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SamanSuttam

38. Pramanasutra

PRECEPTS ON VALID KNOWLEDGE 关于正确的知识

(A) PANCAVIDHA JNANA Five Kinds Of Knowledge 五种知识

Samsayavimoha-vibbhaya-vivajjiyam appaparasaruvassa.

Gahanam sammam nanam, sayaramaneyabheyam tu. (674)

Such a grasping of the nature of itself and that of other things, as is free from doubt, mistake and uncertainty is called the right cognition; it is of a determinate form and is of various types. (674)

了解自身的本质以及其他事物的本质并摒弃了怀疑、错误以及不确定称为正确的认知。他具有确定的形式以及多种类型。

 

Tattha pamcaviham nanam, suyam abhinibohiyam.

Ohinanam tu taiyam, manananam ca kevalam. (675)

The knowledge is of five kinds: Mati-Jnana i.e., knowledge derived through the five senses and the mind Sruta-jnana i.e. knowledge obtained from the scriptures, Avadhi-Jnana (clairvoyance) Manahaparya-Jnana i.e. telepathy and Kevala-Jnana i.e. omniscience. (675)

知识分为五类:由五官所获得的知识;由典籍所获得的知识;通过细致的观察所获得的知识;心灵感应以及先知。

 

Pamceva homti nana, madisudaohimanam ca kevalayam.

Khayauvasamiya cauro, kevalananam have khaiyam. (676)

Knowledge is thus of five kinds: sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge, clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscience. The first four result from substance cum annihilation of the relevant Karmas, while omniscience result after total annihilation of Karmas. (676)

因此知识分为五类:感官知识,典籍知识,洞察,感应以及先知。前四者来源于对相关的因果报应的脱离,而先知则需要完全脱离了因果报应。

 

Iha apoha vimamsa, maggana ya gavesana.

Sanna sati mati panna, savvam abhinibodhiyam. (677)

Reflection on what has been perceived, reasoning, questioning, examining, searching, understanding and judging these are the varieties of sensory knowledge. (677)

感官知识包括感觉、推理、疑问、检察、寻找、理解以及判断。

 

Atthao atthamtaramuvalambhe tam bhananti suyananam.

Abhinibohiyapuvvam, niyamena ya saddayam mulam. (678)

Sruta-Jnana is said to consist in comprehension of the meaning of words that are heard or it is derived from the senses and the mind and it as a rule is born of words. (678)

Sruta-Jnana存在于对语言意义的理解,他来源于感观、思想以及语言。

 

Imdiyamanonimittam, jam vinnanam suyanusarenam.

Niyayatatthuttisamattham, tam bhavasuyam mai sesam. (679)

The knowledge which is required through the senses and the mind by hearing or reading the scripture and which is capable of expressing its content is called Bhava-srutajnana, the rest of the knowledge (acquired through thought-activities and the senses) is matijnana. (679)

通过感官以及聆听、阅读、复述典籍所获得的知识称为Bhava-srutajnana,使用其他方法所获得的知识称为matijnana(思维活动或者感官)。

 

Maipuvvam suyamuttam, na mai suyapuvviya viseso‘yam.

Puvvam puranapalana-bhavao jam mai tassa. (680)

The Srutajnana is acquired through matijnana while the matijnana is not acquired through Srutajnana, but in the act of fortering thoughts, it is the characteristic of matijnana that it precedes the Srutajnana.

(680)

通过matijnana可以获得Srutajnana,而通过Srutajnana则不一定能获得matijnana;但是在培养思维的时候,matijnana就要优于Srutajnana

 

Avahiyaditti ohi, simananetti vanniyam samae.

Bhavagunapaccaya-vihiyam, tamohinana tti nam bimti. (681)

The type of cognition which limits the (direct) knowledge is called (Avadhi-Jnana) i.e., clairvoyance, in the scriptures, it is also called simajnana i.e. .imited cognition. This avadhi-jnana is of two types -viz. one that is born on account of a certain type of birth and one that is born on account of the practice of certain various qualities. (681)

限制了直接知识的认知称为Avadhi-Jnana,例如洞察,在典籍中,这也称为simajnana,例如有限的认知。这种Avadhi-Jnana分为两类,一类是与生俱来的,另一类是通过对于某种品

质的培养。

 

Cimtiyamacimtiyam va, addham cimtiya aneyabheyagayam.

Manapajjava tti nanam, jam janai tam tu naraloe. (682)

In this world of human beings, that type of cognition is called manahaparyayajnana, which comprehends other‘s thought, that is already entertained, that is not yet entertained or that is only half entertained, and so on. It is of many types. (682)

在这个世界中,认知的种类称为manahaparyayajnana,它是指领会别人的已经为人所接受的思想、还未被人所接受、已经被人所部分接受的思想等。他具有许多种类。

 

Kevalamegam suddham, sagalamasaharanam anamtam ca.

Payam ca nanasaddo, namasamanahigarano‘yam. (683)

That type of cognition which is one, pure, perfect, extra-ordinary, endless, is called Kevalajnana, and here as usual the generic word jnana is to be added to the specific word denotative of a particular jnana Type. (683)

纯净的、完美的、杰出的、无尽的认知称为Kevalajnana。在这个名词中,把jnana作为词尾描述一种特殊的jnana类型。

 

 

Sambhinnam pasamto, logamalogam ca savvao savvam.

Tam natthi jam na pasai, bhuyam bhavvam bhavissam ca. (684)

Kevala-Jnana grasps in one sweep all that is in this universe and beyond the universe in its entirety; certainly, there is nothing in the past, future and the present which is not grasped by this type of cognition. (684)

Kevalajnana对宇宙及宇宙外的事情无所不知;当然,他也对过去、将来以及现在的事情无所不知。

 

(B) PRATYAKSA-PAROKSA PRAMANA Precepts On Direct And Indirect Knowledge 关于直接的知识和间接的知识

Gehanai vatthusahavam, aviruddham sammaruvam jam nanam.

Bhaniyam khu tam pamanam, paccakkhaprokkhabheehim. (685)

That cognition which grasps the nature of things in a proper and uncontradicted form is called pramana; it is of two types-viz. Pratyaksa (direct) and paroksa (indirect). (685)

能够合理认识事物本质的认识称为pramana;它分为两类,Pratyaksa(直接的)和paroksa(间接的)

 

Jivo akkho atthavvavana-bhoyanagunannio jenam.

Tam pai vattai nanam, je paccakkham tayam tiviham. (686)

The word "aksa‘ means a soul either because it covers the entire range of the things or because it enjoys these things (the tow meanings depending on two different etymologies of the word "aksa‘ and the type of cognition, which is had be an aksa is called pratyaksa; it is of three sub-types. (686)

"aksa"一词表示灵魂,由于它包括了所有的这类事情,也由于它喜爱这些事情(这两种不同的意思取决于两种不同的词源及意义,它又分为三小类)

 

Akkhassa poggalakaya, jam davvindiyamana para tenam.

Tehim ot jam nanam, parokkhamiha tamanumanam va. (687)

The physical sense-organs and the internal organ i.e. mind, are something alien to an aksa or self, and the type and the type of cognition had through the instrumentality of these two is called paroksa-just like inferential cognition. (687)

外在的感觉器官以及内心的器官(思想)同aksa或者人的身体不同。通过这两类器官所得到的认识称为paroksa,这是一种推论性的认识。

 

Homti parokkham mai-suyaim jivassa paranimittao.

Puvvovaladdhasambamdha-saranao vanumanam va. (688)

The two cognitions mati and sruta are paroksa i.e. indirect because they are acquired by a soul through the instrumentality of something alien to itself or because they are born of the memory of relationship grasped earlier, just like inferential cognition. (688)

Mati以及mati是两类推论性的认识,间接是由于他们都是借助于灵魂之外的器官所获得,或者都是通过前面的知识所推理得出,都是推论性的认识。

 

Egamtena parokkham, limgiyamohaiyam ca paccakkham.

Imdiyamanobhavam jam, tam samvavaharapaccakkham. (689)

In a real sense, the cognition acquired through the other sources is paroksa i.e. indirect while cogni-tion acquired directly by the soul is pratyaksa. But the cognition, born of a sense-organ is "pratyaksa‘ practically so called. (689)

从实际意义上来说,通过其他途径获得的认识称为paroksa,间接的认识;而通过灵魂直接获得的认识称为pratyaksa。事实上,通常将通过感觉器官获得的认知称为pratyaksa。