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SamanSuttam

39. Nayasutra

Precepts On View-Point 关于睇问题个角度

Jam nanina viyappam, suyabheyam vatthuamsasamgahanam.

Tam iha nayam pauttam, nani puna tena nanena. (690)

The thought activity which grasps only one aspect of an object with the aid of scriptures, is called Naya. He who possesses such knowledge is wise. (690)

如果一个人借助典籍能够通过思考了解到事物个一个方面,咧叫做Naya,有咧种知
识个人係智慧嘅。

Jamha na naena vina, hoi narassa siyavayapadivatti.

Tamha so bohavvo, eyamtam hamtukamena. (691)


Since without a (knowledge of) naya a man cannot have a knowledge of syadvada (the doctrine of conditional statement). A knowledge of naya can be had by one who is desirous of destroying all the extremes. (691)

如果一个人唔具备Naya个能力,咁佢就唔能够syadvada(条件语言个教条)。如
果一个人渴望破除所有个极端,咁佢就能具备naya个能力。

Dhammavihino sokkham, tanhacheyam jalena jaha rahido.

Taha iha vamchai mudho, nayarahio davvanicchiti. (692)


Just as an irreligious person desired to attain bliss without practising religion or a thirsty person desires to quench his thirst without using water, similarly the fool desires to determine the nature of a substance without taking recourse to naya. (692)

就似一个冇信仰个人为着获得福祉但係唔去修行,一个颈渴个人想要解渴但唔去饮
水一样,愚蠢个人想要了解事物个本质却唔去Naya。

Titthayaravayanasamgaha-visesapatthara-mulavagarani.

Davvatthio ya pajjavanao, ya sesa viyappa sim. (693)


The entire body of the teachings of Tirthankara taken in its entirely and taken in its particular details is to be explained with the help of two basic standpoints (nayas)-viz that substantial point of view (dravyarthikanaya) and that modificational point of view (paryayarthikanaya). The rest of them are the offshoots of these two. (693)

Tirthankara个教义係个整体,通常跟两个基本个角度对佢来进行解释。一个本质个
角度(dravyarthikanaya)同一个形式个角度(paryayarthikanaya)。其余嘅都係
咧两种方法个支流。

Davvatthiyavattavvam, avatthu niyamena pajjavanayassa.

Taha pajjavavatthu, avatthumeva davvatthiyanayassa. (694)


What is said from the substantial view-point appears, as a rule, unreal from the modal view-point. Similarly what is said from the modal view-point appears unreal from the substantial view-point. (694)

跟本质个角度上睇来係正确嘅,跟形式个角度来睇则係唔真实嘅;反过来亦都係一
样。

Uppajjamti viyamti ya, bhava niyamena pajjavanayassa.

Davvatthiyassa savvam, saya anuppannamavinattham. (695)


From the modal view-point, things necessarily originate and perish. But from the substantial view-point, there is neither origination nor destruction. (695)

跟形式个角度来讲,事物必然会产生同消亡。但係跟本质个角度来讲,根本冇产生
同消亡。

Davvatthiena savvam, davvam tam pajjayatthiena puno.

Havadi ya annamanannam, takkale tammayattado. (696)


From substantial point of view, everything is of the form of substance (always remaining the same), but from modal view-point every thing differs from time to time. From each particular stand-point, a thing appears to its corresponding form. (696)

跟本质个角度来讲,所有事物都係由物质构成(通常係相同嘅),但係跟形式个角
度来讲,事物同事物各唔相同,跟唔同个角度来睇,事物都有佢特定嘅形式。

Pajjaya gaunam kicca, davvam pi ya jo hu ginhai loe.

So davvatthiya bhanio, vivario pajjayatthinao. (697)


The stand-point which gives secondary status to the modes and only grasps the substance, is called substantial view-point, while the opposite to it is called modal view-point. (697)

本质个角度就係指唔考虑事物个状态而只抓住事物个本质个角度;相反嘅就係形式
个角度。

Negama-samgaha-vavahara-ujjusue ceva hoi bodhavva.

Sadde ya samabhirudhe, evambhue ya mulanaya. (698)


Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha and evambhuta-these are the seven basic stand-points. (698)

Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha 以及evambhuta-
係七种睇问题个基本角度。

Padhamatiya davvatthi, pajjayagahi ya iyara je bhaniya.

Te cadu atthapahana, saddapahana hu tinni ya. (699)


The first three fall under the category of substantial view-point, while the remaining four come under the modal view-point. Among these seven, the first four give eminence to meaning, while the remaining three to the word. (699)

前三者属于本质个角度,后四者属于形式个角度。係咧七个中,前四者着重係于意
义,后三者着重係于字面。

Negaim manaim, samannobhayavisesananaham.

Jam tehim minai to, negamo nao negamano tti. (700)


Naigam Naya deals with both the aspects of a thing, that is, generic as well as specific aspects, as the case might be, in order to know this, it knows the thing in its various forms. (700)

Naigam Naya涉及事物个两个方面,共性以及特性,佢能够了解事物个多个方面。

Nivvitta davvakiriya, vattanakale du jam samacaranam.

Tam bhuyanigamanayam, jaha ajjadinam nivvuo viro. (701)


Naigam Naya is of three kinds, according to the three tenses. The past, the present and the future. (701)

根据时态,Naigam Naya 分为三类,过去、现係以及将来。

Paraddha ja kiriya, payanavihanadi kahai jo siddham.

Loe ya pucchamane, tam bhannai vattamananayam. (702)


To describe the work as "has been done" when asked, the moment it has been started, is known as the Vartamana Naigam Naya, for, example the food is said to have been cooked when the coooking has just been started. (702)

Vartamana Naigam Naya用来描述完成时,比如,当烹饪开始时,我地就讲食物已
经係煮住。

Nippannamiva payampadi, bhavipadattham naro anipannam.

Appatthe jaha pattham, bhannai so bhavi naigamo tti nao. (703)


To say that an act, which is to be performed in future has been completed, though incomplete is an example of Bhavisya Naigam Naya e.e. when a person is about to start, we say "he has gone".
(703)

Bhavisya Naigam Naya用来描述将来完成时,比如一个人正要出发时,我地就讲佢
出发着。

Avaropparamavirohe, savvam atthi tti suddhasamgahane.

Hoi tameva asuddham, igajaivisesagahanena. (704)


There are two kinds of samgrahanaya-suddhasam-grahanaya and asuddhasamgrahanaya. In suddhasamgraha-naya, we accept only one common characteristic of things existence, ignoring all
the mutual conflicting characteristics, while in Asuddhasamgrahanaya, we accept the generic class characteristic of things. (704)

Samgrahanaya分为两类:suddhasamgrahanaya同asuddhasamgrahanaya。係
suddhasamgrahanaya中,我地只承认事物共同个存在特点但係忽略佢相互矛盾个特
点;但係係asuddhasamgrahanaya中,我地接受事物普遍个特点。

Jam samgahena gahiyam, bheyai attham asuddhari suddham.

So vavaharo duviho, asuddhasuddhatthabheyakaro. (705)

That which distinguishes between the pure synthetic approach and impure synthetic approach about the thing is called Vyavaharanaya. This Vyavaharanaya is further of two gypes complete distinguishing and incomplete distinguishing. (705)

将综合个观点以及分离个观点区分个方法叫做Vyavaharanaya,Vyavaharanaya又
进一步可以分为两类。

Jo eyasamayavatti, gihnai davve dhuvattapajjayam.

So riusutto suhumo, savvam pi saddam jaha khaniyam. (706)


The naya which grasps the evanescent modes of an enternal substance, is called Rjusutra naya, for example `to say that' all the sound is momentary'. (706)

掌握永恒物质个瞬时状态个方法叫做Rjusutra naya,比如,所有个声音都係瞬间嘅

Manuyaiyapajjao, manuso tti sagatthidisu vattamto.

Jo bhanai tavakalam, so thulo hoi riusutto. (707)


On the other hand that naya which attritubes a mode like man-ness etc. to a being, throughout the course of that period during which this being continues to exhibit that mode is the sub-type of Rjusutranaya, called Sthularjusutranaya. (707)

另外一种方法掌握事物係某一段时间内持续出现个一种状态,咧种方法係

Savanam sapai sa tenam, va sappae vatthu jam tao saddo.

Tassatthapariggahao, nao vi saddo tti heu vva. (708)


Sapana, i.e. "calling", is a word, or that which calls is word, or through which an object is reffered to is also a word. It is called "Sabdanaya" because it graspes the meaning of the word.
(708)

Sapananaya 则係通过词汇个意义来掌握事物。

Jo vattanam na mannai, eyatthe bhinnalimgaainam.

So saddanao bhanio, neo pussaiana jaha. (709)


The naya that differentiates the meaning of the words according to their use, as gender etc., in a sentence is called sabda naya, for example, the word `pusya' denotes a particular Naksatra, while the word `Pusya' denotes a particular `Tarika'. (709)

咧种方法通过词汇个使用(如词性)来区分佢地个使用。比如,”pusya‘代表Naksatra,
但係”Pusya‘ 代表”Tarika‘。

Ahava siddhe sadde, kirai jam kim pi atthavavaharanam.

Tam khalu sadde visayam, `devo' saddena jaha devo. (710)


The naya which grasps the meaning of the word according to its etymology, is also called `Sabdanaya', for example, the word `deva' generally means God. (710)

根据单词个词源来掌握佢个意思个方法亦都叫做Sabdanaya,比如deva个意思通常
係指神灵。

Saddarudho attho, attharudho taheva puna saddo.

Bhanai iha samabhirudho, jaha imda puramdaro sakko. (711)


Every word is followed by a specific meaning and vice-versa. The different synonymous words have their respective connotations even if the same object is referred to by them. For example, the word, Indra, Purandar and Sakra connote the same object, yet they have their respective meaning to. This is known as Samabhirudhanaya. (711)

每个字都有一个确定个意思,反过来亦都係一样。唔同个同义词有各自个内涵,尽
管佢地用来形容同一事物。比如,Indra, Purandar 以及Sakra有同样个意思,但
係佢地亦都仲有各自个含义。

Evam jaha saddattho, samto bhuo tadannaha'bhuo.

Tenevambhuyanao, saddatthaparo visesena. (712)


A word only applies to an object in case it behaves in the manner suggested by the (etymological)
meaning of the word, denoting it and not in case it does not behave in that "Evambhutanaya". Hence this particular naya cling to the particular meaning of the word. (712)

有地词语係一地特殊语境中使用,因此,咧地词语就用来表示咧地特殊个意思

Jam jam karei kammam, dehi manavayanakayacetthado.

Tam tam khu namajutto, evambhuo have sa nao. (713)


Whatever an act a person is now performing, through the instrumentality of his mind, speech or body, a name corresponding to that act is to be applied to this person, this is what is maintained by the naya called Evambhutanaya (e.g. A person is called teacher only while he is
teaching). (713)

无论一个人正係做乜嘢,总会有一个相应个动作可以来形容咧个人,咧叫做
Evambhutanaya(比如,当一个人係教书时,我地才称呼佢为老师)