Veyanijjam taha moham, aukammam taheva ya.

Namakammam ca goyam ca, antarayam taheva ya.

Evameyaim kammaim, attheva u samasao. (64-65)

In brief, the Karmas are of eight kinds: (1) jnanavaraniya (knowledge obscuring), (2) Darsanavaraniaya (Apprehension obscuring), (3) Vedaniya (feeling producing), (4) Mohaniya (causing delusion), (5) Ayu (determining the life-span), (6) Nama (physique-determining), (7) Gotra (status determining) and (8) Antaraya (obscuring the power of self). (64-65)

因果报应大体分为八类:1jnanavaraniya(晦涩的认识),2Darsanavaraniaya(晦涩的理解),3Vedaniya(情绪),4Mohaniya(产生的错觉),5Ayu(决定寿命),6Nama(决定身体),7Gotra(决定状态),8Antaraya(最自己身体能量的错误的估计)

 

Pada-padihara si majja, hada-citta-kulalabhandagarinam.

Jaha eesim bhava, kammana vi jana taha bhava. (66)

The nature of these eight karmas resembles respectivelty a curtain, a door-keeper, a sword, wine, wooden fetters, a painter, a potter and a treasurer. (66)

上面的八点对于因果报应就像窗帘、门卫、剑、美酒、木制脚镣、画家、制陶匠以及司库员一样。

 

Explanation: This verse explains the nature of the eight karmas thus:

(1) The knowledge-obscuring karma, is like a curtain which prevents a person from knowing what is inside a room;

(2) The darsanavaraniya karma prevents a person from apprehension like a door-keeper who presents one from seeing a dignitary;

(3) Vedaniya karma is the couse of pleasure and pain like a sword smeared with honey which while licking becomes the cause of pleasure due to honey and pain as there is chance of an injury to the tongue;

(4) Mohaniya karma causes delusion as does wine;

(5) The Ayu karma keeps the soul tied down to a body, just as the wooden-fetters on legs keep the person tied down to a place until they are removed;

(6) Nama-karma cause the soul to enter different kinds of bodies, just as a painter paints different pictures;

(7) Gotra-karma is responsible for birth in high or low families just as a potter prepares small or big pots;

(8) The Antaraya karma prevents a person from doing good deeds just as treasurer prevents his master from making gift sand donations.

注释:这将对这八种因果报应的本质进行解释:

1jnanavaraniya就像窗帘一样,阻碍人们看到屋子里面的知识;

2darsanavaraniya就像一个门卫一样组织人们去理解知识;

3Vedaniya造成欢乐与痛苦,这就像人们舔舐剑上的蜜糖一样,蜜糖可能会使人们感到甜美但是剑会割伤人们的舌头;

4Mohaniya就像酒一样会给人们带来错觉;

5Ayu把人的灵魂紧紧地束缚在身体上,这就像一副木制的镣铐一样把人们紧紧的锁在一个地方,除非他们被移除;

6Nama使得灵魂进入不同的躯体,就像画匠绘制不同的画一样;

7Gotra使人们出生在高等的或低等的家庭中,就像陶匠制作大小不同的陶罐一样;

8Antaraya阻止人们做好事,就像一个司库员组织他的主人赠与或者捐赠。