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SamanSuttam

32. Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)

PRECEPTS ON SPIRITUAL PROGRESS (GUNASTHANAS) 关于精神的进步

Jehim du lakkhijjamte, udayadisu sambhavehim bhavehim.

Jiva te gunasanna, niddittha savvadarisihim. (546)

Those states resulting from the fruition etc. of Karmas, by which souls are distinguished are given the name "guna‘ (spiritual stages) by the Omniscients. (546)

先哲们说,达到圆满之后,灵魂就变得高贵,这样的灵魂称为guna

 

Miccho sasana misso, aviradasammo ya desavirado ya.

Virado pamatta iyaro, apuvva aniyatti suhumo ya.

Uvasamta khinamoho, sajogikevalijino ajogi ya.

Coddasa gunatthanani ya, kamena siddha ya nayavva. (547 & 548)

There are fourteen stages in the path of gradual spiritual development; (1) false belief, (2) failing from right faith, (3) mixture of right faith and wrong faith, (4) vowless right faith, (5) partial observance of vows, (6) non-vigilant observance of vows, (7) vigilant observance of vows, (8) unique condition of bliss, which has not been experienced before, (9) constant thought-activity (that is meditation), (10) slightest attachment, (11) subsided delusion, (12) destroyed delusion, (13) omniscient with activities, and (14) Omniscient without activity. It should be understood that emancipation is attained in stages. (547 & 548)

在精神进步的过程中,一共分为十四个阶段:1 错误的信仰,2 脱离错误的信仰,3 正确信仰与错误信仰并存,4 无誓言的正确信仰,5 部分遵循誓言 6 不警醒的遵循誓言,7 警醒

的遵循誓言,8 特殊的福祉,以前从未经历过,9 持续的思考(冥思),10 轻微的爱恋,11 消退的错觉,12 错觉完全消失,13 通过一定的行为达到无所不知,14 无所不知,在这个阶段人们就达到了解脱。

 

Tam micchattam jamasaddahanam, taccana hodi atthanam.

Samsaidamabhiggahiyam, anabhiggahiyam tu tam tiviham. (549)

Having faith in the things existing in a veritable fashion - that is called mithyatva. It is of three forms viz. that of the form of entertaining a doubt, that of the form of something developed deliberately, that of the form of something not developed deliberately. (549)

Mithyatva就是对存在的事物具有信仰,它具有三种形式:怀有疑问;有意的来消除这种疑问;有意的保留这种疑问。

 

Sammattarayanapavvaya-siharado micchabhavasamabhimuho.

Nisiyasammatto so, sasananamo muneyavvo. (550)

The soul falls down from the peak of the mountain of right faith, with his face towards the plain of wrong faith, and has his right-faith destroyed - this stage of soul is called sasvadana, i.e., having taste of right faith. (550)

当灵魂从正确信仰的山峰跌落时,他就将要面对错误的信仰,并把正确的信仰摧毁了灵魂的这个阶段称为sasvadana

 

Dahigudamiva vamissam, pihubhavam neva karidum sakkam.

Evam missayabhavo, sammamiccho tti nayavvo. (551)

The mixed stage of Samyaktva (Right faith) and mithyatva (wrong faith) which can, in no way, be split up into right and wrong beliefs of just as a mixed taste of curd and treacle can not be referred to separately as sour or sweet, is known as mistra-bhava. (551)

正确的信仰和错误的信仰共存的时候会分裂成为正确的信念和错误的信念,就像炼乳和蜂蜜混合时并不能够单独的区分出酸味或者甜味,这叫做mistrabhava

 

No imdiesu virado, no jive thavare tase cavi.

Jo saddahai jinattum, sammaitthi avirado so. (552)

He who has not vowed to abstain from indulgence in the senses and from hurting the mobile and immobile living beings; although he has firm faith in the doctrines propounded by the Jina. This stage is said to be of a person of right vision without abstinence (Avirata-Samyagdrsti). (552)

如果一个人还没有脱离对感观的放纵和对生灵的伤害,但他已经坚信Jina的学说,这个阶段称他为已经有了正确的观点却没有正确的行为(Avirata-Samyagdrsti)

 

Jo tasavahauvirado, no virao ettha-thavaravahao.

Padisamayam so jivo, virayavirao jinekkamai. (553)

One who desists from a killing of the mobile living beings but not from that of the immobile ones and yet who has unwavering faith in Jinas is called (viratavirata or desavirata), i.e., partial observer of vows. (553)

如果一个人对于Jina的学说具有坚定的信念,但是他仍然会杀害不会移动的生灵,那么这叫做(viratavirata 或者 desavirata),这是对于誓言的部分遵守。

Vattavattapamae, jo vasai pamattasamjao hoi.

Sayalagunasilakalio, mahavvai cittalayarano. (554)

One who has adopted the Great Vows, is enquipped with all virtuous qualities and good conduct, often exhibits negligence in a manifest or a non-manifest form and hence whose conduct is bit defective is to be called pramattasamyata i.e., non-vigilant observer of great vows. (554)

如果一个具有正直的美的以及良好行为的人决定遵守誓言,会由于疏忽而不经意的违背誓言,那么他的这种有缺陷的行为就称为pramattasamyata,不警醒的遵守誓言的人。

 

Natthasesapamao, vayagunasilolimamdio nani.

 Anuvasamao akhavao, jhananilino hu appamatto so. (555)

The wise man who is well equipped with all vows, whose negligence has disappeared entirely, who remains absorbed in meditation, but who has started neither subsiding his delusive karmas nor annihilating his delusive karmas is called apramattasamyata, i.e., vigilant observer of great vows. (555)

一个智慧的人,遵守所有的誓言,他毫无疏忽,专注于冥思,但是他仍然会具有错觉,这称为apramattasamyata,警醒的遵守誓言的人。

 

Eyammi gunatthane, visarisasamayatthiehim jivehim.

Puvvamapatta jamha, homti apuvva hu parinama. (556)

In this (eighth) stage of spiritual development the soul experiences unique but frequently changing mental states (of bliss) which have not been experienced ever before; hence the stage is called apurvakarna). (556)

第八个思想修行的层次是灵魂经常经历独特的但是经常变化的、以前从未经历过的精神状态,这个阶段称为apurvakarna

 

Tarisaparinamatthiyajiva, hu jinehim galiyatimirehim.

Mohassa‘puvvakarana, khavanuvasamanujjaya bhaniya. (557)

The souls, eperiencing such mental states (of bliss), get ready either to subside or to annihilate their delusive karmas, are given the designation "apurvakarna‘ by Jinas, free from all darkness, i.e., ignorance. (557)

在这种阶段的灵魂已经能够摆脱因果报应。Jina称这种精神状态为apurvakarna,它已经从黑暗中解脱出来了。

 

Homti aniyattino te, padisamayam jesimekkaparinama.

Vimalayarajhanahuyavaha-sihahim niddaddhakammavana. (558)

The souls, occupying the ninth stage of spiritual development enjoy the constant mental state (of bliss) each moment and burn down the forest of the karmas through the flames of the fire of a very pure meditation, are called anivartin (anivrttikarana). (558)

第九个层次就是灵魂时刻都能够享受到福祉,业报的森林已经被冥思的火焰彻底摧毁,这种阶段称为anivartin (anivrttikarana)

 

Kosumbho jiha rao, abbhamtarado ya suhumaratto ya.

Evam suhumasarao, suhumakasao tti nayavvo. (559)

Just as a Kusumbha flower has a slight tinge of reddish colour, similarly a monk who has reached this tenth stage of spiritual development retains a slight tinge of attachment internally, Hence this stage is called suksma - Kasaya or suksma-samparaya, i.e., the

stage of slight attachment. (559)

就像略带红色的Kusumbha花具有淡淡的气味一样,达到第十个层次的僧侣由于内心的爱恋而具有淡淡的香气,因此这个阶段称为suksma - Kasaya 或者 suksma-samparaya

 

Sakadakaphalajalam va, sarae saravaniyam va nimmalayam.

Sayalovasamtamoho, uvasamtakasayao hodi. (560)

Just as the water mixed with kataka-fruit or a pond‘s water in the autumn season have their dirtiness subsided, similarly a person whose all delusive karmas have subsided is called upasanta Kasaya. i.e., whose passions are subsided. (560)

就像混有kataka的水或者秋天池塘里面的水一样,具有令人迷惑的业报的人的灵魂是污浊的,这称为upasanta Kasaya

 

Nissesakhinamoho, phalihamalabhayanudaya-samacitto.

Khinakasao bhannai, niggamtho viyaraehim. (561)

The monk whose all delusive karmas are annihilated and whose mind is (clean) like the water placed in a crystal-made vessel is designated ksinamoha and destroys passions by the worthy soul, free from all attachment. (561)

已经脱离了令人迷惑的业报以及思想纯洁的人僧侣称为ksinamoha,他们已经消灭了所有强烈的情感,摆脱了爱恋。

 

Kevalananadivayara-kiranakalavappanasiannanao.

Navakevalaladdhuggama-paviyaparamappavvavaeso.

Asahayananadamsana-sahio vi hu kevali hu joena.

Jutto tti sajoijino, anainihanarise vutto. (562 & 563)

It is stated in the enternal holy scriptures that a monk who has destroyed the darkness of his ignorance by an assemblage of the rays of the sun of Omniscience, has obtained knowledge of the supreme soul on account of having acquired nine super ordinary and is equipped with deternimate and indeterminate types of cognition requiring no help of external instruments, i.e., senses is called sayogi-kevalin. Though he is a Kevalin (Omniscient) yet undertakes mental, vocal and bodily activities. (562 & 563)

在永恒的、神圣的典籍中叙述,利用先知之光而摧毁了无知的人们已经达到了第九个层次,具有多种认识,因此不需要借助外物的辅助,他们能够得到至上灵魂的知识。尽管他是先知,他也要进行思想、语言以及身体上的修行。

 

Selesim sampatto, niruddhanissesa-asao jivo.

Kammarayavippamukko, gayajogo kevali hoi. (564)

The personage who has assumed the state called sailesi (i.e. state of utterfreedom from all activity whatsoever). In whom the entire karmic inflow has been put to a stop, who is free from the dirt of karma is called kevalin, devoid-of activities. (564)

已经达到sailesi层次的人,已经不再会有业报的积累,他们已经脱离了业报,叫做kevalin

 

So tammi ceva samaye, loyagge uddhagamanasabbhao.

Samcitthai asariro, pavarattha gunappao niccam. (565)

The moment, the pure soul reaches this stage, it goes upward straight to the top of the universe according to its natural attribute, remains there forever in a disembodied form and endowed with the eight supreme attributes. (565)

纯净的灵魂一旦达到这个层次,由于它的本性,它马上就要达到宇宙的顶端并永远停留在那里,并被赋予了八个至上的特点。

 

Atthavihakammaviyada, sidibhuda niramjana nicca.

Atthaguna kayakicca, loyagganivasino siddha. (566)

The emancipated souls are ones who are devoid of the eight types of karmas, having attained peace, are devoid of all thought of blemish, are enternal, are equipped with eight auspicious qualifications, are such as have already accomplished whatever had to be accomplished and are residing at the top of the universe. (566)

解脱的灵魂就是已经从八种业报中解脱的灵魂,他们拥有和平,思想纯洁,永恒的、具有八种吉祥的特点、得到了一切可以得到的赞美,居住在宇宙的顶端。