Precepts On View-Point 关于睇问题个角度
Jam nanina viyappam, suyabheyam vatthuamsasamgahanam.
Tam iha nayam pauttam, nani puna tena nanena. (690)
The thought activity which grasps only one aspect of an object with the aid of
called Naya. He who possesses such knowledge is wise. (690)
Jamha na naena vina, hoi narassa siyavayapadivatti.
Tamha so bohavvo, eyamtam hamtukamena. (691)
Since without a (knowledge of) naya a man cannot have a knowledge of syadvada
(the doctrine of
conditional statement). A knowledge of naya can be had by one who is desirous
of destroying all
the extremes. (691)
Dhammavihino sokkham, tanhacheyam jalena jaha
Taha iha vamchai mudho, nayarahio davvanicchiti. (692)
Just as an irreligious person desired to attain bliss without practising
religion or a thirsty
person desires to quench his thirst without using water, similarly the fool
desires to determine
the nature of a substance without taking recourse to naya. (692)
Davvatthio ya pajjavanao, ya sesa viyappa sim. (693)
The entire body of the teachings of Tirthankara taken in its entirely and
taken in its particular
details is to be explained with the help of two basic standpoints (nayas)-viz
point of view (dravyarthikanaya) and that modificational point of view (paryayarthikanaya).
rest of them are the offshoots of these two. (693)
Davvatthiyavattavvam, avatthu niyamena
Taha pajjavavatthu, avatthumeva davvatthiyanayassa. (694)
What is said from the substantial view-point appears, as a rule, unreal from
view-point. Similarly what is said from the modal view-point appears unreal
from the substantial
Uppajjamti viyamti ya, bhava niyamena pajjavanayassa.
Davvatthiyassa savvam, saya anuppannamavinattham. (695)
From the modal view-point, things necessarily originate and perish. But from
view-point, there is neither origination nor destruction. (695)
Davvatthiena savvam, davvam tam pajjayatthiena
Havadi ya annamanannam, takkale tammayattado. (696)
From substantial point of view, everything is of the form of substance (always
same), but from modal view-point every thing differs from time to time. From
stand-point, a thing appears to its corresponding form. (696)
Pajjaya gaunam kicca, davvam pi ya jo hu ginhai
So davvatthiya bhanio, vivario pajjayatthinao. (697)
The stand-point which gives secondary status to the modes and only grasps the
called substantial view-point, while the opposite to it is called modal
Negama-samgaha-vavahara-ujjusue ceva hoi bodhavva.
Sadde ya samabhirudhe, evambhue ya mulanaya. (698)
Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha and evambhuta-these
are the seven basic stand-points. (698)
Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha 以及evambhuta-
Padhamatiya davvatthi, pajjayagahi ya iyara je
Te cadu atthapahana, saddapahana hu tinni ya. (699)
The first three fall under the category of substantial view-point, while the
remaining four come
under the modal view-point. Among these seven, the first four give eminence to
meaning, while the
remaining three to the word. (699)
Negaim manaim, samannobhayavisesananaham.
Jam tehim minai to, negamo nao negamano tti. (700)
Naigam Naya deals with both the aspects of a thing, that is, generic as well
as specific aspects,
as the case might be, in order to know this, it knows the thing in its various
Nivvitta davvakiriya, vattanakale du jam
Tam bhuyanigamanayam, jaha ajjadinam nivvuo viro. (701)
Naigam Naya is of three kinds, according to the three tenses. The past, the
present and the
根据时态，Naigam Naya 分为三类，过去、现係以及将来。
Paraddha ja kiriya, payanavihanadi kahai jo siddham.
Loe ya pucchamane, tam bhannai vattamananayam. (702)
To describe the work as "has been done" when asked, the moment it has been
started, is known as the Vartamana Naigam Naya, for, example the food is said
to have been cooked when the coooking has just been started. (702)
Vartamana Naigam Naya用来描述完成时，比如，当烹饪开始时，我地就讲食物已
Nippannamiva payampadi, bhavipadattham naro
Appatthe jaha pattham, bhannai so bhavi naigamo tti nao. (703)
To say that an act, which is to be performed in future has been completed,
though incomplete is
an example of Bhavisya Naigam Naya e.e. when a person is about to start, we
say "he has gone".
Bhavisya Naigam Naya用来描述将来完成时，比如一个人正要出发时，我地就讲佢
Avaropparamavirohe, savvam atthi tti
Hoi tameva asuddham, igajaivisesagahanena. (704)
There are two kinds of samgrahanaya-suddhasam-grahanaya and
suddhasamgraha-naya, we accept only one common characteristic of things
existence, ignoring all
the mutual conflicting characteristics, while in Asuddhasamgrahanaya, we
accept the generic class characteristic of things. (704)
Jam samgahena gahiyam, bheyai attham asuddhari
So vavaharo duviho, asuddhasuddhatthabheyakaro. (705)
That which distinguishes between the pure synthetic approach and impure
synthetic approach about the thing is called Vyavaharanaya. This Vyavaharanaya
is further of two gypes complete
distinguishing and incomplete distinguishing. (705)
Jo eyasamayavatti, gihnai davve dhuvattapajjayam.
So riusutto suhumo, savvam pi saddam jaha khaniyam. (706)
The naya which grasps the evanescent modes of an enternal substance, is called
Rjusutra naya, for example `to say that' all the sound is momentary'. (706)
Manuyaiyapajjao, manuso tti sagatthidisu vattamto.
Jo bhanai tavakalam, so thulo hoi riusutto. (707)
On the other hand that naya which attritubes a mode like man-ness etc. to a
being, throughout the
course of that period during which this being continues to exhibit that mode
is the sub-type of
Rjusutranaya, called Sthularjusutranaya. (707)
Savanam sapai sa tenam, va sappae vatthu jam tao
Tassatthapariggahao, nao vi saddo tti heu vva. (708)
Sapana, i.e. "calling", is a word, or that which calls is word, or through
which an object is
reffered to is also a word. It is called "Sabdanaya" because it graspes the
meaning of the word.
Jo vattanam na mannai, eyatthe bhinnalimgaainam.
So saddanao bhanio, neo pussaiana jaha. (709)
The naya that differentiates the meaning of the words according to their use,
as gender etc., in
a sentence is called sabda naya, for example, the word `pusya' denotes a
while the word `Pusya' denotes a particular `Tarika'. (709)
Ahava siddhe sadde, kirai jam kim pi
Tam khalu sadde visayam, `devo' saddena jaha devo. (710)
The naya which grasps the meaning of the word according to its etymology, is
`Sabdanaya', for example, the word `deva' generally means God. (710)
Saddarudho attho, attharudho taheva puna saddo.
Bhanai iha samabhirudho, jaha imda puramdaro sakko. (711)
Every word is followed by a specific meaning and vice-versa. The different
synonymous words have
their respective connotations even if the same object is referred to by them.
For example, the
word, Indra, Purandar and Sakra connote the same object, yet they have their
to. This is known as Samabhirudhanaya. (711)
管佢地用来形容同一事物。比如，Indra, Purandar 以及Sakra有同样个意思，但
Evam jaha saddattho, samto bhuo tadannaha'bhuo.
Tenevambhuyanao, saddatthaparo visesena. (712)
A word only applies to an object in case it behaves in the manner suggested by
meaning of the word, denoting it and not in case it does not behave in that "Evambhutanaya".
Hence this particular naya cling to the particular meaning of the word. (712)
Jam jam karei kammam, dehi manavayanakayacetthado.
Tam tam khu namajutto, evambhuo have sa nao. (713)
Whatever an act a person is now performing, through the instrumentality of his
mind, speech or
body, a name corresponding to that act is to be applied to this person, this
is what is
maintained by the naya called Evambhutanaya (e.g. A person is called teacher
only while he is