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SamanSuttam

20.Samyakcaritrasutra

PRECEPTS ON RIGHT CONDUCT 关于正确的行为

(A) VYAVAHARA-CARITRA Practical view-point 经验观点

Vavaharanayacaritte, vavaharanayassa hodi tavacaranam.

Nicchayanayacaritte, tavacaranam hodi nicchayado. (262)

Right Conduct from the practical view-point is to practice austerities from practical view point. Right Conduct from the real view-point is to observe austerities from the real view-point. (262)

从经验的角度来说,正确的行为就是过简朴的生活。从现实的角度来说,正确的行为就是坚持简朴的生活。

 

Asuhado vinivitti, suhe pavitti ya jana carittam.

Vadasamidiguttiruvam, vavaharanaya du jinabhaniyam. (263)

Know that Right Conduct consists in desisting from inauspicious activity and engaging in auspicious activity. Jina has ordained that conduct from the practical point of view consists in the observance of vows, acts of carefulness (Samiti) and of control (gupti). (263)

正确的行为在于停止不祥的行为然后采取一种吉祥的行为。Jina宣称,从经验的角度来讲,正确的行为就使坚守誓言,行为谨慎,自律。

 

Suyananammi vi jivo, vattamto so na paunati mokkham.

Jo tavasamjamamaie, joge na caei vodhum je. (264)

A person, even possessing scriptural knowledge will not attain emancipation if he is not able to observe strictly the activities of austerity and self-control. (264)

一个人,如果不严格的奉行简朴和自律,不论他有多少知识都不会得到解脱。

 

Sakkiriyavirahato, icchitasampavayam na nanam ti.

Maggannu va cettho, vatavihino‘dhava poto. (265)

Though a person knows the right path yet fails to reach his destination due to inaction or absence of favourable wind for his boat(pota); similarly knowledge will not achieve the desired fruit in the absence of virtuous deeds. (265)

由于他的懒惰或者没有合适的风向来推动他的修行之舟,一个人哪怕是知道正确的方向也不会到达目的地;同样地,如果没有善举只有知识的话也不会得到解脱。

 

Subahum pi suyamahiyam kim kahii caranavippahinassa.

Amdhassa jaha palitta, divasayasahassakodi vi. (266)

Just as a hundred-thousand-crore of lamps kept burning are of no use to a blind person, of what use is study of numerous scriptures to a person who has no character? (266)

就像点亮成千上万盏灯也无助于一个失明的人一样,一个没有人格的人就算学习了再多的典籍又有什么用处呢?

 

Thovammi sikkhide jinai, bahusudam jo carittasampunno.

Jo puna carittahino, kim tassa sudena bahuena. (267)

A person of right conduct triumphs over a learned person, even if his scriptural knowledge is little; what is the use of wide study of scriptures for a person without right conduct? (267)

一个有正确行为的人胜过一个有知识的人,哪怕前者的知识再少;一个没有正确行为的人就是学习再多的典籍有什么用处呢?

(B) NISCAYA-CARITRA

Real view-point 现实的观点

Nicchayanayassa evam, appa appammi appane surado.

So hodi hu sucaritto, joi lahai nivvanam. (268)

From the real point of view, he, who is blissfully absorbed in his own soul to know his soul with the aid of his soul, becomes a person of Right Conduct; that ascetic attains emancipation. (268)

从一个现实的角度来说,一个能够沉浸在自己的灵魂中并不断了解自己的灵魂的人,就是一个有正确行为的人。一个禁欲的人就能够得到解脱。

 

Jam janiuna joi, paruharam kunai punnapavanam.

Tam carittam bhaniyam, aviyappam kammarahiehim. (269)

An ascetic who eradicates his punya Karmas (merits) as well his Papa Karmas (sins) undoubtedly acquires right conduct-this is said by those who are free from Karmas (i.e. the Jinas). (269)

那些从因果报应中解脱的人们曾说过,一个禁欲者消除了美德与罪孽,能够得到正确的行为。

 

Jo paradavvammi suham, asuham ragena kunadi jadi bhavam.

So sagacarittabhattho, paracariyacaro havadi jivo. (270)

He who out of attachment develops a favourable or unfavourable attitude in respect of an alien object, renounces what constitutes his own conduct (i.e. Svabhava) and adopts what constitutes alien conduct (i.e. Vibhava). (270)

一个没有爱恋的人对敌对的事物就会采取一种漠视的态度,改变自己的行为并采取相反的行为。

 

Jo savvasamgamukko naamano appanam sahavena.

Janadi passadi niyaaam, so sagacariyam caradi jivo. (271)

He, who devoid of all attachment and withdrawing one‘s mind from everything else, definitely knows and sees one‘s soul in its own true nature, practises what constitutes one‘s own conduct (i.e. Svabhava).

(271)

一个没有爱恋的人能够集中自己的思想,他无疑懂得并能够看到自己灵魂的本质,坚持自己的操守。

 

Paramatthamhi du athido, jo kunadi tavam vadam ca dharei.

Tam savvam balatavam, balavada,m bimti savvanhu. (272)

If one performs austerities (tapas) or observes vows (vratas) without fixed contemplation

on the Supreme Self, the omniscients call all that childish austerity (balatapa) and childish vow (balavrata).

(272)

如果一个人坚持简朴的生活并遵循誓言却不对自我进行沉思,先知就称这种行为为幼稚的简朴和幼稚的誓言。

 

Mase mase tu jo balo, kusaggenam tu bhumjae.

Na so sukkhayadhammassa, kalam agghai solasim. (273)

One who eats once in a month through the tip of kusagrass does not attain even the sixteenth part of what constitutes religion well proclaimed. (273)

一个人在一个月中一旦吃了一点画眉草就不会理解丝毫的宗教的教义。

 

Carittam khalu dhammo, dhammo mjo so samo tti niddittho.

Mohakkhohavihino, parinamo appano hu samo. (274)

Right Conduct is really what constitutes religion; it is said that religion is equanimity. Equanimity is that condition of the soul which is free from delusion and excitement. (274)

正确的行为是宗教的一部分;宗教是平静的。平静是指灵魂远离了错觉与亢奋。

 

Samada taha majjhattham, suddho bhavo ya viyarayattam.

Taha carittam dhammo, sahavaarahana bhaniya. (275)

Equanimity, tolerance, pure-thought, freedom from attachment and hatred, (Right) conduct, religion, devotion to one‘s own self, all of these are said to be one and same. (275)

平静、宽容、纯洁的思想、远离爱与恨、正确的行为、宗教、对自己忠诚是一个整体。

 

Suvididapayatthasutto, samjamatavamudo vigadarago.

Samano samasuhadukkho, bhanido suddhovaoo tti. (276)

That monk, is said to possess pure consciousness (comprising darsana and Jnana) who has understood the real nature of the substances, is endowed with self-restraint and penance, is free from attachment and maintains equanimity (of mind) both in happiness and sorrow. (276)

一个能够认识事物本质的僧侣就拥有纯洁的意识,他被赐予自律和修行,远离了爱恋,能够平静地对待欢乐与痛苦。

 

Siddhassa ya samannam, bhaniyam suddhassa damsanam nanam.

Suddhassa ya nivvanam, so cciya siddho namo tassa. (277)

Purity of faith and knowledge constitutes pure asecticism. Such pure soul attains liberation. He is the Siddha; to him, I pay my obeisance. (277)

纯正的禁欲主义有纯洁的信仰和知识构成。纯洁的灵魂能够得到解脱,我对Siddha表示敬重。

 

Aisayamadasamuttham, visayatidam anovamamanamtam.

Avvucchinnam ca suham, suddhuvaogappasiddhanam. (278)

The bliss of a liberated sould (Siddha), charactgerized by purity of consciousness, is born of the excellence of his soul, is beyond the reach of senses, is incomparable, inexhaustible, and indivisible.

(278)

解脱灵魂的福祉源于灵魂的美德,它的特点是意识的纯洁,这些处于人的感官之外,是不可比较的、无穷无尽的、不能分割的。

 

Jassa na vijjadi rago, doso moho va savvadavvesu.

Na‘savadi suham asuham, samasuhadukkhassa bhikkhussa. (279)

The monk who harbours on attachment, aversion or delusion in respect of anything whatsoever and who maintains equanimity of mind in pleasures and pains, does not cause an inflow of good or evil Karmas. (279)

一个怀有爱恋、憎恨或者错觉僧侣,如果能够平静地对待思想中的欢乐与痛苦,不会带来善恶因果报应。

 

(I) SAMANVAYA Synthesis 综合推理

Nicchaya sajjhasaruvam, saraya tasseva sahanam caranam.

Tamha do vi ya kamaso, padicchamanam pabujjheha. (280)

Right Conduct from the real point of view is the ultimate goal; Conduct vitiated by attachment, i.e. conduct from practical view point is only the means to attain it. Hence these two should be followed one after another. He who follows them gradually will attain intuitive knowledge. (280)

从现实角度出发的正确的行为是最终的目的;爱恋会破坏一个人的行为,例如,从经验角度出发的行为只是实现它的方法。因此,两者应当接踵而来。一个人只要遵循这一点就能够得到直观的知识。

 

Abbhamtarasodhie, bahirasodhi vi hodi niyamena.

Abbhamtra-dosena hu, kunadi naro bahire dose. (281)

Invariable, internal impurity results in external impurity; due to his internal impurities man commits external blemishes. (281)

永恒的、内在的不纯洁导致了外在的不纯洁;由于内心的不纯洁,一个人的行为就会有污点。

 

Madamanamayaloha-vivajjiyabhavo du bhavasuddhi tti.

Parikahiyam bhavvanam, loyaloyappadarisihim. (282)

Those who have seen and known this world and the other (i.e. the Omniscinet Arhats) have preached to all (who are capable of getting release from the Karmas) that purity of mind can be achieved by those who free themselves from lust, conceit, delusion and greed. (282)

那些看到了并了解了这个世界以及其他人并已经从因果报应中解脱的人告诫所有的人,那些远离了欲望、幻觉、错觉与贪婪的人能够得到纯洁的思想。

 

Catta pavarambham, samutthido va suhammi cariyamhi.

Na jahadi jadi mohadi, na lahadi so appagam suddham. (283)

He who has acquired auspicious conduct after renouncing all sinful activities, cannot obtain purity of his soul, it he has not freed himself from delusion. (283)

如果一个人没有脱离错觉的话,即使他同所有罪恶的行为脱离并具有吉祥的行为,也不会得到纯洁的灵魂。

 

Jaha va niruddham asuham, suhena suhamavi taheva suddhena.

Tamha ena kamena ya, joi jhaeu niyaadam. (284)

Just as inaupicious thoughts are obstructed by auspicious conduct, auspicious conduct by pure conduct; hence pervforming these (latter two types of act) one after another let a yogin meditate on his own soul. (284)

就像不祥的思想会受到吉祥行为的阻碍,吉祥的行为会受到纯洁的行为的阻碍;因此,吉祥的行为和纯洁的行为会让人们对自己的灵魂进行沉思。

 

Nicchayanayassa caranaya-vighae nanadamsanavaho‘avi.

Vavaharassa u carane, hayammi bhayana hu sesanam. (285)

If there is any damage from the real point of view in one‘s Right Conduct, then there would be damage in Right Knowledge and Right Faith, but if there is any damage to right conduct from the empirical point of view then there may or may not be any defect in Right knowledge and Right Faith.

(285)

如果现实中对一个人的正确的行为会有伤害的话,那么也会对正确的知识和信仰造成伤害,但是如果从经验的角度来说对正确的行为会产生伤害的话,那么就不一定会对正确的知识和信仰产生不利的影响。

 

Saddham nagaram kicca, tavasamvaramaggalam.

Khamtim niunapagaram, tiguttam duppadhamsayam.

Tavanarayajuttena, bhittunam kammakamcuyam.

Muni vigayasamgamo, bhavao parimuccae.(286 & 287)

After building a citadel with his Right Faith, gate-bars with his austerities and self-control, strong ramparts with his forgiveness, invincible guards with his three controls (of mind, speech and action), a monk arms himself with a bow of his penance, pierces through the garb of his Karma, wins the battle and becomes liberated from this mundane worldly life. (286 & 287)

如果使用正确的信仰建立一个大本营,俭朴和自律作为门闩,宽恕作为堡垒,自我控制作为不可战胜的守卫,一个僧侣利用修行来守护自己,穿透因果报应的幕帐,战胜因果报应并最终从世俗的生活中解脱。