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SamanSuttam

26. Samiti-Guptisutra

PRECEPTS ON CAREFULNESS (SAMITI) AND SELF-CONTROL (GUPTI) 关于谨慎与自律

(A) ASTA-PRAVACANA-MATA Eight Mother Precepts 八大规则

Iriyabhasesana‘dane, uccare samii iya.

Managutti vayagutti, kayagutti ya atthama. (384)

Vigilance in walk, speech, begging alms, receiving and keeping down of things and excreting are five Samitis (acts of carefulnes): control of mind, control of speech and control of body (i.e. actions) are three guptis. All are eight in number. (384)

谨慎的行走、说话、乞求布施、接受或保存物品以及排泄是五种谨慎的行为;对思想的控制、对言语的控制以及对行为的控制是三大自律,总计是八种。

 

Edao attha pavayanamadao nanadamsanacarittam.

Rakkhamti sada munino, mada puttam va payadao. (385)

These eight are called pravacanamata (mother precepts). Just as a diligent mother protects her son, so they protect right knowledge, right faith and right conduct of the monk. (385)

这八条称为八大规则。这就像勤勉的母亲保护自己的儿子一样,他们保护僧侣们正确的知识、正确的信仰和正确的行为。

 

Eyao pamca samiio, caranassa ya pavattane.

Gutti niyattane vutta, asubhatthesu savvaso. (386)

The five types of vigilances are meant for the practice of religious life and the three controls (guptis) for the prevention of every thing sinful. (386)

五大谨慎意味着遵守宗教的要求生活,而三大控制意味着防止罪恶的事情。

 

Jaha guttassiriyai, na homti dosa taheva samiyassa.

Guttitthiya ppamayam, rumbhai samu sacetthassa. (387)

Just as one who practises the gupti is not touched by defects pertaining to Samiti so also one who practises the samiti; does not have the defects of gupti. Certainly a gupti puts an act of negligence on the part of one who is undertaking an activity, to an end. (387)

就像一个自律的人不会受到受到谨慎行为的影响,反过来也是一样。谨慎的行为能够结束一个人的疏忽大意。

 

Maradu va jiyadu va jivo, ayadacarassa nicchida himsa.

Payadassa natthi bandho, himsamettena samidisu. (388)

The person who is careless in his activities is certainly guilty of violence irrespective of whether a living being remains alive or dies; on the other hand, th4e person who is careful in observing tghe samitis experiences no karmic bondage simply because some killing has not taken place in connection with his activities. (388)

一个行为上不谨慎的人肯定会不顾及生物的死活而在行为上出现暴力;另一方面,一个谨慎的遵循samitis的人就不会受到因果报应的限制,因为他的行为不会造成杀生。

 

Ahacca himsa samitassa ja tu, sa davvato hoti na bhavato u.

Bhavena himsa tu asamjatassa, je va vi satte na sada vadheti.

Sampatti tasseva jada bhavijja, sa davvahimsa khalu bhavato ya.

Ajjhatthasuddhassa jada na hojja, vadhena jogo duhato va‘himsa. (389 & 390)

A monk who is observing the Samitis i.e. vigilant about his activities may commit himsa (injury) through oversight; in such a case, there is only external violence (Dravya-Himsa) and not the internal. On the other hand a negligent person is guilty of the internal violence (Bhava-Himsa) even though no external violence is caused by him by killing being. When an injury is caused through negligence of a person, whether he is ascetic or not there will be both types of violence external (physical) as well as internal (mental). A monk firm in his observance of the samitis will not cause nay violence because of the purity of his soul; there will be neither external violence nor internal violence. (389 & 390)

一个遵守Samitis的僧侣会因为疏忽而导致伤害,在这种情况下,这只是外部的暴力而不是内心的暴力。在另一方面,一个疏忽的人尽管可能不会造成外部的暴力,其内心却是暴力的。当一个人由于疏忽而造成对别人的伤害的时候,不论他禁欲与否,他都具有外部的和内心的伤害。一个遵守Samitis的僧侣由于他内心的纯洁,不会造成任何内部和外部的暴力。

 

Uccaliyammi pae, Iriyasamiyassa niggamanatthae.

 Abadhejja kulimgi, marijja tam jogamasajja.

Na hi tagghadanimitto, bandho suhumo vi desio samae.

Muccha pariggaho tti ya, ajjhappa pamanado bhanido.(391 & 392)

If a tiny living creature is accidentally crushed under the foot of a monk who is careful in respect of his movement, the scriptures state that he will not attract even the slightest of karmac bondage (i.e. he is not responsible for that violence). Just as possessiveness consists in a sese of attachment so the violence consists in the intention of killing. (391 & 392)

如果僧侣无意中踩死了细小的生物,根据典籍,他不会受到因果报应的束缚,因为他不需要为这个暴力负责。就像占有欲存在于爱恋中一样,暴力存在于有意的杀戮。

 

Pauminipattam va jaha, udayena na lippadi sinehagunajutta.

Taha samidihim na lippai, sadhu kaesu iriyamto. (393)

Just as a lotus-leaf possessing the property of smoothness in not touched by water; similarly a monk practising samitis is not touched by karmic bondage in the course of moving around in the midst of living beings. (393)

就像莲花叶子表面光滑而且不会沾水一样,一个遵守samitis的僧侣在生物中移动时,不会因为杀生受到因果报应的束缚。

 

Jayana u dhammajanani, jayana dhammassa palani ceva.

Tavvuddhikari jayana, egamtasuhavaha jayana. (394)

Carefulness (Yatana) is the mother of religion; it is also the protector of religion; it helps the growth of religion and it begets perfect happiness. (394)

谨慎是宗教的母亲,它同样也是宗教的守护神;它使宗教成长并带来无尽的快乐。

 

Jayam care jayam citthe, jayamase jayam sae.

Jayam bhumjamto bhasamto, pavam kammam na bandhai. (395)

A monk who moves cautiously, stands cautiously, sits cautiously, sleeps cautiously, eats cautiously and speaks cautiously would not be bounded by the evil karmas. (395)

一个谨慎行走、站立、坐、睡眠、进食以及说话的僧侣不会受到罪恶因果报应的束缚。

 

(B) SAMITI Acts of Carefulness 谨慎的行为

Phasuyamaggena diva, jugamtarappehina sakajjena.

Jamtuna pariharamteniriyasamidi have gamanam. (396)

Iryasamiti consists in walking along a trodden path during day-time when required to move out for any work, looking ahead to a distance of four cubits and avoiding the killing of tiny living creatures.

(396)

Iryasamiti就是指当白天需要出去工作,走在路上时要注视着前面四腕尺以免杀害微小的生物。

 

Imdiyatthe vivajjitta, sajjhayam ceva pamcaha.

Tammutti tappurakkare, uvautte iriyam rie. (397)

Not paying attention to the objects of sensuous enjoyment and not taking up the study of five types, one should walk cautiously absorbing oneself in the task of walking and giving all out prominence to the task of walking. (397)

即使不关心能够带来感观欢愉的事物、不学习,人们也应当全神贯注于苦行并首先要开始苦行。

Note:-The five-fold methods of study are: Reading of sacred texts (vacana), questioning the teacher (prcchana), revision by re-reading (paravartana), pondering over what has already been studied and learnt (anupreksa) and reading illustrative strories (dharmakatha).

备注:五种学习方式为:阅读典籍,向上师提问,反复阅读,对已经学习过的进行沉思,阅

读具有启发意义的故事。

 

Tahevuccavaya pana, bhattatthae samagaya.

Tam ujjuam na gacchijja, jayameva parakkame. (398)

Similarly, one ought not to walk on straight within the midst of such livintg beings of all sorts as have gathered together (on the wayside) with a view to feeding themselves: this is how one ought to move cautiously. (398)

同样地,一个人也不应当在微小生物聚集的地方径直穿过,而应当从路边走过,这就是人为什么要谨慎走路的原因。

 

Na lavejja puttho savajjam, na nirattham na mammayam.

Appanattha parattha va, ubhayassantarena va. (399)

Even when enquired, a monk ought not to utter a sinful word, a senseless word, a heart-rending word either for the sake of oneself, or for the sake of another one, or for the sake of both. (399)

即使被问讯,僧侣也不应当因为自己或者他人而说出罪恶的话、无意义的话、令人伤心的话。

 

Taheva pharusa bhasa, gurubhuvaghani.

Sacca-vi sa na vattavva, jao pavassa agamo. (400)

The monk should not use harsh words or speak what is harmful to other living beings; even if it is true, because it is sinful. (400)

僧侣不应当对他人说出严厉的或者有害的话,即便它是正确的,因为这样做是罪恶的。

 

Taheva kanam kane tti, pamdagam pamdage tti va.

Vahiyam va vi rogi tti, tenam core tti no vae. (401)

Similarly, he should not call an one-eyed person as one-eyed, and eunuch as eunuch, a diseased person as diseased or a thief a thief. (401)

同样,他也不能够直陈别人的缺陷。

 

Pesunnahasakakkasa-paranimdappappasamsa vikahadi.

vajjitta saparahiyam, bhasasamidi have kahanam. (402)

Carefulness in speech (bhasasamiti) consists in avoiding slanderous, ridiculous and speeches blaming others, self-praise or incredible stories. Such speeches conduce neither to the good of oneself nor that of others. (402)

谨慎的言语包括避免诽谤、荒唐和责备的话、自我夸耀或者虚假的故事。这样的言语对自己和他人都没有好处。

 

Dittham miyam asamdiddham, padipunnam viyamjiyam.

Ayampiramanuvviggam, bhasam nisira attavam. (403)

A wise monk would speak what he has seen; his speech should be frief, free from ambiguity, clearly expressed, free from prattle and incapable of causing anxiety. (403)

一个智慧的僧侣能够说出他所见的,他的话应当简短、意思清楚、表达清晰,不会啰嗦或者给别人造成焦虑。

 

Dullaha u muhadai, muhajivi vi dullaha.

Muhadai muhajivi, dovi gacchamti soggaim. (404)

It is difficult to find faultless alms-givers; it is more difficult to find one who lives on faultless begging; one who gives faultless alms and the one who lives one faultless begging, both will attain happy state in the next birth. (404)

很难找到完全布施的人,也不可能找到一个人完全靠布施生存。这二者在来生中都会得到欢乐。

 

Uggama-uppadana-esanehim, pimdam ca uvadhi sajjam va.

Sodhamtassa ya munino, parisujjhai esana samidi. (405)

The monk, who begs for a meal, an implement or a bedding in a manner not vitiated by the defects pertaining to their sources, preparation and receiving, practises in a true sense the carefulness (samiti) in respect of begging for alms. (405)

一个祈求饭食、器皿以及床位的僧侣而不会受到这些物品的来源、制备等的影响,是真正意义上对于乞讨的谨慎。

 

Na balausauattham, na sarirassuvacayattha tejattham.

nanatthasamjamattham, jhanttham ceva bhumjejja. (406)

A monk should not take food for the sake of (physical) strength, taste, bodily improvement or lustre; but only for acquisition of knowledge, self-restraint and meditation. (406)

僧侣不应当为了力量、味道、身体上的改善或者贪食来乞求食物,他们乞求食物只是为了知识、自律以及冥思

 

Jaha dumassa pupphesu, bhamaro aviyai rasam.

Na ya puppham kilamei, so ya pinei appayam.

Emee samana mutta, je loe samti sahuno.

Vihamgama va pupphesu, danabhattesaneraya. (407 & 408)

Just as a bee sips the sap of a tree flowers without injuring the flowers and pleases itself, similarly in this world the monks who properly observe the monstic code of conduct and are free from all possessions are engaged in begging for meal and other things heeded (from householders without being burden on them) as the bees procure nourishment from flowers. (407 & 408)

就像蜜蜂吮吸花蜜而不伤害花朵一样,僧侣们就像蜜蜂一样遵循宗教的行为、身无一物却靠乞讨来生存而不给其他家庭造成负担。

 

Ahakamma-parinao, phasuyabhoi vi bamdhao hoi.

Suddham gavesamano, ahakamme vi so suddho. (409)

A monk who entertains in his mind the idea of having a violently prepared meal; binds down karmas even if he is actually having a non-violently prepared meal. On the other hand, a monk who always looks for a pure (non-violently prepared) meal is pure (blameless) even if perchance he gets a violently prepared meal. (409)

如果一个僧侣在其大脑中希望获得一份精心准备的饭菜,那么他就会受到因果报应的束缚,即使他没有得到精心准备的饭菜;反过来,如果一个人没有想到会获得一份精心准备的饭菜却得到了一份精心准备的饭菜,他是不会受到责备的。

 

Cakkhusa padilehitta, pamajjejja jayam jai.

Aie nikkhivejja va, duhaovi samie saya. (410)

If a monk attentively undertakes the required visual inspection and cleaning while receiving or placing down things, he always practises the concerned two-fold samiti (i.e.,

samiti in respect of receiving and placing things). (410)

如果一个僧侣在接受或者出售物品时,刻意的去追寻一种视觉上的感受,那么他就在遵循接受与出售物品方面两重的samiti

 

Egamte accitte dure, gudhe visalamavirohe.

Uccaradiccao, padithavaniya have samidi. (411)

A monk should answer his calls of nature at a place which is solitary, free from insects and grass, concealed, spacious, free from objection, this is observance of Utsarga Samiti. (411)

当僧侣在一个孤独的、没有昆虫和青草、隐蔽的、空旷的地方居住时,应当满足他自身的需求,这是遵照Utsarga Samiti

(I) GUPTI Self-Control 自律

Samrambhasamaramhe, arambhe ya taheva ya.

Manam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (412)

An attentive monk should prevent his mind from indulging in evil thoughts (samrambha), collection of impliments which cause harm to others (samarambha) and evil actions (arambha). (412)

僧侣应当避免他的思想陷入邪恶的想法、会对别人造成伤害的自我膨胀以及罪恶的行为。

 

Samrambhasamarambhe, arambhe ya taheva ya.

Vayam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (413)

An attentive monk should control his speech as soon as it is inclined towards the thought of evil expression efforts for evil expression and evil expression. (413)

一旦他的思想想要表达邪恶的主意时,僧侣应当控制他的语言。

 

Samrambhasamarambhe, arambhammi taheva ya.

Kayam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (414)

An attentive monk should bring under control his body as soon as it is inclined towards a mental plan for causing misery, collection of impliments to others to cause misery to others and action causing misery to others. (414)

当他想要产生会给别人带来痛苦的行为时,僧侣应当控制他的身体。

 

Khettassa vai nayarassa, khaiya ahava hoi payaro.

Taha pavassa niroho, tao guttio sahussa. (415)

As a fence protects a field, a ditch or a rempart protects a city, so the guptis (i.e., control of mind, speech and body) protect a monk from sins. (415)

就像篱笆保护土地,壕沟和护城河保护城市一样,自律保护僧侣远离罪恶。

 

Eya pavayanamaya, je sammam ayare muni.

Se khippam savvasamsara, vippamuccai pandie. (416)

A monk who practises these eight mother-precepts by his righteous conduct is a wise person who will be liberated quickly from all bondages of mundane existence. (416)

一个通过其正确地行为来遵守这八条准则的僧侣是一个智慧的人,他会从世俗中迅速的解脱。