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Jain World
Sub-Categories of Samansuttam
Mangalasutra
  Jinasasanasutra
  Sanghasutra
 

Nirupanasutra

  Samsaracakrasutra 
  Karmasutra
  Mithyatvasutra
 

Raga-pariharasutra

  Dharmasutra
  Samyamasutra
  Aparigrahasutra
  Ahimsasutra
 

Apramadasutra

  Siksasutra
  Atmasutra
  Moksamargasutra
  Ratnatrayasutra
  Samyag-Darsana-Sutra
  Samyagjnanasutra
  Samyakcaritrasutra
  Sadhanasutra
  Dvividha Dharmasutra
  Sravakadharmasutra
  Sramanadharmasutra
  Vratasutra
  Samiti-Guptisutra
  Avasyakasutra
  Tapasutra
  Dhyanasutra
  Anupreksasutra
  Lesyasutra
  Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)
  Samlekhanasutra
  Tattvasutra
  Dravysutra
  Srstisutra
  Anekantasutra
  Pramanasutra
  Nayasutra
  Syadvada Va Saptabhangisutra
  Samanvayasutra
  Niksepasutra
  Samapana
  Virastavana
 

SamanSuttam

35. Dravysutra

Precepts On The Substance 关于物质

Dhammo ahammo agasam, kalo puggala jantavo.

Esa logo tti pannatto, kinehim varadamsihim. (624)


The supreme visioned Jinas have described the universe to be constituted of six substances viz. Dharma (medium of motion), Adharma (medium of rest), Akasa (space), kala (time), Pudgala (matter) and Jiva (soul). (624)

有无上先知个Jina讲,世界係由六种要素构成嘅,Dharma (运动个介质), Adharma
(静止个介质), Akasa (空间), kala (时间), Pudgala (物质) 以及Jiva (灵魂).

Agasakalapuggala-dhammadhammesu natthi jivaguna.

Tesim acedanattam, bhanidam jivassa cedanada. (625)


The substances, Akasa, kala, Pudgala, Dharma and Adharma, do not possess the attributes of the Jiva (i.e. devoid of life) and they therefore have been called Ajivas (non-living). The attribute
of Jiva is consciousness. (625)

Akasa, kala, Pudgala, Dharma 以及Adharma同灵魂截然唔同,佢地係冇生命嘅,
因此佢地比称为Ajivas;而灵魂个特点就係意识。

Agasakalajiva, dhammadhamma ya muttiparihina.

Muttam puggaladavvam, jivo khalu cedano tesu. (626)


Aksa, Kala, Jiva, Dharma and Adharma are incorporeal, where as Pudgala (matter) is corporeal. Of these, only the soul substance is conscious. (626)

Aksa, Kala, Jiva, Dharma 以及Adharma係抽象嘅,但係物质係具体嘅,只有灵魂
有意识。

Jiva puggalakaya, saha sakkiriya havamti na ya sesa.

Puggalakarana jiva, khamdha khalu kalakarana du. (627)


The Jiva (soul), the Pudgala (matter), these two substances are active, while the rest are inactive. The external cause of the activity of soul is Karmic matter and of the activity of
matter is the substance kala (time). (627)

灵魂、物质係能够运动嘅,但係其他几个係唔能够运动嘅。灵魂行为个外部诱因係
物质,物质运动个外部诱因係时间。

Dhammo ahammo agasam, davvam ikkikkamahiyam.

Anamtani ya davvani, kalo puggala jamtavo. (628)


Dharma, Adharma and Akasa are singular in number, Kala, Pudgala and Jiva-these three are infinite in number. (628)

运动个介质,静止个介质以及空间都只有一个,但係时间,物质以及灵魂咧三者係数
量上係无限嘅。

Dhammadhamme ya do'vee, logamitta viyahiya.

Logaloge ya agase, samae samayakhettie. (629)


Dharma and Adharma-bothe these substances have their extension throughout the universe, while
Akasa (space) pervades the universe and beyond the universe. Kala pervades only the time region.
(629)

运动个介质以及静止个介质係宇宙中都能够扩展,但係空间遍及整个宇宙并超出着
宇宙,时间只係分布係一个时间域中。

Annonnam pavisamta, dimta ogasamannamannassa.

Melamta vi ya niccam, sagam sabhavam na vijahanti. (630)


These six substances (dravyas) are co-extensive in the same space and accommodate one-another, they are mixed up with one another from the time infinite. However, they maintain their identity without loosing their respective nature. (630)

咧六种要素係同一空间共存并且相互依存,并且係时间上相互交织。但係,佢地并
唔失去自己个本质特点。

Dhammatthikayamarasam, avannagandham asaddamapphasam.

Logogadham puttham, pihulamasamkhadiya-padesam. (631)

Dharmastikaya is devoid of the attributes like taste, colour, smell, sound and touch. It pervades universe, it is independent, huge and has innumberable pradesas, i.e., spacepoints. (631)

运动个介质冇任何味道、颜色、气味、声音以及触感。佢遍布于整个宇宙,佢係独
立嘅、无限嘅并且冇隔断。

Udayam jaha macchanam, gamananuggahayaram havadi loe.

Taha jivapuggalanam, dhammam davvam viyanehi. (632)


Just as water is helpful in the movement of fishes so is the Dharma in the movement of souls and matter. (632)

就似水能够使鱼係里头运动一样,Dharma就係灵魂以及物质运动个介质。

Na ya gacchadi dhammatthi, gamanam na karedi annadaviyas.

Havadi gati sa ppasaro, jivanam puggalanam ca. (633)


Dharmastikaya does not move itself nor cause other things to move; but it is an all pervading medium of motion for the living and non-living bodies. (633)

运动个介质本身并唔运动亦都唔会使其他个物体运动,但係佢却係一砌物体同生物
移动个载体。

Jaha havadi dhammadavvam, taha tam janeha davvamadhammakkham.

Thidikiriyajuttanam, karanabhudam tu pudhaviva. (634)


Know that just as Dharma is substance, so is the Adharma. It is helpful in bringing about the
rest of the Jivas and Pudgalas capable of being static. (634)

如果了解着运动个介质係一种要素,咁静止个介质亦都係一样。佢为物质以及灵魂
个静止提供载体。

Ceyanarahiyamamuttam, avagahanalakkhanam ca savvagayam.

Loyaloyavibheyam, tam nahadavvam jinuddittham. (635)


The substance space is devoid of consciousness, is incorporeal, accommodating and all-pervading.  It is of two types one is lokakasa i.e., (space within the universe) and Alokakasa i.e., space beyond the universe. (635)

空间係冇意识嘅、无形嘅,佢提供一种载体,遍及四方;佢分为两类,一种係lokakasa,
宇宙内个空间;一种係Alokakasa,宇宙外个空间。

Jiva ceva ajiva ya, esa loe viyahie.

Ajivadesamagase, aloe se viyahie. (636)


It is explained that the loka, i.e., universe consists of living and non-living substances, whereas Aloka consista of only a part of one non-living substance i.e., (space) (636)

係宇宙内个空间中存在住生物同非生物,但係係宇宙外个空间中只存在住部分非生
物。

Pasarasagamdhavanna-vvadiritto agurulahugasamjutto.

Vattanalakkhanakaliyam, kalasaruvam imam hodi. (637)


The substance time is devoid of attributes like touch, tast, smell and colour and properties like heaviness and lightness. It is characterized by mutation. (636)

时间冇任何触感、味道、气味以及颜色、重量,佢个特点就係唔断咁变化。

Jivanam puggalanam, huvamti pariyattanai vivihai.

Edanam pajjaya, vattamte mukkhakalaadhare. (638)


The multiple mutations and various modes of the soul and matter are mainly due to time substance. (638)

灵魂以及物质个变化同状态个改变都係由于时间个原因。

Samayavaliussasa, pana thova ya adia bheda.

Vavaharakalanama, nidittha viyaraehim. (639)


From practical view-point the time is meansured by diverse units like avali (closing and opening of eye-lids) Ucchvasa (time taken in an exhalation), Prana (taken in one respiration) and stoka
(second). It is asserted by the Jinas. (639)

Jina曾讲过,时间可以通过唔同个单位来度量:avali(一次睁眼同闭眼),Ucchvasa
(一次呼气),Prana(一次呼吸)以及stoka(秒)。

Anukhamdhaviyappena du, poggaladavvam havei duviyappam.

Khamdha hu chappayara, paramanu ceva duviyappo. (640)


The substance matter is of two kinds-in the form of an atom (paramanu) and in the form of molecules. Molecules are of six kinds, while the atoms are of two kinds. (640)

物质分为两种:由原子构成嘅以及由分子构成嘅。由原子构成个物质分为六类,但
係由分子构成个物质分为两类。

Aithulathula thulam, thulasuhumam ca suhumathulam ca.

Suhumam aisuhumam idi, dharadiyam hodi chabbheyam. (641)


Gross-gross, gross, gross-fine, fine-gross, fine and fine-fine, these are the six kinds of the aggregate matter (skandha Pudgal). The earth etc. are its six examples. (641)

物质个聚合状态分为粗粗、粗、粗细、细粗、细、细细六种,土地就係一
个例子。

Pudhavi jalam ca chaya, caurimdiyavisaya-kammaparamanu.

Chavvihabheyam bhaniyam, poggaladavvam jinavarehim. (642)


The earth, the water, the shadow, the objects of four senses, (except sight), the Karmic matter and the atoms, these are the six different forms of matter. (642)

土地、水、影子、以及四种感官能够感受到个物体(除着视力),业报以及原子,
咧地係物质六种唔同个形式。

Antadimajjahinam, apadesam imdiehim na hu gejjham.

Jam davvam avibhattam, tam paramanum kahamti jina. (643)


Such a substance, as is devoid of dimensions, i.e., two extremes and the middle, unextended, not to be perceived by the sense-organs and indivisible, has been called atom by the Jinas. (643)

Jina讲,原子冇尺寸,唔能为感官所感知,唔可分割。

Vannarasagamdhaphase, puranagalanai savvakalamhi.

Khamdam iva kunamana, paramanu puggala tamha. (644)


Like the molecules, the atoms also possess the attributes of colour, taste, smell and touch, they remain ever changing by getting conjoined and disjoint. They therefore are called Pudgala. (644)

同分子一样,原子有颜色、味道、气味以及触感,佢地係结合或者分离时特性唔发
生改变,因此佢地称为Pudgala。

Panehim caduhim jivadi, jivadi, jivassadi jo hu jivido puvvam.

So jivo, pana puna balamimdiyamau ussaso. (645)

That which lives, will live and has lived through the instrumentality of the four types of vitalities (prana) is called soul (Jiva) and the four types of vitality are life-force, organs,
life-span and respiration. (645)

灵魂借助于四种活力存在,咧四种活力係生命力、器官、寿命以及呼吸。

Anugurudehapamano, uvasamharappasappado ceda.

Asamuhado vavahara, nicchayanayado asamkhadeso va. (646)


From practical point of view, a soul has a small or big size according to the size of the body, on account of its undergoing expansion and contraction. But from real view point, it is possessed
of innumerable space-points (Pradesas). (646)

跟经验个角度来讲,灵魂个大细由身体个大细来决定,并唔断咁扩张同收缩。但係
跟实际个角度来讲,佢係空间中占据着无数多个点。

Jaha paumarayarayanam, khittam khire pabhasayadi khiram.

Taha dehi dehattho, sadehamattam pabhasayadi. (647)


Just as a ruby thrown into milk illuminates the whole milk only, so also an embodied soul
illuminates its own body only. (647)

如果将红宝石投入牛奶个话,佢只能够照亮整杯牛奶;一个灵魂亦都只能够启迪佢
所寄托个身体。

Ada nanapamanam, nanam neyappamanamuddittham.

Neyam loyaloyam, tamha nanam tu savvagayam. (648)


The soul is co-extensive with cognition, cognition is co-extensive with what is to be congnised, loka and aloka are cognizable, therefore cognition is all-pervasive. (648)

灵魂同认知共存,认知同所要认知个事物共存,宇宙内外个空间都可以比认知,因
此认知无处不在。

Jiva samsarattha, nivvada cedanappaga duviha.

Uvaogalakkhana vi ya, dehadehappavicara. (649)


Jiva is of two kinds: mundane and emancipated; both of them are sentient and endowed with consciousness; even then the mundane souls have bodies while the emancipated ones do not.(649)

灵魂分为两种:世俗个同解脱个;所有个灵魂都有感情同意识;只不过世俗个灵魂
需要身体但係解脱个灵魂唔需要。

Pudhavijalateyavau-vanapphadi vivihathavareimdi.

Bigatigacadupamcakkha, tasajiva homti samkhadi. (650)


The earth, the water, the fire, the air and the plants are various kinds of immobile beings with one sense organ. The mobile beings like conches etc. are possessed of two, three, four and five
sense-organs. (650)

土地、水、火、空气以及植物都係有一种感官个唔会移动个生物;但係移动个生物,
似海螺等有两种、三种或者多达五种感官。