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SamanSuttam

27. Avasyakasutra

PRECEPTS ON OBLIGATORY DUTIES 关于义务

Paricatta parabhavam, appanam jhadi nimmalasahavam.

Appavaso so hodi hu, tassa du kammam bhanamti avasam. (417)

He who contemplates over the pure nature of soul after renouncing all alien states of mind, becomes really engrossed in himself; this act is called a (real) —obligatory duty". (417)

一个人在断绝了所有错误的思想状态并开始思考灵魂的真正本质的时候,他就真正的关注于他自己,这种行为称为义务。

 

Avasaena hino, pabbhattho hodi caranado samano.

Puvvuttakamena puno, tamha avasayam kujja. (418)

That monk who does not practise the obligatory duties, will fall from (the path of) right conduct, he should observe them following the order set forth. (418)

如果一个僧侣不履行他的义务,那么他就会背离正确的行为,他应当遵循已经确立的秩序。

 

Padikamanapahudikiriyam, kuvvamto nicchayassa carittam.

Tena du viragacarie, samano abbhutthido hodi. (419)

One who performs acts like repentance (pratikramana) etc. attains right conduct viewed from the standpoint of niscayanaya, certainly, on account of that, a monk becomes steadfast in a conduct devoid of attachment. (419)

一个进行忏悔的人能够获得正确的行为,当然,由于这种忏悔的行为,僧侣就能够更加坚定的远离爱恋。

 

Vayanamayam padikamanam, vayanamayam paccakhana niyamam ca.

Aloyana vayanamayam, tam savvam jana sajjhaum. (420)

Repentance for past evil acts (pratikramana), renunciation form future evil acts (pratyakhyana), vow to refrain from evil acts (niyama), confession of evil acts (alocana) all these are the forms of verbal expressions and so they constitute study (svadhyaya). (420)

对于过去恶行的忏悔,杜绝将来的恶行,发誓远离罪恶的行为,承认所犯下的恶行这些口头上的表述都是学习的一部分。

 

Jadi sakkadi kadum je, padikamanadim karejja jhanamayam.

Sattivihino ja jai, saddahanam ceva kayavvam. (421)

One who has capacity to practise repentance, should do it by contemplation : a person having no such capacity, ought to have faith in its efficacy. (421)

如果一个人有能力忏悔,那么他在沉思后就应当忏悔;如果他没有这种能力,那么他就应该相信忏悔的作用。

 

Samaiyam cauvisatthao vamdanayam.

padikkamanam kaussaggo paccakkhanam. (422)

The six obligatory duties are (1) Equanimity (Samayika), (2) Prayer of the twenty-four Jinas (Caturvimsatistava), (3) Obeisance (Vandana), (4) Repentance (Pratikramana), (5) Bodily steadiness to meditate upon soul (Kayotsarga), and (6) Renuniciation from future evil acts (Pratyakhyana).

(422)

六种义务就是:1、平静,2、向24Jina祈祷,3、敬重,4、忏悔,5、冥思时保持入定,6、杜绝将来的恶行。

 

Samabhavo samaiyam, tanakamcana-sattumittavisao tti.

Nirabhissamgam cittam, uciyapavittippahanam ca. (423)

To treat as equal a blade of grass and gold, an enemy and a friend, as also to develop a mind devoid of all attachment and predominantly incline towards performing proper acts, this is what constitutes samayika. (423)

平静就是平等的对待一块玻璃和金子,敌人和朋友,培养一种远离爱恋的思想,遵循一种合适的行为。

 

Vayanoccaranakiriyam, paricutta viyarayabhavena.

Jo jhayadi appnam, paramasamahi have tassa. (424)

having renounced all utterance of a word and having developed a state of mind devoid of attachment one who concentrates thought on one self is verily possessed of the supreme type of meditation (called parama samadhi or samayika). (424)

如果一个人能够杜绝了所有的语言,隔绝了所有的爱恋,专注与对自己的沉思,那么他就是真正的最高级别的冥思(也称为平静)。

 

Virado savvasavajje, tigutto pihidimdio.

Tassa samaigam thai, idi kevalisasane. (425)

One who refrains from all sinful acts whatsoever, who practises the three controls (guptis), who has one‘s sense-organs under control is alone possessed of a steadfast samayika this is what has been proclaimed in the discipline preached by omniscients. (425)

如果一个人杜绝了所有罪恶的行为,遵循三种自律,能够控制自己的感官,那么他就拥有了绝对的平静。这一点也已经被先知在其戒律中所记载。

 

Jo samo savvabhudesu, thavaresu tasesu va.

 Tassa samayigam thai, idi kevalisasane. (426)

One who treats as equal all the living beings whether mobile or immobile is alone possessed of a steadfast samayika this is what has been proclaimed in the discipline preached by omniscients. (426)

如果一个人能够对待所有的事物都保持平等,那么他就具有绝对的平静,这一点也已经被先知在其戒律中所记载。

 

Usahadijinavaranam, namaniruttim gunanukittim ca.

Kauna acciduna ya, tisuddhipanamo thavo neo. (427)

To elucidate the names of and to devotedly speak about the virtuous qualities of the great Jina Rsabha etc. as also to offer them a worship-this is what constitutes stave (caturvimsatistava or prais-ing the twenty-four tirthankaras pure in a threefold; fashion (i.e. in respect of mental states, speech and bodily acts). (427)

叙述Jina Rsabha所具备的美德、谈论他的美德并对他进行膜拜,是祈祷的三个内容。

 

Davve khette kale, bhave ya kayavarahasohanayam.

Nimdanagarahanajutto, manavayakayena padikkamanam. (428)

A monk practises repentance if being filled with a sense of censure and remorse about

himself, he makes a search, with his mind, expression and action, of faults committed by him with reference to any substance, place, time and modes. (428)

如果一个僧侣怀着一种责难以及懊悔的心情进行忏悔,那么他就思索他对所有事物邪恶的思想、语言以及行为

 

Alocananimdanagarahanahim abbhutthio akaranae.

Tam bhavapadikkamanam, sesam puna davvado bhaniam. (429)

It after having confessed, blamed and condemned an offence committed by him (a monk) makes resolve not to repeat this offence in the future; it is a real repentance on his part-everything else done in this connection constitutes but a formal repentance. (429)

如果一个僧侣承认了自己所犯下的罪恶,并对自己进行责备和谴责,并决心今后不再这样做,那么这就是一种真正的忏悔,他为此所作的一切都是正式地忏悔。

 

Ucchaya anunnavana, avvavaham yajatta avanaya.

Avaraha-samana vi, va chatthana humti vamdana e. (430)

Obeisance is of six kinds: (1) Expression of desire for salutation; (2) to obtain the permission of his preceptor to go to any place determined by him; (3) to express a desire for completation of religious acts; (4) to go on a pilgrimage with full self-control; (5) Conquest over senses; and (6) to pray for pardon for faults committed through mistake. (430)

敬重分为六种:1、表达一种敬重诸神的愿望,2、得到导师的同意能够前往任何他想去的地方,3、表达一种希望完成宗教行为的愿望,4、自律,并进行朝拜,5、征服自己的感官,6、祈祷他人原谅自己错误所造成的过失。

 

Vinaovayara manassa-bhamjana, pujana gurujanassa.

Titthayaranaya ana suyadhamma rahana kiriya. (431)

Humility is a must; it dispels pride; it amounts to worship of the preceptor and tirthankaras and it is the obedience of scriptural tenets. (431)

必须为人谦卑,它能够消除傲慢;它能够增加对导师的膜拜,这也是对宗教原则的顺从。

 

Mottuna vayanarayanam, ragadibhavavaranam kicca.

Appanam jo jhayadi, tassa du hodi tti padikammanam. (432)

A monk who meditates upon his soul after renunciation of attachment and other passions, refraining from talking about them, practises repentance in the true sense. (432)

一个脱离了爱恋与其他感情并不去谈论他们的僧侣对自己的灵魂进行思考,能够从真正意义上进行忏悔。

 

Jhananilino sahu, paricagam kunai savvadosanam.

Tamha du jhanameva hi, savva‘dicarassa padikkamanam. (433)

A monk who becomes absorbed in meditation renounces all faults; therefore meditation alone is real repentance for all transgressions. (433)

如果一个僧侣完全专注于冥思,那么他就能摆脱所有的缺点;因此,冥思的确是对所有罪恶的忏悔。

 

Devassiyaniyamadisu, jahuttamanena uttakalamhi.

Jinagunacimtanjutto, kausaggo tanuvisaggo. (434)

At the time of daily ceremonials etc. the renunciation of attachment for ones own body at the pre-scribed time, for the prescribed period and with ones mind concentrated on the virtuous qualities of Jinas this is what constitutes kayotsarga (an immobile state of body). (434)

在日常的仪式中,在规定的时间中脱离对自己身体的爱恋并专注于对Jina美德的思考,这就是坚定的对自己的灵魂进行冥思。

 

Je kei uvasagga, devamanusa-tirikkha‘cedaniya.

Te savve adhiase, kausagge thido samto. (435)

While performing the kayotsarga one ought to face patiently all the obstacles that might be placed in one‘s way by a god, a man, an animal, or by the inanimate nature. (435)

当一个人对自己灵魂进行冥思时,他应当耐心的面对所有神灵、人类、动物或者自然界在他解脱道路上所制造的障碍。

 

Mottuna sayalajappa managayasuhamasuhavaranam kicca.

Appanam jo jhayadi, paccakkhanam have tassa. (436)

He who having given up all sorts of talking about and having detached himself from all future thought activities, good and evil; meditates upon his soul, practises renunciation of future evil acts, pratyakhyana in a true sense. (436)

如果一个人放弃了谈话并同将来的行为、善良与罪恶相隔绝,并对他的灵魂进行冥思,同将来罪恶的行为脱离,这就是真正意义上的忏悔。

 

Niyabhavam na vi muccai, parabhavam neva genhae keim.

Janadi passadi savvam, so‘ham idi cimtae nani. (437)

That, which never gives up its own nature, that which never assumes another one‘s nature, that which knows and sees everything whatsoever is "I‘. Thus should be the meditation of an intelligent person.

如果一个人能够放弃他的本质,能够不受他人本质的影响,并能够认识和看到所有的事物,这就是一个智慧的人的沉思。(437)

 

jam kimci me ducaritam, savvam tivihena vosire.

Samaiyam tu tiviham, karemi savvam nirayaram. (438)

Whatever evil act has been performed by me that I renounce in a three fold fashion (i.e. through mind, speech and body) and I perform samayika in a threefold fashion without any transgression.

(438)

我从思想上、言语上和行为上对我罪恶的行为进行忏悔,并从这三个方面对我的行为进行冥思。