Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Samansuttam
Mangalasutra
  Jinasasanasutra
  Sanghasutra
 

Nirupanasutra

  Samsaracakrasutra 
  Karmasutra
  Mithyatvasutra
 

Raga-pariharasutra

  Dharmasutra
  Samyamasutra
  Aparigrahasutra
  Ahimsasutra
 

Apramadasutra

  Siksasutra
  Atmasutra
  Moksamargasutra
  Ratnatrayasutra
  Samyag-Darsana-Sutra
  Samyagjnanasutra
  Samyakcaritrasutra
  Sadhanasutra
  Dvividha Dharmasutra
  Sravakadharmasutra
  Sramanadharmasutra
  Vratasutra
  Samiti-Guptisutra
  Avasyakasutra
  Tapasutra
  Dhyanasutra
  Anupreksasutra
  Lesyasutra
  Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)
  Samlekhanasutra
  Tattvasutra
  Dravysutra
  Srstisutra
  Anekantasutra
  Pramanasutra
  Nayasutra
  Syadvada Va Saptabhangisutra
  Samanvayasutra
  Niksepasutra
  Samapana
  Virastavana
 

SamanSuttam

38. Pramanasutra

Precepts On Valid Knowledge 关于正确个知识

(A) Pancavidha Jnana - Five Kinds Of Knowledge

Samsayavimoha-vibbhaya-vivajjiyam appaparasaruvassa.

Gahanam sammam nanam, sayaramaneyabheyam tu. (674)

Such a grasping of the nature of itself and that of other things, as is free from doubt, mistake and uncertainty is called the right cognition; it is of a determinate form and is of various types. (674)

了解自身个本质以及其他事物个本质并摒弃着怀疑、错误以及唔确定称为正确个认
知。佢有确定个形式以及多种类型。

Tattha pamcaviham nanam, suyam abhinibohiyam.

Ohinanam tu taiyam, manananam ca kevalam. (675)


The knowledge is of five kinds: Mati-Jnana i.e., knowledge derived through the five senses and the mind Sruta-jnana i.e. knowledge obtained from the scriptures, Avadhi-Jnana (clairvoyance) Manahaparya-Jnana i.e. telepathy and Kevala-Jnana i.e. omniscience. (675)

知识分为五类:由五官所获得个知识;由典籍所获得个知识;通过细致个观察所获
得个知识;心灵感应以及先知。

Pamceva homti nana, madisudaohimanam ca kevalayam.

Khayauvasamiya cauro, kevalananam have khaiyam. (676)

Knowledge is thus of five kinds: sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge, clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscience. The first four result from substance cum annihilation of the relevant Karmas, while omniscience result after total annihilation of Karmas. (676)

因此知识分为五类:感官知识,典籍知识,洞察,感应以及先知。前四者来源于对
相关个因果报应个脱离,但係先知则需要完全脱离着因果报应。

Iha apoha vimamsa, maggana ya gavesana.

Sanna sati mati panna, savvam abhinibodhiyam. (677)


Reflection on what has been perceived, reasoning, questioning, examining, searching, understanding and judging these are the varieties of sensory knowledge. (677)

感官知识包括感觉、推理、疑问、检察、寻找、理解以及判断。

Atthao atthamtaramuvalambhe tam bhananti suyananam.

Abhinibohiyapuvvam, niyamena ya saddayam mulam. (678)


Sruta-Jnana is said to consist in comprehenstion of the meaning of words that are heard or it is derived from the senses and the mind and it as a rule is born of words. (678)

Sruta-Jnana存在于对语言意义个理解,佢来源于感观、思想以及语言。

Imdiyamanonimittam, jam vinnanam suyanusarenam.

Niyayatatthuttisamattham, tam bhavasuyam mai sesam. (679)


The knowledge which is required through the senses and the mind by hearing or reading the scriptue and which is capable of expressing its content is called Bhava-srutajnana, the rest of the knowledge (acquired through thought-activities and the senses) is matijnana. (679)

通过感官以及聆听、阅读、复述典籍所获得个知识称为Bhava-srutajnana,使用其
他方法所获得个知识称为matijnana(思维活动或者感官)。

Maipuvvam suyamuttam, na mai suyapuvviya viseso'yam.

Puvvam puranapalana-bhavao jam mai tassa. (680)


The Srutajnana is acquired through matijnana while the matijnana is not acquired through Srutajnana, but in the act of fortering thoughts, it is the characteristic of matijnana that it precedes the Srutajnana. (680)

通过matijnana可以获得Srutajnana,但係通过Srutajnana就唔一定能获得
matijnana;但係係培养思维个时候,matijnana就要优于Srutajnana。

Avahiyaditti ohi, simananetti vanniyam samae.

Bhavagunapaccaya-vihiyam, tamohinana tti nam bimti. (681)


The type of cognition which limits the (direct) knowledge is called (Avadhi-Jnana) i.e., clairvoyance, in the scriptures, it is also called simajnana i.e. .imited cognition. This avadhi-jnana is of two types - viz. one that is born on account of a certain type of birth and one that is born on account of the practice of certain various qualities. (681)

限制着直接知识个认知称为Avadhi-Jnana,比如洞察,係典籍中,咧亦都称为 simajnana,比如有限个认知。咧种Avadhi-Jnana分为两类,一类係与生俱来嘅,另一类係通过对于某种品 质个培养。

Cimtiyamacimtiyam va, addham cimtiya aneyabheyagayam.

Manapajjava tti nanam, jam janai tam tu naraloe. (682)


In this world of human beings, that type of cognition is called manahaparyayajnana, which comprehends other's thought, that is already entertained, that is not yet entertained or that is only half entertained, and so on. It is of many types. (682)

係咧个世界中,认知个种类称为manahaparyayajnana,佢係指领会人地个已经为
人所接受个思想、仲未比人所接受、已经比人所部分接受个思想等。佢有好多种类。

Kevalamegam suddham, sagalamasaharanam anamtam ca.

Payam ca nanasaddo, namasamanahigarano'yam. (683)


That type of cognition which is one, pure, perfect, extra-ordinary, endless, is called Kevalajnana, and here as usual the generic word jnana is to be added to the specific word denotative of a particular jnana Type. (683)

纯净嘅、完美嘅、杰出嘅、无尽嘅认知称为Kevalajnana。係咧个名词中,将jnana
作为词尾描述一种特殊个jnana类型。

Sambhinnam pasamto, logamalogam ca savvao savvam.

Tam natthi jam na pasai, bhuyam bhavvam bhavissam ca. (684)


Kevala-Jnana grasps in one sweep all that is in this universe and beyond the universe in its entirety; certainly, there is nothing in the past, future and the present which is not grasped by this type of cognition. (684)

Kevalajnana对宇宙及宇宙外个事情无所不知;当然,佢亦都对过去、将来以及以
架个事情无所唔知。

(B) Pratyaksa-Paroksa Pramana - Precepts On Direct And Indirect Knowledge

关于直接个知识同间接个知识

Gehanai vatthusahavam, aviruddham sammaruvam jam nanam.

Bhaniyam khu tam pamanam, paccakkhaprokkhabheehim. (685)


That cognition which grasps the nature of things in a proper and uncontradicted form is called pramana; it is of two types-viz. Pratyaksa (direct) and paroksa (indirect). (685)

能够合理认识事物本质个认识称为pramana;佢分为两类,Pratyaksa(直接嘅)同
paroksa(间接嘅)

Jivo akkho atthavvavana-bhoyanagunannio jenam.

Tam pai vattai nanam, je paccakkham tayam tiviham. (686)


The word `aksa' means a soul either because it covers the entire range of the things or because it enjoys these things (the tow meanings depending on two different etymologies of the word `aksa' and the type of cognition, which is had be an aksa is called pratyaksa; it is of three
sub-types. (686)

能够合理认识事物本质个认识称为pramana;佢分为两类,Pratyaksa(直接嘅)同
paroksa(间接嘅)

Akkhassa poggalakaya, jam davvindiyamana para tenam.

Tehim ot jam nanam, parokkhamiha tamanumanam va. (687)


The physical sense-organs and the internal organ i.e. mind, are something alien to an aksa or self, and the type and the type of cognition had through the instrumentality of these two is called paroksa-just like inferential cognition. (687)

外在个感觉器官以及内心个器官(思想)同aksa或者人个身体唔同。通过咧两类器
官所得到个认识称为paroksa,咧係一种推论性个认识。

Homti parokkham mai-suyaim jivassa paranimittao.

Puvvovaladdhasambamdha-saranao vanumanam va. (688)


The two cognitions mati and sruta are paroksa i.e. indirect because they are acquired by a soul through the instrumentality of something alien to itself or because they are born of the memory of relationship grasped earlier, just like inferential cognition. (688)

Mati以及mati係两类推论性个认识,间接係由于佢地都係借助于灵魂之外个器官所
获得,或者都係通过前面个知识所推理得出,都係推论性个认识。

Egamtena parokkham, limgiyamohaiyam ca paccakkham.

Imdiyamanobhavam jam, tam samvavaharapaccakkham. (689)


In a real sense, the cognition acquired through the other sources is paroksa i.e. indirect while cognition acquired directly by the soul is pratyaksa. But the cognition, born of a sense-organ is `pratyaksa' practically so called. (689)

跟实际意义上来讲,通过其他途径获得个认识称为paroksa,间接个认识;但係通
过灵魂直接获得个认识称为pratyaksa。事实上,通常将通过感觉器官获得个认知称
为pratyaksa。